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Broken Hill, Yancowinna Co., New South Wales, Australia

This page kindly sponsored by Keith Compton
 
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 31° 57' 38'' South , 141° 27' 57'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -31.9607401463, 141.465916905


Named after a broken silhouette of a hill formed by the gossamer outcrop of the deposit.

The mineralisation was found by a local stockman, Charles Rasp, and the first mining leases were pegged in 1883 by him and a local consortium. The mines have operated continuously to the present day.

This famously complex and very large Pb-Zn-(Ag) deposit comprises a series of distinct stratabound sulphide deposits, which have been exploited by numerous mines along the line of lode. The deposit has undergone several metamorphic stages with at least five periods of deformation (the most intense metamorphism happened under granulite facies conditions - 750-800°C and 5-6 kbar). Its richness was the basis of much of Australia's early industry, wealth and prosperity. 300 million metric tons of ore were produced.

There is a vast amount of literature on the deposit and its genesis, mineralogy, and history of the mines.

It should be noted that there are many mines "near" Broken Hill, but not exploiting the main line of lode. These should be shown under Broken Hill district. Many of these are in fact located many kilometres distant from the town of Broken Hill itself. They may even be located in a different county.

It is only the mines located both in and within a close proximity of the township of Broken Hill (basically the line-of-lode) that gave rise to Broken Hill's fabulous mineral heritage and which are the subject of texts such as Worner et al (1982) and Birch et al (1999).

Mindat Articles

Broken Hill Gem and Mineral Show 2011 by Trevor Dart
Rutile in the Broken Hill District by Trevor Dart
The Often Overlooked Broken Hill Gahnites by Trevor Dart


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Acanthite

Adamite

var: Cuprian Adamite

Agardite-(Ce) ?

Agardite-(Y)

Alabandite

Albite

var: Andesine

var: Oligoclase

Aldridgeite (TL)

Allanite-(Ce)

Allargentum

Amphibole Supergroup

var: Uralite

Anatase

Andalusite

Andradite

Anglesite

Ankerite

Annite

Anorthite

var: Barium-Anorthite (of Nockolds and Zies)

var: Bytownite

Antimony

Antlerite

'Apatite'

'Apophyllite'

Aragonite

Argentopyrite

Armenite

Arseniosiderite

Arsenopyrite

Arsentsumebite

Atacamite

Augite

Aurichalcite

Axinite-(Fe)

Axinite-(Mn)

Azurite

Bannisterite

Baryte

Bastnäsite-(Ce)

Bayldonite

Bechererite

Bementite

Benitoite

Beraunite

Bernalite (TL)

Beudantite

'Beudantite-Segnitite Series'

'Bindheimite'

'Biotite'

Birchite (TL)

Birnessite

Bismuth

Boleite

Bornite

Bournonite

Breithauptite

Brianyoungite

Brochantite

'Brokenhillite'

Bromargyrite

Bustamite

Calcite

var: Cobaltoan Calcite

Caledonite

Campigliaite

Capgaronnite

Cardite

Carminite

Celsian

Cerussite

Chabazite-Ca

Chalcanthite

Chalcocite

Chalcophanite

Chalcopyrite

Chalcosiderite

Chamosite

Chenevixite

Chlorargyrite

var: Bromian Chlorargyrite

Chloritoid

Christelite

Chrysocolla

Churchite-(Y)

Cinnabar

Clinochlore

Clinoclase

Clinoferrosilite

Clinozoisite

Cobaltite

Coccinite

Conichalcite

Connellite

Copper

Corkite

Cornwallite

Coronadite

Costibite (TL)

Covellite

Crandallite

Cryptomelane

Cubanite

Cumengeite

Cuprite

Cuprotungstite

Cyanotrichite

Cyrilovite

Diopside

Dolomite

var: Zincian Dolomite

Dufrénite

Duftite

Dyscrasite

Edwardsite (TL)

Eleonorite

Epidote

Erythrite

Faustite

Fayalite

Ferro-actinolite

Ferro-hornblende

Ferro-pargasite

Ferrorhodonite (TL)

Fluorapatite

var: Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite

'Fluorapophyllite'

Fluorapophyllite-(K)

Fluorite

Fornacite

Friedelite

Gahnite

Galena

'Garnet'

Gartrellite

Goethite

Gold

Gordaite

Goslarite

var: Mangangoslarite

Graphite

Greenalite

Greenockite

Grossular

var: Hibschite

Grunerite

Gudmundite

Gunningite

Gypsum

var: Selenite

Halite

'Halloysite'

Halotrichite

'Halotrichite-Pickeringite Series'

Hausmannite

Hawleyite

Hedenbergite

var: Manganoan Hedenbergite

Hematite

Hemimorphite

Hercynite

Hidalgoite

Hinsdalite

Hisingerite

Hodgesmithite (TL)

Hoganite (TL)

Hollandite

Hopeite

Hydrocerussite

Hydrozincite

Ilmenite

Inesite

Iodargyrite

Jacobsite

Jalpaite

Jamesonite

Jarosite

Johannsenite

Kanoite

Kaolinite

Kermesite

'K Feldspar'

Kidwellite

Kintoreite (TL)

Kipushite

Kleemanite

Kolitschite (TL)

Köttigite

Ktenasite

Kutnohorite

'Labradorite'

Lanarkite

Langite

Laumontite

Lead

Leadhillite

Legrandite

Leucophosphite

Libethenite

var: Zincian Libethenite

'Limonite'

Linarite

Linnaeite

Liversidgeite (TL)

Livingstonite

Löllingite

Luanheite

Mackinawite

Magnetite

Malachite

Mallardite

'Manganoan Calcite'

Manganocummingtonite

Manganogrunerite

Marcasite

Marshite (TL)

Mawbyite (TL)

Mckinstryite

Melanterite

Meneghinite

Miargyrite

Microcline

var: Hyalophane

Miersite (TL)

Millerite

Mimetite

Minium

Molybdenite

Monazite-(Ce)

Mottramite

Munakataite

Muscovite

var: Illite

Nadorite

Namuwite

Nantokite

Natrodufrénite

Natrojarosite

Neotocite

Nickel

Nickeline

Nickelskutterudite

Niedermayrite

Nyholmite (TL)

Olivenite

var: Zincian Olivenite

Opal

var: Opal-AN

Orthoclase

Osakaite

Otavite

Paceite (TL)

Palygorskite

Paracostibite

Paradocrasite (TL)

Paragonite

Paratacamite

Pentlandite

Perroudite

Pharmacosiderite

Philipsbornite

Phosgenite

Phosphohedyphane

Pickeringite

Platinum ?

Plimerite (TL)

Plumbogummite

Plumbojarosite

Polybasite

Posnjakite

Prehnite

Proustite

Pseudomalachite

'Psilomelane'

Pyrargyrite

Pyrite

Pyrolusite

Pyromorphite

Pyrophanite

Pyrosmalite-(Fe)

Pyrosmalite-(Mn)

Pyrostilpnite

Pyroxmangite

Pyrrhotite

Quartz

var: Amethyst

var: Blue Quartz

var: Chalcedony

var: Citrine

var: Smoky Quartz

Ramsdellite

Raspite (TL)

'Rhabdophane'

Rhabdophane-(Ce)

Rhodochrosite

var: Zincorhodochrosite

Rhodonite

Rockbridgeite

Romanèchite

Rosasite

Roscoelite

Rutile

Safflorite

Sampleite

Sanidine

'Schalenblende'

Scheelite

Scholzite

Schulenbergite

Scorodite

Segnitite (TL)

Serpierite

Shannonite

Siderite

Siidraite (TL)

Sillimanite

Silver

var: Antimonial Silver

Skutterudite

Smithsonite

Spangolite

Spessartine

Sphalerite

var: Marmatite

Stannite

Staurolite

Stephanite

'Stetefeldtite'

Stibarsen

'Stibiconite'

Stibnite

'Stilbite'

Stilpnomelane

Stolzite

Strengite

Stromeyerite

'Sturtite'

Sulphur

Sylvite

Synchysite-(Ce)

Tarbuttite

'Tennantite-Tetrahedrite Series'

Tenorite

Tephroite

Tetrahedrite

Titanite

Torbernite

Tremolite

Tridymite

Troilite

Tsumcorite

Tsumebite

Turquoise

Ullmannite

'Unnamed (Pb-Cu Iodide Hydroxide)'

Uraninite

Valleriite

Vanadinite

Vanderheydenite (TL)

Variscite

Vauquelinite

Vesuvianite

'Wad'

Willyamite (TL)

'Wolframite'

Wollastonite

Wulfenite

Wurtzite

Yancowinnaite (TL)

Zaratite ?

Zdenĕkite

Zincolibethenite

Zincolivenite

Zincrosasite

Zircon

Zoisite


327 valid minerals. 24 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Geochronology

Mineralization age: Proterozoic : 2494 Ma to 1580 ± 5 Ma

Important note: This table is based only on rock and mineral ages recorded below and is not necessarily a complete representation of the geochronology, but does give an indication of possible mineralization events relevant to this locality. As more age information is added this table may expand in the future. A break in the table simply indicates a lack of data entered here, not necessarily a break in the geologic sequence. Grey background entries are from different, related, localities.

Geologic TimeRocks, Minerals and Events
Precambrian
 Proterozoic
  Mesoproterozoic
   Calymmian
ⓘ Zircon (youngest age)1580 ± 5 Ma
    
   
  Paleoproterozoic
   Siderian
ⓘ Zircon (oldest age)2494 Ma

Localities in this Region


This page contains all mineral locality references listed on mindat.org. This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in mindat.org without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.

References

Ramdohr, P. (1950): Die Lagerstätte von Broken Hill in New South Wales. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 2(4), 291-333 (in German).

Woodward O.H. (1965) A Review of the Broken Hill Lead-Silver-Zinc Industry 2nd ed. (edited by Parsons K.P.W.) produced by the Broken Hill Mining Managers' Association.

B. E. Hobbs, D. M. Ransom, R. H. Vernon and P. F. Williams (1968): The Broken Hill ore body, Australia. Mineralium Deposita 3, 293-316.

Mason, B. (1976): Famous mineral localities: Broken Hill, Australia.

van Moort, J. C. & Swensson, C. G. (1981): The oxidised zone of the Broken Hill Lode, N.S.W., in: Amstutz, G. C., El-Goresy, A., Frenzel, G., Kluth, C., Moh, G., Wauschkuhn, A. and Zimmermann, R. A. (editors), Ore Genesis, Springer, Berlin, 251-268.

Stevenson, R.K. and Martin, R.F. (1986) Implications of the presence of amazonite in the Broken Hill and Geco metamorphosed sulfide deposits. Canadian Mineralogist: 24: 729-745.

Economic Geology (1987) 82: 805-825.

Wilson, W. E. (1988): Broken Hill, New South Wales: a brief review. Mineralogical Record 19, 417-424.

Lieber, W. (1989): Broken Hill- Die berühmteste Blei-Zink-Lagerstätte Australiens. Lapis 14 (5), 11-29; 50 (in German).

Burton, G. R. (1994): Metallogenic Studies of the Broken Hill and Euriowie Blocks, New South Wales. 3. Mineral Deposits of the South Eastern Broken Hill Block. Geological Survey of New South Wales Bulletin 32 (3), Department of Mineral Resources, Geological Survey of New South Wales, New South Wales, 100 pp.

Elliott, P. (1997) Minerals of the slags from Broken Hill, New South Wales. Australian Journal of Mineralogy 3 (1), 77-83.

Nutman, A.P. and Ehlers, K. (1998) Evidence for multiple Paleoproterozoic thermal events and magmatism adjacent to the Broken Hill Pb-Zn-Ag orebody, Australia. Precambrian Research: 13: 209-240.

Birch, W.D., ed. (1999) The minerals of Broken Hill. Broken Hill City Council and Museum of Victoria, Australia, 289 pp.

Wilson, C.J.L. and Powell, R. (2001) Strain localization and high-grade metamorphism at Broken Hill, Australia: a view from the Southern Cross area. Tectonophysics: 335: 193-210.

Parr, J.M.; Stevens, B.P.J.; Carr, G.R.; Page, R.W. (2004) Subseafloor origin for Broken Hill Pb-Zn-Ag mineralization, New South Wales, Australia. Geology 32, 589-592.

Frost, B.R., Swapp, S.M., and Gregory, R.W. (2005) Prolonged existence of sulfide melt in the Broken Hill orebody, New South Wales, Australia. Canadian Mineralogist: 43: 479-493.

Webster, A.E. (2006) The geology of Broken Hill lead-zinc-silver deposit, New South Wales, Australia. CODES Monograph no. 1, CODES, University of Tasmania, 278 pp.

Iain M. Groves, David I. Groves, Frank P. Bierlein, Jared Broome & John Penhall (2008) Recognition of the Hydrothermal Feeder to the Structurally Inverted, Giant Broken Hill Deposit, New South Wales, Australia. Economic Geology, 103, 1389-1394.

Spry, P.G., Plimer, I.R., and Teale, G.S. (2008) Did the giant Broken Hill (Australia) Zn-Pb-Ag deposit melt? Ore Geology Reviews 34, 223-241.

Heimann, A., Spry, P.G., Teale, G.S., Conor, C.H.H. and Leyh, W.R. (2009) Geochemistry of garnet-rich rocks in the southern Curnamona Province, Australia, and their genetic relationship to Broken Hill-type Pb-Zn-Ag mineralization. Economic Geology 104, 687-712.

Elliott, P. (2010). Crystal chemistry of cadmium oxysalt and associated minerals from Broken Hill, New South Wales (Doctoral dissertation).

Wirth, R. (2011) Distinctive properties of rock-forming blue quartz: inferences from a multi-analytical study of submicron mineral inclusions. Mineralogical Magazine 75, 2519-2534 [on blue quartz from Broken Hill].

Worner, H.K. and Mitchell, R.W., eds. Birch, W.D. (et al) (1982) Minerals of Broken Hill, Australian Mining & Smelting Limited, 259 p. [ISBN 0-909221-18-9].

Mineralogical Record: 7: 25-33.

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