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Mt Bonga (Bonga carbonatite), Lubango City Council, Huíla Province, Angolai
Regional Level Types
Mt Bonga (Bonga carbonatite)Mountain
Lubango City CouncilCouncil
Huíla ProvinceProvince
AngolaCountry

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Key
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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 14° 16' 5'' South , 13° 58' 1'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -14.26806,13.96722
GeoHash:G#: km3yvfdde
Locality type:Mountain
Köppen climate type:BSh : Hot semi-arid (steppe) climate


Lower Cretaceous carbonatite plug (4 km diameter) in Precambrian granito-gneissic basement.

Belongs to the west side of Lucapa Early Cretaceous rift in western Angola.

Regions containing this locality

African PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


22 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

'Aeschynite'
Reference: ZHENG, L., GU, X., & ZHANG, Y. (2014). Pyrochlore Chemistry from the Bonga Carbonatite-type Nb Deposit, Huila Province, Angola: Implications for Magmatic-Hydrothermal Processes of Carbonatite. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 40, 205-226.
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.; Piero Comin-Chiaramonti, Celso Barros Gomes (1996) Alkaline magmatism in central-eastern Paraguay: relationships with coeval magmatism in Brazil. pp 231-248; Amores Casals S, Bambi A C J M, Gonçalves A O, Melgarejo J C (2014) Mineral chemistry of pyrochlore from the Bonga Carbonatite (Huila, Angola). 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 195
'Apatite'
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.; Piero Comin-Chiaramonti, Celso Barros Gomes (1996) Alkaline magmatism in central-eastern Paraguay: relationships with coeval magmatism in Brazil. pp 231-248
Baddeleyite
Formula: ZrO2
Reference: Amores Casals S, Bambi A C J M, Gonçalves A O, Melgarejo J C (2014) Mineral chemistry of pyrochlore from the Bonga Carbonatite (Huila, Angola). 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 195
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.; Amores Casals S, Bambi A C J M, Gonçalves A O, Melgarejo J C (2014) Mineral chemistry of pyrochlore from the Bonga Carbonatite (Huila, Angola). 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 195
Bastnäsite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(CO3)F
Reference: ZHENG, L., GU, X., & ZHANG, Y. (2014). Pyrochlore Chemistry from the Bonga Carbonatite-type Nb Deposit, Huila Province, Angola: Implications for Magmatic-Hydrothermal Processes of Carbonatite. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 40, 205-226.
'Biotite'
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.
'Britholite Group'
Formula: (REE, Ca)5[(Si,P)O4]3X
Reference: Amores Casals S, Bambi A C J M, Gonçalves A O, Melgarejo J C (2014) Mineral chemistry of pyrochlore from the Bonga Carbonatite (Huila, Angola). 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 195
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.; Amores Casals S, Bambi A C J M, Gonçalves A O, Melgarejo J C (2014) Mineral chemistry of pyrochlore from the Bonga Carbonatite (Huila, Angola). 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 195
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Amores Casals S, Bambi A C J M, Gonçalves A O, Melgarejo J C (2014) Mineral chemistry of pyrochlore from the Bonga Carbonatite (Huila, Angola). 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 195
Chromite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Reference: Amores Casals S, Bambi A C J M, Gonçalves A O, Melgarejo J C (2014) Mineral chemistry of pyrochlore from the Bonga Carbonatite (Huila, Angola). 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 195
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.; Amores Casals S, Bambi A C J M, Gonçalves A O, Melgarejo J C (2014) Mineral chemistry of pyrochlore from the Bonga Carbonatite (Huila, Angola). 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 195
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Reference: Amores Casals S, Bambi A C J M, Gonçalves A O, Melgarejo J C (2014) Mineral chemistry of pyrochlore from the Bonga Carbonatite (Huila, Angola). 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 195
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Amores Casals S, Bambi A C J M, Gonçalves A O, Melgarejo J C (2014) Mineral chemistry of pyrochlore from the Bonga Carbonatite (Huila, Angola). 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 195
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: ZHENG, L., GU, X., & ZHANG, Y. (2014). Pyrochlore Chemistry from the Bonga Carbonatite-type Nb Deposit, Huila Province, Angola: Implications for Magmatic-Hydrothermal Processes of Carbonatite. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 40, 205-226.
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Reference: Amores Casals S, Bambi A C J M, Gonçalves A O, Melgarejo J C (2014) Mineral chemistry of pyrochlore from the Bonga Carbonatite (Huila, Angola). 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 195
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.; Amores Casals S, Bambi A C J M, Gonçalves A O, Melgarejo J C (2014) Mineral chemistry of pyrochlore from the Bonga Carbonatite (Huila, Angola). 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 195
'Microlite Group'
Formula: A2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
Reference: Amores Casals S, Bambi A C J M, Gonçalves A O, Melgarejo J C (2014) Mineral chemistry of pyrochlore from the Bonga Carbonatite (Huila, Angola). 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 195
'Monazite'
Reference: ZHENG, L., GU, X., & ZHANG, Y. (2014). Pyrochlore Chemistry from the Bonga Carbonatite-type Nb Deposit, Huila Province, Angola: Implications for Magmatic-Hydrothermal Processes of Carbonatite. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 40, 205-226.; Amores Casals S, Bambi A C J M, Gonçalves A O, Melgarejo J C (2014) Mineral chemistry of pyrochlore from the Bonga Carbonatite (Huila, Angola). 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 195
'Parisite'
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1993, 5, pp. 1001-1024.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.; Amores Casals S, Bambi A C J M, Gonçalves A O, Melgarejo J C (2014) Mineral chemistry of pyrochlore from the Bonga Carbonatite (Huila, Angola). 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 195
'Pyrochlore'
Reference: ZHENG, L., GU, X., & ZHANG, Y. (2014). Pyrochlore Chemistry from the Bonga Carbonatite-type Nb Deposit, Huila Province, Angola: Implications for Magmatic-Hydrothermal Processes of Carbonatite. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 40, 205-226.; Amores Casals S, Bambi A C J M, Gonçalves A O, Melgarejo J C (2014) Mineral chemistry of pyrochlore from the Bonga Carbonatite (Huila, Angola). 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 195
'Pyrochlore Group'
Formula: A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.; Piero Comin-Chiaramonti, Celso Barros Gomes (1996) Alkaline magmatism in central-eastern Paraguay: relationships with coeval magmatism in Brazil. pp 231-248
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Eur. J. Mineral. , 1993, 5, pp. 1001-1024.; ZHENG, L., GU, X., & ZHANG, Y. (2014). Pyrochlore Chemistry from the Bonga Carbonatite-type Nb Deposit, Huila Province, Angola: Implications for Magmatic-Hydrothermal Processes of Carbonatite. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 40, 205-226.
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.; ZHENG, L., GU, X., & ZHANG, Y. (2014). Pyrochlore Chemistry from the Bonga Carbonatite-type Nb Deposit, Huila Province, Angola: Implications for Magmatic-Hydrothermal Processes of Carbonatite. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 40, 205-226.
Rutile var: Niobian Rutile
Formula: (Ti,Nb)O2
Reference: Amores Casals S, Bambi A C J M, Gonçalves A O, Melgarejo J C (2014) Mineral chemistry of pyrochlore from the Bonga Carbonatite (Huila, Angola). 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 195
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Amores Casals S, Bambi A C J M, Gonçalves A O, Melgarejo J C (2014) Mineral chemistry of pyrochlore from the Bonga Carbonatite (Huila, Angola). 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 195
Strontianite
Formula: SrCO3
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.; ZHENG, L., GU, X., & ZHANG, Y. (2014). Pyrochlore Chemistry from the Bonga Carbonatite-type Nb Deposit, Huila Province, Angola: Implications for Magmatic-Hydrothermal Processes of Carbonatite. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 40, 205-226.; Amores Casals S, Bambi A C J M, Gonçalves A O, Melgarejo J C (2014) Mineral chemistry of pyrochlore from the Bonga Carbonatite (Huila, Angola). 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 195
'Synchysite'
Reference: Amores Casals S, Bambi A C J M, Gonçalves A O, Melgarejo J C (2014) Mineral chemistry of pyrochlore from the Bonga Carbonatite (Huila, Angola). 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 195
Synchysite-(Ce)
Formula: CaCe(CO3)2F
Reference: ZHENG, L., GU, X., & ZHANG, Y. (2014). Pyrochlore Chemistry from the Bonga Carbonatite-type Nb Deposit, Huila Province, Angola: Implications for Magmatic-Hydrothermal Processes of Carbonatite. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 40, 205-226.
Synchysite-(Y)
Formula: CaY(CO3)2F
Reference: Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: Piero Comin-Chiaramonti, Celso Barros Gomes (1996) Alkaline magmatism in central-eastern Paraguay: relationships with coeval magmatism in Brazil. pp 231-248

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Baddeleyite4.DE.35ZrO2
Chromite4.BB.05Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Ilmenite4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
'Microlite Group'4.00.A2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
'Pyrochlore Group'4.00.A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
var: Niobian Rutile4.DB.05(Ti,Nb)O2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Ankerite5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Bastnäsite-(Ce)5.BD.20aCe(CO3)F
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Strontianite5.AB.15SrCO3
Synchysite-(Ce)5.BD.20cCaCe(CO3)2F
Synchysite-(Y)5.BD.20cCaY(CO3)2F
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 9 - Silicates
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Aeschynite'-
'Apatite'-
'Biotite'-
'Britholite Group'-(REE, Ca)5[(Si,P)O4]3X
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Monazite'-
'Parisite'-
'Pyrochlore'-
'Synchysite'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
AX2
Baddeleyite4.4.14.1ZrO2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Chromite7.2.3.3Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 8 - MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
A2B2O6(O,OH,F)
'Microlite Group'8.2.2.1A2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
'Pyrochlore Group'8.2.1.1A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Strontianite14.1.3.3SrCO3
AB(XO3)2
Ankerite14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Bastnäsite-(Ce)16a.1.1.1Ce(CO3)F
Synchysite-(Ce)16a.1.3.1CaCe(CO3)2F
Synchysite-(Y)16a.1.3.2CaY(CO3)2F
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Aeschynite'-
'Apatite'-
'Biotite'-
'Britholite Group'-(REE, Ca)5[(Si,P)O4]3X
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Monazite'-
'Parisite'-
'Pyrochlore'-
Rutile
var: Niobian Rutile
-(Ti,Nb)O2
'Synchysite'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Pyrochlore GroupA2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
C Synchysite-(Y)CaY(CO3)2F
C StrontianiteSrCO3
C Bastnäsite-(Ce)Ce(CO3)F
C Synchysite-(Ce)CaCe(CO3)2F
OOxygen
O CalciteCaCO3
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O QuartzSiO2
O Pyrochlore GroupA2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
O BaryteBaSO4
O Synchysite-(Y)CaY(CO3)2F
O RutileTiO2
O StrontianiteSrCO3
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O Bastnäsite-(Ce)Ce(CO3)F
O Synchysite-(Ce)CaCe(CO3)2F
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O BaddeleyiteZrO2
O Britholite Group(REE, Ca)5[(Si,P)O4]3X
O ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O Rutile (var: Niobian Rutile)(Ti,Nb)O2
FFluorine
F Synchysite-(Y)CaY(CO3)2F
F Bastnäsite-(Ce)Ce(CO3)F
F Synchysite-(Ce)CaCe(CO3)2F
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
MgMagnesium
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
Si Britholite Group(REE, Ca)5[(Si,P)O4]3X
PPhosphorus
P Britholite Group(REE, Ca)5[(Si,P)O4]3X
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
SSulfur
S PyriteFeS2
S BaryteBaSO4
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S GalenaPbS
S SphaleriteZnS
KPotassium
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Ca Synchysite-(Y)CaY(CO3)2F
Ca Synchysite-(Ce)CaCe(CO3)2F
Ca Britholite Group(REE, Ca)5[(Si,P)O4]3X
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
TiTitanium
Ti RutileTiO2
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Ti Rutile (var: Niobian Rutile)(Ti,Nb)O2
CrChromium
Cr ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
FeIron
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
SrStrontium
Sr StrontianiteSrCO3
YYttrium
Y Synchysite-(Y)CaY(CO3)2F
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
Zr BaddeleyiteZrO2
NbNiobium
Nb Pyrochlore GroupA2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
Nb Rutile (var: Niobian Rutile)(Ti,Nb)O2
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
CeCerium
Ce Bastnäsite-(Ce)Ce(CO3)F
Ce Synchysite-(Ce)CaCe(CO3)2F
TaTantalum
Ta Microlite GroupA2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Paleoproterozoic
1600 - 2500 Ma



ID: 3189836
Paleoproterozoic crystalline metamorphic rocks

Age: Proterozoic (1600 - 2500 Ma)

Lithology: Orthogneiss

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Rhyacian
2050 - 2300 Ma



ID: 3308378

Age: Rhyacian (2050 - 2300 Ma)

Lithology: Plutonic and metamorphic

Reference: Thiéblemont, D. (ed.). New edition of the 1:10,000,000 geological map of Africa. CGMW-BRGM. [190]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
European Journal of Mineralogy 5, 1001-1024 (1993)
Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): Rare earth element mines, deposits, and occurrences. USGS Open-File Report 02-189.
Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): Carbonatites of the World. Explored Deposits of Nb and REE - Database and Grade and Tonnage Models. USGS Open-File Report 09-1139.
ZHENG, L., GU, X., & ZHANG, Y. (2014). Pyrochlore Chemistry from the Bonga Carbonatite-type Nb Deposit, Huila Province, Angola: Implications for Magmatic-Hydrothermal Processes of Carbonatite. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 40, 205-226.


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