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Maoniuping Mine, Mianning Co., Liangshan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 28° 26' 52'' North , 101° 58' 44'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 28.44778,101.97889
Köppen climate type:Cwb : Subtropical highland climate or temperate oceanic climate with dry winters
Name(s) in local language(s):牦牛坪稀土矿, 冕宁县, 凉山彝族自治州, 四川省, 中国

World's second largest REE deposit (originally started as a molybdenum mine), with proven reserves of 0.4 million tonnes of ore grading at 2% REE oxides. The deposit consists of bastnäsite-baryte-carbonate veins, which are associated with nordmarkite and hosted in a carbonatite-syenite complex (K-Ar ages of arfvedsonites and biotites: 27.8-40.3 Ma).

Located within the Panzhihua-Xichang ("Pan-Xi") rift, a N-S trending major regional pull-apart graben structure developed during the late Paleozoic.

Mineral List

58 valid minerals. 2 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on

201.3 - 252.17 Ma

ID: 3191052
Mesozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Triassic (201.3 - 252.17 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

This page contains all mineral locality references listed on This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.


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Congde Chen and Guangping Pu (1991) Geological features and genesis of the Maoniuping rare earth element deposit, Sichuan. Geology and Prospecting 27(5), 18-23.
Yuan, Z., Shi, Z., and Chi, R. (1995) The Maoniuping Rare Earth Deposit, Sichuang, China. Beijing Earthquake Press, Beijing, pp. 14–40.
Zhongxin Yuan and Ge Bai (1997) Distribution of alkaline intrusive rocks and related metallic ore deposits of China. Geology and Prospecting 33(1), 42-48 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Yang, Z., Smith, M.P., Henderson, P., Le Bas, M.J., Tao, K., and Zhang, P. (2000) Compositional variation of the bastnaesite-synchysite polysomatic series from the Maoniuping REE deposit, Southwest China. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie Monatshefte, ?(10), 466-480.
Cheng Xu, Zhilong Huang, Liang Qi, Huayun Xiao, Wenbo Li, and Congqiang Liu (2001) Source and evolution of ore-forming fluids of Maoniuping rare earth deposit - evidence from REE geochemistry of fluorites. Geology and Prospecting 37(5), 24-28.
Wang, D., Yang, J., Yan, S., Xu, J., Chen, Y., Pu, G., and Luo, Y. (2001) A special orogenic-type rare earth element deposit in Maoniuping, Sichuan, China: geology and geochemistry. Resource Geology 51 (3), 177-188.
Jiuhua Xu, Yuling Xie, Jianping Li, and Zengqian Hou (2001) Discovery of Sr-bearing and LREE daughter minerals in fluid inclusions of Maoniuping REE deposit, Sichuan Province. Progress in Natural Science 11(11), 833-837.
Dawei Meng, Xiuling Wu, Tao Mu, and Douxing Li (2001) Microstructural investigation of new polytypes of Parisite-(Ce) by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Canadian Mineralogist 39, 1713-1724.
Zhuming, Y. (2002) Composition of Ca-REE Fluorocarbonate Minerals in Maoniuping and Implications to Their Genesis. Journal of the Chinese Rare Earth Society 20(1), 61-67.
Wang, D.H., Yang, J.M., and Yan, S.H. (2002) Dynamics of the REE mineralization in Maoniuping area, Sichuan Province: Isotopic geochemistry of carbonatites. Journal of Chengdu University of Technology 29(5), 539-544.
Yang, Z., Fleck, M., Smith, M., Tao, K., Song, R., Zhang, P. (2002) The crystal structure of natural Fe-rich chevkinite-(Ce). European Journal of Mineralogy, 14, 969-975.
Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002) Rare Earth Element Mines, Deposits and Occurrences. USGS Open-File Report 02-189, 174 pp.
Xu, C. and Huang, Z.-L. (2003) Origin of PGE in fluorites from Maoniuping REE Deposit, Sichuan Province China. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta Supplement 67(18), 540.
Xu, C., Huang, Z.-L., Liu, C.-Q., Li, W.-B., and Guan, T. (2003) Sources of Ore-Forming Fluids in the Maoniuping REE Deposit, Sichuan Province, China: Evidence from REE, Radiogenic Sr, Nd, and Stable-Isotope Studies. International Geology Review, 45(7), 635-645.
Xu Cheng, Huang Zhilong, Liu Congqiang, Qi Liang, Li Wenbo, and Guan Tao (2003) PGE geochemistry of carbonatites in Maoniuping REE deposit, Sichuan Province, China: Preliminary study. Geochemical Journal 37, 391-399.
Niu Hecai, Shan Qiang, Chen Xiaoming, and Zhang Haixiang (2003) Relationship between light rare earth deposits and mantle processes in Panxi rift, China. Science in China, Series D (Earth Sciences), 46 (Suppl.), 41-49.
Cheng Xu, Huan Zhang, Zhilong Huang, Congqiang Liu, Liang Qi, Wenbo Li, and Tao Guan (2004) Genesis of the carbonatite-syenite complex and REE deposit at Maoniuping, Sichuan Province, China: Evidence from Pb isotope geochemistry. Geochemical Journal 38(1), 67-76.
Yuling Xie, Zengqian Hou, Jiuhua Xu, Zhongxin Yuan, Ge Bai, and Xiaoyu Li (2005) Discovery of copper-zinc and copper-tin alloy minerals in the Mianning-Dechang rare earth mineralization belt of Sichuan Province and its implications. Science in China, Series D (Earth Sciences) 35(6), 572-577 (in Chinese).
Shen, G.-F., Yang, G., Xu, J. (2005) Maoniupingite-(Ce): a new rare-earth mineral from the Maoniuping rare-earth deposit in Mianning, Sichuan. Chenji yu Tetisi Dizhi (Sedimentary and Tethyan Geology), 25(1-2): 210-216 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Liu, G. (2006) Fine Minerals of China. AAA Minerals Ag, Zug, Switzerland.
Huang, Z.L., Yan, Z.F., Xu, C., Zhang, Z.L., and Liu, C.Q. (2006) Mineralization by mantle fluids in the Miaoniuping REE deposit, Sichuan Province, China. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 89(1-3), 165-169.
Xie, Y., Hou, Z., Xu, J., Yuan, Z., Bai, G., and Li, X. (2006) Discovery of Cu-Zn, Cu-Sn intermetallic minerals and its significance for genesis of the Mianning-Dechang REE Metallogenic Belt, Sichuan Province, China. Science in China, Series D (Earth Sciences), 49 (6), 597-603.
Wilson, W.E. and Origlieri, M.J. (2007) Red wulfenite from the Kuruktag Mountains, Xinjiang Uygur, China. The Mineralogical Record 38, 67-71.
Zengqian Hou, Shihong Tian, Yuling Xie, Zhusen Yang, Zhongxin Yuan, Shuping Yin, Longsheng Yi, Hongcai Fei, Tianren Zou, Ge Bai, and Xiaoyu Li (2009) The Himalayan Mianning-Dechang REE belt associated with carbonatite-alkaline complexes, eastern Indo-Asian collision zone, SW China. Ore Geology Reviews 36, 90-105.
Yang, G., Li, G., Xiong, M., Pan, B., Yan C. (2014) Hydroxycalciopyrochlore, a new mineral species from Sichuan, China. Acta Geologica Sinica - English Edition, 88, 748–753.

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