Kennedy Mine (Kennedy claim; Clyde claim; North Clyde claim; North Clyde placer claim; Silva Quartz claim), Martell, Jackson-Plymouth Mining District, Mother Lode Belt, Amador Co., California, USAi
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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
38° 22' 2'' North , 120° 46' 45'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
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A former Au-Pb mine located in the SW¼SW¼ sec. 16 and in secs. 17, 20 & 21, T6N, R11E, MDM, 1.5 km (0.9 mile) E of Martell and 2.1 km (6,900 feet) NNW of Jackson, on private land. Discovered in 1856. Property consisted of 156 acres which included the listed claims and other land. Owned by Mark and Frances Eudey (1953). Now owned by the Kennedy Mine Foundation, PO Box 684, Jackson, California. Operated intermittently from 1856 to 1941. MRDS database stated accuracy for this location is 100 meters. Operations were shut down twice due to fires and finally due to government order during WWII.
The Kennedy Mine is located one mile northwest of the town of Jackson, California in the famous Mother Lode Gold Belt of the Sierra Nevada foothills. The Kennedy was the most productive mine in the Jackson - Plymouth district which was the most productive district of the Mother Lode with an estimated total production of about $180 million. The Kennedy claims covered 3100 feet along strike of the Mother Lode between the adjoining Oneida Mine to the north and the Famous Argonaut Mine to the south. The Kennedy Mine alone is credited with producing $34.28 million (Clark, 1970).
The Kennedy Mine developed typical Mother Lode northerly trending and easterly dipping hydrothermal quartz veins carrying free milling gold and auriferous sulfides within a narrow band of Mariposa Formation slate and greenstone. Principal veins included and east vein and west vein which merged with a main foot wall vein. The Kennedy mine is noteworthy for being the most productive mine in the Mother Lode and for being the deepest gold mine in North America with a vertical depth of 5,912 feet.
While discovered in 1856, the Kennedy Mine did not become a major producer until after 1885 when the mine was purchased by well capitalized investors and the Kennedy Mining and Milling Company was incorporated. The mine was then operated continuously until 1942. The Mine is currently owned by the Kennedy Mine Foundation, an historical preservation organization that offers tours of the remaining historic surface facilities.
Most of the important lode gold deposits in the Amador County Mother lode were discovered in the 1850s while rich Tertiary placer deposits were being worked. The Kennedy Mine was discovered in 1856. While many of the neighboring mines were very profitable by 1875, the Kennedy Mine (and nearby Argonaut, Central Eureka, Bunker Hill, Fremont-Glover, and Lincoln Consolidated mines) did not become a major producer until the 1880s and 1890s. From the 1890s until 1942, the Kennedy Mine and its neighbors become one of the most important gold mining districts in the nation, with the district producing $2 million - $4 million annually.
The Kennedy Mine was named for Andrew Kennedy, an Irish immigrant who discovered quartz outcropping in 1856. In 1860, several properties were consolidated and Kennedy, with some partners, formed the Kennedy Mining Company, which began digging shallow shafts. The mine controlled 3,100 feet on the lode and was comprised of the Kennedy, Kennedy Mill site, Silva, Hall placer mine, Bellwether, Clyde, North Clyde, and North Clyde placer mine claims, totaling 156 acres.
Kennedy sold his one-quarter interest in the undeveloped mining claims within a year, on October 4, 1861, for $5,000. The remaining partners operated the mine sporadically with one shaft with only a whim for hoisting until 1869, when the mine was sold to eleven Jackson businessmen for $1.00. The partners formed the Kennedy Mining Company. Peter Reichling, one of the nine members, became the superintendent from 1870 - 1878. In 1871, the first hoist and a 20-stamp mill were erected. Three new shafts which yielded ore were sunk during this period. One of these would later be referred to as South Shaft. In 1873 two ore shoots were being worked. The Kennedy shoot on the north was 150 feet long and 2 - 12 feet wide, and the Pioneer (Argonaut) shoot was on the south end of the mine, with 170 feet of it on the Kennedy property where it was 18 feet wide (Logan, 1927) at the Argonaut property line. Only four miners were employed in stoping to produce 20 tons per day, the mill capacity (Logan, 1934). At 750 feet in the south shaft, the ore gave out with the raking of the ore shoot into the Argonaut Mine property (Logan, 1934). No ore was found or milled during 1875. The Kennedy Mining Company recovered $300,000 in gold between 1870 and 1878. The amount of gold recovered before 1870 is unknown, but is considered modest compared to the $300,000.
Several attempts by the Kennedy Mining Company to reopen the mine after 1878 were unsuccessful, and in 1885, the mine was sold for $97,500 to fifteen San Francisco investors after prominent mining engineer J.J. Thomas had performed and extensive analysis of the property. The new investors incorporated under the name of the Kennedy Mining and Milling Company and reopened the mine. Dewatering was begun January, 1886 and by October of that year a 40 stamp mill with 16 Frue vanners had been erected. The mill capacity was 100 tons per day. The south shaft was sunk 200 feet deeper, and ore was found, and this shaft was continued on the incline to a depth of 2276 feet. The north shaft was also sunk to an inclined depth of 2500 feet. By 1897, the Kennedy had produced $3.6 million and had paid $2.0 million in dividends (Logan, 1934).
The results after reopening were so successful that in 1900, a new vertical East shaft was started 1950 feet east of the north shaft. The East shaft was designed to allow the lower grade ores to be worked and was very successful, allowing 140,000 and 170,000 tons of ore per year to be produced between 1904 and 1916. The East shaft struck the east vein at 3680 feet, the west vein at 4000 feet, and became the main working entry since 1904. In 1904, a new 60 stamp mill was in full operation at the east shaft, as well as the old 40 stamp mill at the north shaft. By this time, the Kennedy was the deepest and largest producer on the Mother Lode. The larger mill was promptly upgraded to 100 stamps and for 12 years up to 1916, from 140,000 to 170,000 tons of ore was crushed annually (Logan, 1934). Most of this ore was taken from stopes between the 2250 and 3450 foot levels and averaged $ 4-$5 per ton.
During 1914, the mill recovered about 83% of the gold. Tailings ran $0.60 - $0.80 per ton and concentrates assayed about $100/ton, while slimes from the canvas plant ran about $50/ton. The concentrates were treated at the mine by a 10 ton chlorination plant, which consisted of two 85 foot x 12 foot roasting furnaces.
By the end of 1915, at a vertical depth of 3450, the Kennedy Mine had produced a total of 792,000 tons giving a gross total recovery of $6,378,000, or an average $8.00 per ton (Logan, 1927). For the period 1916 - 1926, inclusive, the production was $5,991,530 (Logan, 1927). At that time ore worth $4-$5/ton was being milled (Logan, 1927). With the addition of the East Shaft, the Kennedy was one of the largest producers in the Mother Lode (Clark and Carlson, 1954).
In 1920, a severe underground fire on the 4000-foot level of the adjoining Argonaut Mine spread to the 3300-foot level of the Kennedy Mine, having presumably burned its way from the Argonaut through old workings. The Kennedy management began filling the mine with water, and as the two mines were connected, the lower levels of both were flooded. Water rose to the 2700-foot level in the main shaft. Dewatering began that summer and was completed in April, 1921. By the end of 1921 operations were back in full swing (Logan, 1927).
The ground became extremely heavy at depth and required much timbering. As costs continued to increase during the early 1900s and were accelerated during WW I, it became necessary to mine more selectively, so from the middle of the 1920s until 1942 the tonnage of ore produced decreased, but the gold content increased to 1/3 to 2/5 once per ton. The main production during this period was from between the 4650-5900-foot levels. Operating stamps in the mill declined form 100 to 60. On September 7, 1928, a disastrous fire destroyed all of the surface plant except for the mill and main office (all other buildings and foundations that remain today were built after 1928). Latter that year, a new steel head frame was built to replace the original wooden one. In 1929, the surface plant was rebuilt and a 63? inclined winze was started from the 4650-foot level to the 5250-foot level. In 1935, a 1500-ton cyanide plant was erected south of the mine to re-treat accumulated tailings from the mill. This plant was in operation until 1939 (Carlson and Clark, 1954).
In August 1941, increasing costs caused all work below the 4650-foot level to be discontinued and in 1942 the mine was closed in compliance with Government Order L-208 issued to help the war effort. At the time, it was the deepest gold mine in North America with a vertical depth of 5,912 feet and over 50 miles of underground excavations. After the war, it was decided not to reopen the mine because of the extensive flooding of the deep underground workings. In 1948-1949, the tailings were worked intermittently by Frank Fuller of Jackson who reported that 20,000 tons of gold bearing tailings were treated with an average recovery of $2.00 per ton (Carlson and Clark, 1954). In 1949-1950 a Michael Hagel of Sacramento unsuccessfully tried to reprocess additional mine tailings. In September 1950, the Kennedy Mining and Milling Company was dissolved, formally ending one of the best known mining operations in California. Since the mine averaged only 0.38 ounces per ton, a high degree of efficiency was required to make a profit. The first two owners of the Kennedy Mine found this hard to do, but the Kennedy Mining and Milling Company' better capitalization and more efficient operation, allowed them to book total receipts of $28,205,831.30 during its 56 years of operations and to pay out $5.8 million in dividends to its stockholders on an original capitalization of $100,000.
The property lay idle until 1961 when it was acquired at a liquidation sale for $41,600, by a San Francisco ceramics teacher. She lived on the property until her death in 1994, specifying in her will that the property remain open as habitat, and that the mine be maintained for its historical value. The Kennedy Mine Foundation was formed in 1996 to fulfill those wishes. The Kennedy Mine Foundation currently offers tours of the remaining historic surface facilities. The remaining surface plant at the Kennedy Mine is now a museum. Its large steel, head frame, wooden tailings wheels and the superintendent's office also remain as historical displays.
Mineralization is a Au vein deposit (Mineral occurrence model information: Model code: 273; USGS model code: 36a; Deposit model name: Low-sulfide Au-quartz vein; Mark3 model number: 27), hosted in Late Jurassic greenstone and slate of the Mariposa Formation. The ore body is tabular, pinch & swell in form, strikes N20W and dips 70E at a thickness of 12.19 meters. The vein is 2 to 40 feet exposed in meta-andesite but passes into a narrow belt of black slate below the surface. Ore shoots contain most of the higher grade ore. The hanging wall is greenstone and the footwall is slate. The Au occurs in quartz with auriferous pyrite and minor galena. Controls for ore emplacement inmcluded ore shoots within mesothermal Au-bearing quartz veins. Local rocks include Jurassic marine rocks, unit 1 (Western Sierra Nevada and Western Klamath Mountains).
Sulfides comprised 1-2% of the ore and carried 6-7 ounces of Au per ton. The ore materials include banded ore seams consisting of white quartz showing free gold with numerous ribbons of finely ground slate, and often ribbons of pyrite, arsenopyrite, and galena. Gangue materials include quartz, slate and greenstone.
Regional geologic structures include the Bear Mountains fault zone and the Melones fault zone. Local structures include the Melones fault zone.
The Kennedy Mine adjoins the Argonaut Mine to the south and both mines exploited the same .quartz vein system. The veins are true fissure veins which are wholly independent of the strike and dip of the enclosing rocks.
The primary gold bearing veins in the Kennedy mine are the main foot wall vein (Kennedy vein) and the East vein (Tucker, 1914). The Kennedy vein is the most important vein in both the Kennedy and Argonaut mines. The vein has and average strike of N 20? W and dips of 57? - 70? northeast (Carlson and Clark, 1954). Average thickness is 8-10 feet, but in places it reaches as much as 40 feet thick. The Kennedy vein can be followed continuously from its apex in the neighboring Argonaut Mine to the lowest level of the Kennedy Mine without break or interruption. The dip of the vein varies from a comparatively small angle at the apex to about 67? in the lower levels of the Kennedy Mine (Storms, 1900).
Wallrock consists of greenstone and Mariposa Formation slate. The contacts between the slate and greenstone are often so gradational as to make specific contacts arbitrary (Logan, 1934). Much of the greenstone in the proximity of veins has also been altered to schistose rocks. The vein outcrops in greenstone, but soon passes in to slate, wherein it approximately follows the main eastern contact of the Mariposa slates and greenstone. Crawford (1894) gives a good account of the shallow geologic conditions to an inclined depth of 2000 feet. A narrow greenstone dike lies close to the vein but tapers to a wedge and pinches out about the 3150 foot level (Logan, 1927), below which the vein is wholly in slate. There is usually a heavy gouge from 4-10 feet thick along the hanging wall. Wallrock slates have been disturbed by folding, faulting, and crushing.
Between the 1700 and 2200-foot levels, the vein splits. A large horse of hanging wall greenstone broke away allowing the formation of the East vein within the fracture. At its widest part, the horse separated the Kennedy vein from the East vein by about 150 feet. To the north of the main shaft on the 3900-foot level and south of it on the 4300 foot level, these veins begin to merge and in the adjoining Argonaut Mine they have recombined into to a single foot wall vein through this entire depth (Logan, 1934). By the 4500-foot level, the merged veins consist of a single large vein with 9 feet of ore on one wall and 16 feet on the other with a mass of lean bull quartz between them. In deeper levels of the Kennedy and in the adjoining Argonaut mine the merged veins become the main foot wall vein (Logan, 1927).
Two main ore bodies occurred in the Kennedy Mine, a north ore body on the Kennedy vein, and the south ore body on the East vein. The principal Kennedy vein ore body of the Kennedy and Argonaut mines did not appear until about 1400 feet down dip from the surface exposure where the fissure system intersected a slate-greenstone contact (Zimmerman, 1983). The ore body was locally over 1000 feet long horizontally and over 4,500 feet long vertically including a few barren or low-grade zones (Logan, 1934). The main ore body had an irregular downward course near the property line between the two mines. In places it was partly in each mine; elsewhere it raked north or south so much as to carry it entirely into one property or the other. Between the 3600 and 4200-foot levels of the Argonaut Mine (wherein it was called the Pioneer or Argonaut ore body), for example, the ore body occurred on the Argonaut property, but its north pitch carried it into the Kennedy; below there it returned to the Argonaut, furnishing a large tonnage of ore in the deeper levels of that mine (Logan, 1934).
The veins pinched and swelled abruptly, on both strike and dip. Ore shots occurred where the veins swell into quartz lenses. Accordingly, ore was not continuous either longitudinally or in depth. Storms (1900) noted that workings could be driven over the top and along either side of an ore shoot, and beneath it, in fact completely surrounding it in barren quartz. Both the Kennedy vein and the East vein branches furnished ore shoots near and at their north junction to form the main vein but the foot wall vein was the more important (Logan, 1934). In the middle levels of the mine, ore shoots occurred as en echelon lenses over a length of 800 feet, with from 7-11 feet of ore on the Kennedy foot wall vein and 6 feet on the East vein. Where the two veins joined on the 3900-foot level, 140 feet north of the shaft, a large ore shoot was followed northward several hundred feet. On the 4350-foot level, south of the shaft, they were separated by only a few feet of slate. Here the foot wall (Kennedy) ore body lengthened to 700 feet with ore values averaging $10 per ton (Logan, 1934).
The thickness of the ore mined usually ranged between 8 and 40 feet. Ore from the East vein was more slaty and carried more sulfides than the foot wall vein, which showed more free gold and pyrophyllite. Coarse free gold was usually associated with light green pyrophyllite (Logan, 1934). Generally, the pay in the foot wall vein occurs near the foot wall, and the vein has a heavy black gouge on the foot wall from 1-2 feet thick, which contains some gold (Tucker, 1914). The best ore was banded or ribbon rock consisting of hard white quartz showing free gold with numerous ribbons of finely ground slate and often ribbons of pyrite, arsenopyrite, and galena with the sulfides averaging 1-2%of the ore. Little specimen ore was recovered.
Ore is free milling gold in quartz with auriferous pyrite, arsenopyrite, and minor amounts of galena. Sulfides concentrates have been generally high for a Mother Lode mine, carrying 6-7 ounces of gold per ton (Logan, 1934).
Workings include underground openings with an overall depth of 1,801.98 meters and comprised of a 4,764 foot vertical shaft with an inclined winze to the 5,912 level. There are over 50 miles of underground workings located (1860).
The Kennedy Mine was developed through three shafts on the property. The shallow early workings were accessed through the North shaft, sunk on an incline to a depth of 2500 feet and a South shaft 2300 feet on the incline, being vertical for 376 feet, from which point it was inclined 66? to conform to the dip of the vein. The North shaft was located 600 feet north of the South shaft. The later East shaft was the main working shaft through which the lower levels were generally worked. The East shaft was a 3-compartment shaft 4764 feet deep. Each compartment was 4 by 5feet. It was sunk 1950 feet east of the older workings and cut the East vein at 3680 feet and the Kennedy vein at 4400 feet. Work at the lowest levels was done through an inclined winze off the 4650-foot level to the lowest 5900 foot level. The greatest vertical depth reached was 5912 feet (Carlson and Clark, 1954), making the Kennedy mine the deepest mine in North America. There are approximately 50 miles of underground workings.
Levels were driven at 500', 1000', 1700', 1800', 1900', 2100', 2200', 2300', 2400', 2550', 2700', 2850', 3000', 3150', 3300', 3450', 3600', 3750', 3900', 4050', 4200', 4350', 4500', 4650', 4800', 4950', 5100', 5250', 5400', 5550, 5700', and 5900 feet (" ' " = feet).
Drifts were generally run northward from the shaft crosscuts on the Kennedy vein and southward from shaft crosscuts on the East vein. The upper levels were drifted north and south to the property lines and stoped out to the surface from the 2250 foot level. Due mainly to heavy swelling ground and gouge, a large amount of timbering was used for square set timbering with waste filling to within one set of the roof (Tucker, 1914). Stopes were filled with waste obtained by raising in the hanging wall or drifting (Logan, 1921).
By 1914, mining was conducted with air drills. Nine, oil fired, 80 hp boilers furnished steam for hoist and compressors. The mine had an Allis Chalmers 800 hp double-drum hoist that raised and lowered 4-ton skips. When steam powered, the hoist could drop the skips at speeds up to 2200 feet per minute. Ore was dumped over a grizzly, the fines going to 200 ton capacity storage bins in the head frame, and the coarse material to a 12" x 16" Blake crusher. From the storage bins, ore was trammed in 2-ton cars to 2000 ton capacity mill bins (Tucker, 1914).
Prior to 1931, the Kennedy Mill contained 100 stamps, with a capacity of 15,000 tons per month. There were 42 6-foot Frue vanners in use. Concentrates from Frue vanners were reconcentrated on two 6-foot Gates concentrators. The sulfides were treated in the chlorination works at the mine. Tailings went from the mill to hydraulic classifiers where the coarse sands were eliminated and overflow slimes were directed to a slimes plant where the slimes were distributed over sixty 10' x 12' canvas tables. The slimes plant was one of the first built and successfully operated on the Mother Lode (Storms, 1900). Washings from the canvas tables went to two bumping circular tables and one Gates concentrator. The overflow from these went to eight additional tables. From here, tailings were conveyed to a tailings reservoir (Tucker, 1914). The average recovery was about 94% (Storms, 1900).
In 1931, a ball mill and flotation cells were installed. The stamp mill was then used only for primary crushing. From 1936 until the mine closed, an average of 3,000 tons of ore per month was milled. The last full crew at the mine and mill was 125 men (Carlson and Clark, 1954).
Somewhat unique to the Kennedy Mine was the use of tailings wheels to elevate tailings over a local ridge into a tailings reservoir. Built in 1912, four tailings wheels were originally housed in a building, which no longer exists. Two wheels remain and two have crumbled to the elements. Each wheel was 68 feet in diameter and equipped with 176 18 inch by 8 inch buckets. Each wheel had a lift capacity of 48 feet. Tailings flowed by mean of a 900-foot flume to the first tailings wheel elevator, which elevated the tailings to a second flume 75 feet long at the end of which a second wheel elevated the tailings to an 800-foot flume. At the end of this flume, a third elevator wheel raised the tailings to another flume 160 feet long. This flume conveyed the tailings to the last elevator wheel where they raised to a flume 1000 feet long that flowed to a storage reservoir. There, the tailings were impounded by a concrete dam 540 feet long and 50 feet high.
Production data are found in: Carlson, D.W. & W.B. Clark (1954).
Clark (1970) reported that the Pacific (??) Mine produced $34.28 million. The purity of the gold produced between 1886 and 1942 averaged 83% and the average yield during this same period was 0.38 ounces per ton. Produced about 500 pounds of Pb from concentrate. In 1957, a cleanup at the mine, which was idle at the time, resulted in some recoverable Au & Ag .
Select Mineral List TypeStandard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements
7 valid minerals.
Detailed Mineral List:
| ⓘ 'Apatite'|
Description: Principal gangue mineral in some deep level ore.
Reference: Hulin, Carlton D. (1930), A Mother Lode gold ore: Economic Geology: 25: 348, 351; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 78, 353.
| ⓘ Arsenopyrite|
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10310634.
| ⓘ Galena|
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
| ⓘ Gold|
Description: .825 fine.
Reference: Knopf, Adolf (1929), The Mother Lode system of California: USGS Professional Paper 157, 88 pp.: 37; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 12.
| ⓘ Pyrite|
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10028230.
| ⓘ Pyrite var: Auriferous Pyrite|
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10028230.
| ⓘ Pyrophyllite ?|
Description: A gangue mineral. May be damourite.
Reference: Logan, Clarence August (1934), Mother Lode Gold Belt of California: California Division Mines Bulletin 108, 221 pp.: 78; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 305.
| ⓘ Quartz|
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
| ⓘ Strengite|
Formula: FePO4 · 2H2O
Description: Occurs in the deep levels of the mine.
Reference: Hulin, Carlton D. (1930), A Mother Lode gold ore: Economic Geology: 25: 351; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 353; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 311.
List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification
|Group 1 - Elements|
|Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts|
|ⓘ||var: Auriferous Pyrite||2.EB.05a||FeS2|
|Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides|
|Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates|
|ⓘ||Strengite||8.CD.10||FePO4 · 2H2O|
|Group 9 - Silicates|
|Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.|
List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification
|Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS|
|Metals, other than the Platinum Group|
|Group 2 - SULFIDES|
|AmXp, with m:p = 1:1|
|AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2|
|Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES|
|ⓘ||Strengite||18.104.22.168||FePO4 · 2H2O|
|Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings|
|Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers|
|Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks|
|Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with  coordinated Si|
|Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.|
var: Auriferous Pyrite
List of minerals for each chemical element
|H||ⓘ Strengite||FePO4 · 2H2O|
|O||ⓘ Strengite||FePO4 · 2H2O|
|P||ⓘ Strengite||FePO4 · 2H2O|
|S||ⓘ Pyrite (var: Auriferous Pyrite)||FeS2|
|Fe||ⓘ Strengite||FePO4 · 2H2O|
|Fe||ⓘ Pyrite (var: Auriferous Pyrite)||FeS2|
Sort byYear (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A) In-text Citation No.
Crawford, J.J. (1894), Gold in Amador County, Kennedy Mine, California State Mining Bureau, 12th Report of the State Mineralogist (Report 12): 74-77.
Irelan, William, Jr. (1888b), Eighth annual report of the State Mineralogist [includes mineral resources of the State, with contributions by W.A. Goodyear, H.A. Whiting, and Stephen Bowers]: California Mining Bureau. Report 8, 946 pp.: 66-71.
Storms, William H. (1900), The Mother Lode region of California: California Mining Bureau. Bulletin 18: 52-54.
Tucker, W. Burling (1914), Amador County: California Mines Bureau Report 14: 31-34.
Knopf, Adolf (1929), The Mother Lode system of California: USGS Professional Paper 157, 88 pp.; […(abstract): Engineering & Mining Journal: 128: 24 (1929); […Geol. Zentralbl., Band 41: 364-367 (1930)]: 37.
Hulin, Carlton D. (1930), A Mother Lode gold ore: Economic Geology: 25: 348, 351.
Logan, Clarence August (1934), Mother Lode Gold Belt of California: California Division Mines Bulletin 108, 221 pp.
Carlson, D.W. & W.B. Clark (1954), Mines and Minerals of Amador County, California: California Journal of Mines and Geology: 50: 182-185, 249, Pl. 1.
Goodwin, Joseph Grant (1957) Lead and zinc in California. California Journal of Mines and Geology, Division of Mines (Report 53): 53(3&4): 353-724.
U.S. Bureau of Mines Minerals Yearbook (1957): 3: 213
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 78, 305, 353.
Clark, W. B. (1970), Gold districts of California: California Divisions of Mines and Geology Bulletin 193, p. 69-76.
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 12 (map 2-3), 311.
USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10028230, 10235282 & 10310634.
U.S. Bureau of Mines, Minerals Availability System (MAS) file ID #0060050278.
California Geological Survey Mineral Resources Files, Sacramento, California, file no. 322-5920.
|USGS MRDS Record:||10028230|
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