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Bluebird Kyanite Mine (Vitrefrax Corporation property; Vitrefrax Mine; Bluebird Hill Kyanite deposit; Drifted Snow; Foster Bluebird Mine; Bluebird Mine; Ogilby Kyanite deposit), Vitrefrax Hill (Bluebird Hill), Obregon, Cargo Muchacho District (Hedges District; Ogilby District), Cargo Muchacho Mts, Imperial Co., California, USAi
Regional Level Types
Bluebird Kyanite Mine (Vitrefrax Corporation property; Vitrefrax Mine; Bluebird Hill Kyanite deposit; Drifted Snow; Foster Bluebird Mine; Bluebird Mine; Ogilby Kyanite deposit)Mine
Vitrefrax Hill (Bluebird Hill)Hill
Obregon- not defined -
Cargo Muchacho District (Hedges District; Ogilby District)Mining District
Cargo Muchacho MtsMountain Range
Imperial Co.County
CaliforniaState
USACountry

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Key
Lock Map
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 32° 50' 39'' North , 114° 48' 24'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 32.84417,-114.80667
GeoHash:G#: 9my6ge074
USGS MRDS Record:10105299
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:BWh : Hot deserts climate
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Los Algodones4,874 (2015)17.4km
Colonia Ladrillera277 (2018)18.7km
Colonia Francisco Santana Peralta578 (2013)18.8km
Donovan Estates1,508 (2017)19.2km
Avenue B and C4,176 (2017)19.5km


A former Au-kyanite-mica occurrence/mine located in sec. 18 & in the NW¼NW¼ sec. 19, T15S, R21E, SBM, 2.2 km (7,400 feet) SW of Obregon (2.5 miles NE of Ogilby) W slope of the Cargo Muchacho Mountains. Owned by the Vitrefrax Corporation. Acquired by Aluminum Silicates Company of Los Angeles in 1949. Operated during the period 1925-1946. MRDS database accuracy for this location is not stated. Kyanite was used for refractory cement products ("Argon" & "Durex").

Mineralization is a metamorphic deposit hosted in quartzite and schist. The ore body is bedded at a thickness of 121.92 meters and a length of 1,609.3 meters. The outcrop is discontinuous along its length. At the quarry, the quartz-kyanite quartzite forms the core of the hill with interbedded quartz-sericite schist at the flanks. Local rocks include Schist of various types and ages, unit 9 (Cargo Muchacho Mountains).

Workings include surface openings at a length of 30.48 meters and an overall depth of 7.62 meters. Three staggered benches in the hillside. Above the top bench is a 75 foot cut 50 feet wide.

Total production was 10 tons valued at $80,000 (period values).

Mines rock was 35% kyanite, the remainder is 15% kyanite.

Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate
Sonoran Desert, North AmericaDesert

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


17 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Rolf Luetcke
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Description: Occurs as crystals to 8 mm. Common in a pyrophyllite lens.
Reference: Pemberton, H. Earl and Bideaux, R.A. (1971) An occurrence of svanbergite in California. Mineralogical Record: 2: 225; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 495.
Andalusite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Colour: Pale brown
Description: Occurs as crystals in sericite and pyrophyllite per Pemberton. This may actually refer to the Drifted Snow Mine (https://www.mindat.org/loc-300076.html) (WW Besse, 2018).
Reference: Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 450.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Colour: Pinkish
Description: Occurs as euhedral crystals filling vugs or seams in a pyrophyllite lens.
Reference: Pemberton, H. Earl and Bideaux, R.A. (1971) An occurrence of svanbergite in California. Mineralogical Record: 2: 225; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 292.
Baryte var: Strontian Baryte
Formula: (Ba,Sr)SO4
Colour: Pinkish
Description: Occurs as euhedral crystals filling vugs or seams in a pyrophyllite lens.
Reference: Pemberton, H. Earl and Bideaux, R.A. (1971) An occurrence of svanbergite in California. Mineralogical Record: 2: 225; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 292.
'Biotite'
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; Cal Div Mines & Geol County Report 7 "Geology and Mineral resources of Imperial Co., CA"
Carnotite
Formula: K2(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 3H2O
Colour: Brilliant yellow
Description: Occurs as films on fracture surfaces of a pyrophyllite lens.
Reference: Pemberton, H. Earl and Bideaux, R.A. (1971) An occurrence of svanbergite in California. Mineralogical Record: 2: 225; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 326.
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: Henshaw, P.C. (1942) Geology and Mineral Deposits of the Cargo Muchacho Mountains, Imperial County California. California Journal of Mines and Geology: 38: 153-154; Clark, Wm. B. (1970a) Gold districts of California: California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 193; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 19.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Rolf Luetcke
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Cal Div Mines & Geol County Report 7 "Geology and Mineral resources of Imperial Co., CA"
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Rolf Luetcke
Kyanite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Colour: Blue
Description: Occurs as crystals with quartzite and muscovite schist.
Reference: Tucker, W. Burling (1926), Imperial, Inyo Counties: California Mining Bureau. Report 22: 269; Sampson, Reid J. & W. Burling Tucker (1931), Feldspar, silica, andalusite, and cyanite deposits of California: California Mining Bureau. Report 27: 455; Campbell, Ian & L.A. Wright (1950), Kyanite paragenesis at Ogilby, California: Geological Society of America Bulletin: 61: 1520-1521; Morton, P.K. (1977) Geology and Mineral Resources of Imperial County, California: California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report No. 7: 65-66; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 452.
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Description: Occurs as pseudomorphs after pyritohedral pyrite crystals to 25 mm diameter.
Reference: Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 243.
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; Cal Div Mines & Geol County Report 7 "Geology and Mineral resources of Imperial Co., CA"
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Description: Relatively pure muscovite, var. sericite.
Reference: Henshaw, P.C. (1942) Geology and Mineral Deposits of the Cargo Muchacho Mountains, Imperial County California. California Journal of Mines and Geology: 38: 153-154; Morton, P.K. (1977) Geology and Mineral Resources of Imperial County, California: California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report No. 7: 79; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 425, 450.
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Description: Relatively pure muscovite, var. sericite.
Reference: Henshaw, P.C. (1942) Geology and Mineral Deposits of the Cargo Muchacho Mountains, Imperial County California. California Journal of Mines and Geology: 38: 153-154; Morton, P.K. (1977) Geology and Mineral Resources of Imperial County, California: California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report No. 7: 79; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 425, 450.
Pyrophyllite
Formula: Al2Si4O10(OH)2
Colour: Apple-green
Description: Occurs as foliated bodies in the Vitrefax Formation.
Reference: Tucker, W. Burling (1926), Imperial, Inyo Counties: California Mining Bureau. Report 22: 280; Henshaw, P.C. (1942) Geology and Mineral Deposits of the Cargo Muchacho Mountains, Imperial County California. California Journal of Mines and Geology: 38: 153-154; Morton, P.K. (1977) Geology and Mineral Resources of Imperial County, California: California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report No. 7: 79, 83; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 416, 450.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Colour: Deep red
Description: Occurs as crystals to 2 mm long. Common in pyrophyllite lenses.
Reference: Morton, P.K. (1977) Geology and Mineral Resources of Imperial County, California: California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report No. 7; Pemberton, H. Earl and Bideaux, R.A. (1971) An occurrence of svanbergite in California. Mineralogical Record: 2: 225; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 169.
Scorzalite
Formula: Fe2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2
Description: Occurs with quartz-kyanite concentrations.
Reference: Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 310.
Svanbergite
Formula: SrAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Habit: Pseudocubic rhombohedra.
Colour: Nearly colourless to honey-yellow
Description: Occurs as crystals to 2 mm in a pyrophyllite lens.
Reference: Pemberton, H. Earl and Bideaux, R.A. (1971) An occurrence of svanbergite in California. Mineralogical Record: 2: 225; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 305.
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Colour: Black
Reference: Tucker, W. Burling (1926), Imperial, Inyo Counties: California Mining Bureau. Report 22: 269; Sampson, Reid J. & W. Burling Tucker (1931), Feldspar, silica, andalusite, and cyanite deposits of California: California Mining Bureau. Report 27: 455; Campbell, Ian & L.A. Wright (1950), Kyanite paragenesis at Ogilby, California: Geological Society of America Bulletin: 61: 1520-1521.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Gold1.AA.05Au
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Carnotite4.HB.05K2(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 3H2O
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
var: Strontian Baryte7.AD.35(Ba,Sr)SO4
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Jarosite7.BC.10KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Scorzalite8.BB.40Fe2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2
Svanbergite8.BL.05SrAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Almandine9.AD.25Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Andalusite9.AF.10Al2(SiO4)O
Kyanite9.AF.15Al2(SiO4)O
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Pyrophyllite9.EC.10Al2Si4O10(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Biotite'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
AB2(XO4)2·xH2O, containing (UO2)2+
Carnotite40.2a.28.1K2(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 3H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)3(XO4)2Zq
Scorzalite41.10.1.2Fe2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2
Group 43 - COMPOUND PHOSPHATES, ETC.
Anhydrous Compound Phosphates, etc·, Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Svanbergite43.4.1.6SrAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Almandine51.4.3a.2Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
Andalusite52.2.2b.1Al2(SiO4)O
Kyanite52.2.2c.1Al2(SiO4)O
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Pyrophyllite71.2.1.1Al2Si4O10(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Baryte
var: Strontian Baryte
-(Ba,Sr)SO4
'Biotite'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Muscovite
var: Sericite
-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
H ScorzaliteFe2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2
H SvanbergiteSrAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
H Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H CarnotiteK2(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 3H2O
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
BBoron
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
OOxygen
O KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O RutileTiO2
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O QuartzSiO2
O AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
O PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
O HematiteFe2O3
O ScorzaliteFe2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2
O SvanbergiteSrAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
O Baryte (var: Strontian Baryte)(Ba,Sr)SO4
O AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
O Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O CarnotiteK2(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 3H2O
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O BaryteBaSO4
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
AlAluminium
Al KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Al AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
Al ScorzaliteFe2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2
Al SvanbergiteSrAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Al AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
Al Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Si QuartzSiO2
Si AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
Si AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
Si Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
PPhosphorus
P ScorzaliteFe2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2
P SvanbergiteSrAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
SSulfur
S SvanbergiteSrAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
S Baryte (var: Strontian Baryte)(Ba,Sr)SO4
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S BaryteBaSO4
KPotassium
K Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K CarnotiteK2(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 3H2O
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
TiTitanium
Ti RutileTiO2
VVanadium
V CarnotiteK2(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 3H2O
FeIron
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe ScorzaliteFe2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
SrStrontium
Sr SvanbergiteSrAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Sr Baryte (var: Strontian Baryte)(Ba,Sr)SO4
BaBarium
Ba Baryte (var: Strontian Baryte)(Ba,Sr)SO4
Ba BaryteBaSO4
AuGold
Au GoldAu
UUranium
U CarnotiteK2(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 3H2O

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Quaternary - Miocene
0 - 23.03 Ma



ID: 3185380
Cenozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Cenozoic (0 - 23.03 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Jurassic
145 - 201.3 Ma



ID: 2921110
Schist of various types and ages, unit 9 (Cargo Muchacho Mountains)

Age: Jurassic (145 - 201.3 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Tumco Formation; Vitrefrax Formation

Description: Schists of various types; mostly Paleozoic or Mesozoic age; some Precambrian.

Comments: Cargo Muchacho Mountains in southeasternmost California. Primarily quartzofeldspathic gneiss Original map source: Saucedo, G.J., Bedford, D.R., Raines, G.L., Miller, R.J., and Wentworth, C.M., 2000, GIS Data for the Geologic Map of California, California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology, CD-ROM 2000-07, scale 1:750,000.

Lithology: Major:{amphibolite}, Minor:{schist}, Incidental:{quartzite, marble}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Melhase, John (1925), Andalusite in California (Inyo Range): Engineering & Mining Journal: 120: 91-94; […(abstract): Geol. Zentralbl., Band 37: 73 (1928)]: 94.
Tucker, W. Burling (1926), Imperial, Inyo Counties: California Mining Bureau. Report 22: 269, 280.
Sampson, Reid J. & W. Burling Tucker (1931), Feldspar, silica, andalusite, and cyanite deposits of California: California Mining Bureau. Report 27: 455.
Henshaw, P.C. (1942) Geology and Mineral Deposits of the Cargo Muchacho Mountains, Imperial County California. California Journal of Mines and Geology: 38: 153-154.
Campbell, Ian & L.A. Wright (1950), Kyanite paragenesis at Ogilby, California: Geological Society of America Bulletin: 61: 1520-1521.
Wright, L.A. (1957) Kyanite Andalusite, and Related Minerals, in Mineral Commodities of California: California Division of Mines Bull. 176: 275-280.
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 73, 237, 243, 305, 358.
Clark, Wm. B. (1970a) Gold districts of California: California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 193.
Pemberton, H. Earl and Bideaux, R.A. (1971) An occurrence of svanbergite in California. Mineralogical Record: 2: 225.
Morton, P.K. (1977) Geology and Mineral Resources of Imperial County, California: California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report No. 7: 65-66, 79, 83.
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 19 (map 2-8), 169, 292, 305, 310, 326, 416, 425, 450, 452, 495.
USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10105299.


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