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Crabtree Mine (Big Crabtree Emerald Mine), Spruce Pine, Spruce Pine District, Mitchell Co., North Carolina, USAi
Regional Level Types
Crabtree Mine (Big Crabtree Emerald Mine)Mine
Spruce Pine- not defined -
Spruce Pine DistrictMining District
Mitchell Co.County
North CarolinaState
USACountry

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Key
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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 35° 52' 29'' North , 82° 7' 12'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 35.87472,-82.12000
GeoHash:G#: dnms56f13
USGS MRDS Record:10025992
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Cfb : Temperate oceanic climate
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Spruce Pine2,134 (2017)6.7km
Bakersville452 (2017)16.0km
Burnsville1,660 (2017)17.0km
Marion7,861 (2017)23.4km
Crossnore192 (2017)23.7km


An emerald mine located about 6.2 kilometers (4 miles) SW of Spruce Pine.

The Crabtree pegmatite is a beryl (emerald, green beryl, aquamarine and yellow beryl) and tourmaline-bearing granitic pegmatite. Emerald and green beryl occurs in the biotite and chlorite selvage and the pegmatite margin. Aquamarine and yellow beryl occurs in the pegmatite core. Green and purple fluorite, white mica, almandine-spessartine garnet and xenotime are accessory minerals. It has been sporadically mined for gem-quality beryl from 1894 to the late 1970’s and has produced a number of good quality emeralds, one of which was 70 carats. The pegmatite intrudes at the boundary between garnet-titanite-zoisite bearing hornblende-plagioclase gneiss (blastomylonite) and plagioclase-quartz-biotite-white mica porphyroclastic gneiss. (Source: Tappen, et al, 2006).

Mining operations at the Crabtree Emerald Mine began in July of 1894 by J.L. Rorison and D.A. Bowman. The emeralds at the mine occur in a pegmatite vein approximately five feet wide with well-defined walls. Mineral rights to the Crabtree were acquired by the American Gem and Pearl Company of New York in 1905. The company operated the mine several years and marketed the rock as "emerald matrix". The material was cut en cabochon. Although most of the gem material was sold as "emerald matrix", early mining operations did produce fine clear gems suitable for faceting. The deeper the shaft was sunk, the larger the emeralds that were found, many up to one inch in diameter and one inch long. The American Gem and Pearl Co. discontinued operations in 1908. The mineral rights to the property were then purchased by Edward Fortner and J.P. Grindstaff. In recent years the Crabtree was mined commercially from 1968 to 1974 during which time, fee collecting was allowed on the dumps. In the 1980's the mine was closed for some time. The mineral rights were purchased in 1984 by the partnership of Ted Ledford, Bert Roper and Dal Duppenthaler, the new owners actively mined the site. In 1985 the mine was called "Gem Haven" and public collecting was allowed on the dumps at the mine. As of 1994 the mine was closed and has set idle for many years with the occasional collector visiting the site. In 2003, Bert Roper and Dal Duppenthaler acquired sole ownership of the mine. As of 2009, in an agreement with the Mountain Area Gem and Mineral Association, the mine has been reopened to the public under the management of the M.A.G.M.A. Club. (Source: Alex Glover, M.A.G.M.A., 2009, pers. comm.to Harjo Neutkens).

Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


19 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Albite var: Oligoclase
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
'Apatite'
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Beryl var: Aquamarine
Formula: Be3Al2Si6O18
Beryl var: Emerald
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Beryl var: Heliodor
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
'Biotite'
'Chlorite Group'
Clinozoisite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Cordierite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
'Dravite-Schorl Series'
Fluor-dravite (TL)
Formula: Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Type Locality:
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Hornblende'
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
'Microlite Group'
Formula: A2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Quartz var: Smoky Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Schorl
Formula: Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Spessartine
Formula: Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Xenotime-(Y)
Formula: Y(PO4)
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Zoisite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
'Microlite Group'4.00.A2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Smoky Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Xenotime-(Y)8.AD.35Y(PO4)
Group 9 - Silicates
Actinolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
var: Oligoclase9.FA.35(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Almandine9.AD.25Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Beryl9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Aquamarine9.CJ.05Be3Al2Si6O18
var: Emerald9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Heliodor9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Clinozoisite9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Cordierite9.CJ.10(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Fluor-dravite (TL)9.CK.05Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Schorl9.CK.05Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Spessartine9.AD.25Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Zoisite9.BG.10{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-
'Biotite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Dravite-Schorl Series'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Hornblende'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 8 - MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
A2B2O6(O,OH,F)
'Microlite Group'8.2.2.1A2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Almandine51.4.3a.2Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Spessartine51.4.3a.3Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Clinozoisite58.2.1a.4{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Zoisite58.2.1b.1{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Beryl61.1.1.1Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Six-Membered Rings with Al substituted rings
Cordierite61.2.1.1(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
Schorl61.3.1.10Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Actinolite-☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Albite
var: Oligoclase
-(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
'Apatite'-
Beryl
var: Aquamarine
-Be3Al2Si6O18
var: Emerald-Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Heliodor-Be3Al2(Si6O18)
'Biotite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Dravite-Schorl Series'-
Fluor-dravite (TL)-Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Hornblende'-
Quartz
var: Smoky Quartz
-SiO2
Xenotime-(Y)-Y(PO4)

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Fluor-draviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
BeBeryllium
Be Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Be Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Be Beryl (var: Heliodor)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
BBoron
B Fluor-draviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
B SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
OOxygen
O Fluor-draviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
O QuartzSiO2
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
O Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
O Beryl (var: Heliodor)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
O Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
O SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
O Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
O SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
O Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
O Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
FFluorine
F Fluor-draviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
F FluoriteCaF2
NaSodium
Na Fluor-draviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
MgMagnesium
Mg Fluor-draviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Mg Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al Fluor-draviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Al Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Al Beryl (var: Heliodor)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Al SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Al SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
SiSilicon
Si Fluor-draviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Si QuartzSiO2
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si Beryl (var: Emerald)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Si Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Si Beryl (var: Heliodor)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Si Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
Si SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Si SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
Si Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Si Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
PPhosphorus
P Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
SSulfur
S PyriteFeS2
KPotassium
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca Albite (var: Oligoclase)(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
TiTitanium
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
MnManganese
Mn SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
FeIron
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Fe AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Fe Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
YYttrium
Y Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
TaTantalum
Ta Microlite GroupA2-mTa2X6-wZ-n

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Neoproterozoic
541 - 1000 Ma



ID: 3186076
Neoproterozoic volcanic rocks

Age: Neoproterozoic (541 - 1000 Ma)

Lithology: Volcanic rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Neoproterozoic
541 - 1000 Ma



ID: 2940953
Alligator Back Formation; Amphibolite

Age: Neoproterozoic (541 - 1000 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Alligator Back Formation

Description: Equigranular, massive to well foliated, interlayered, rarely discordant, metamorphosed intrusive and extrusive mafic rock; may include metasedimentary rock.

Comments: Original map source: The North Carolina Dept. of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Land Resources, NC Geological Survey, in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information and Analysis, 1998 (updated 2007), Geology - North Carolina (1:250,000)

Lithology: Major:{amphibolite}, Minor:{metasedimentary}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Lesure, F.G. (1968), Mica Deposits of the Blue Ridge in North Carolina, USGS Professional Paper 577: 12.
Sinkankas, John; (1981), Emerald and Other Beryls: 570-572,
USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10025992, 10199556 & 10248802.
Tappen, Christine, Smith, Michael & Dockal, James (2006), Beryl (Aquamarine, Emerald, Green and Yellow) and Tourmaline of the Crabtree Pegmatite, Spruce Pine District, Mitchell County, North Carolina, Proceedings of the 42nd Forum on the Geology of Industrial Minerals, at Asheville, North Carolina, Information Circular 34, North Carolina Geological Survey.
Dockal, James A. and Smith, Michael S. (2007) Petrography of the Country Rock Surrounding the Crabtree Pegmatite, Spruce Pine District, Mitchell County, North Carolina. Petrology and Tectonics of the Southern Appalachians, Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs: 39(2): 26.
Clark, C.M., Hawthorne, F.C., Ottolini, L. (2011): Fluor-dravite, NaMg3Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3F, a new mineral of the tourmaline group from the Crabtree emerald mine, Mitchell County, North Carolina: description and crystal structure. Canadian Mineralogist, 49, 57-62.
U.S. Bureau of Mines, Minerals Availability System (MAS) file ID #0371210028 & 0371210080.


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