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Hardshell Mine (Manto Mine; Eagle-Picher properties), Hardshell Gulch, Harshaw, Harshaw Mining District, Patagonia Mts, Santa Cruz Co., Arizona, USAi
Regional Level Types
Hardshell Mine (Manto Mine; Eagle-Picher properties)Mine
Hardshell GulchGulch
Harshaw- not defined -
Harshaw Mining DistrictMining District
Patagonia MtsMountain Range
Santa Cruz Co.County
ArizonaState
USACountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
31° 27' 29'' North , 110° 42' 51'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Patagonia890 (2017)9.9km
Kino Springs136 (2011)13.9km
Beyerville177 (2011)17.3km
Francisco Miguel Cárdenas Valdez (Mascareñas)541 (2014)21.7km
Nogales20,252 (2017)24.6km


A former small surface and underground Pb-Ag-Mn-Cu-Zn-Au occurrence/mine located in the center of sec. 4, T23S, R16E (protracted) on 42 claims, in Hardshell Gulch, at the foot of the steep southerly slope from Table Mountain, about 1 mile SW of Harshaw, a short distance West of Hermosa, on the easterly slope of the Patagonia Mountains, at 5,150 feet of altitude, on private (patented) land. Discovered by David Harshaw and José Andrade in 1879. Produced 1896-1964. Owned at times, or in part, by Mr. R.R. Richardson (1880-1890; 1895-1896; 1897-1901); Mr. Heney of Tucson (1905- ); the Empire Mining & Milling Co. (Mr. Fitzgerald; Columbia Co.)(1896- ); Hardshell Mining Co.; Gardner & Young; Bender; Big Jim Mines, Inc.; Valenzuela; McFarland; and, the American Smelting & Refining Corp. (ASARCO).

Mineralization is irregular, lensing ore bodies and ore shoots of ferruginous and manganiferous, argentiferous cerussite, complex lead and zinc oxidation products, chlorargyrite and other silver halides, and spotty copper and gold as replacement of fault gouge and silicified fault breccia in a strong fault zone. The ore zone is 460 meters long, 275 meters wide and 18 meters thick, strikes E-W and dips 35N. The shear zone is about 300 feet long and 30 feet wide. Wall rocks are Jurassic-Triassic volcanics and Cretaceous andesite with thin interbedded limestone, shale, and conglomerate. Some spotty, high-grade manganese oxide areas. Cretaceous dioritic and andesitic dikes are present. Generally weak base metal sulfides found in depth.

Rocks which underlie the Hardshell group of claims are limestone, quartzite, conglomerate and intrusive rhyolite and felsite. In the mine the rhyolite and felsite are the dominant rocks, but there are also beds of quartzite and limestone.

The Hardshell Mine explores a shear zone that strikes NE and dips NW at angles varying from a few degrees to 35º. The shear zone ranges from a few feet to 60 feet or more in width and the ore deposits occur rather irregularly in it but with a persistent vein along its footwall.

The material of the shear zone is greatly crushed quartzite, rhyolite, felsite, a persistent band of kaolinized material and the ore, consisting of lead carbonate and subordinate galena associated with iron and manganese oxides. The iron and manganese oxides are generally separate. In some places the manganous ore is 6 feet wide and fairly persistent but elsewhere it occurs as bunches and stringers and in nodular masses disseminated in kaolinized material. Oxidized lead ore is intimately associated with the manganese deposits.

Local structures include the Corral Canyon fault block with downthrow to the SW. Located on the N-S-trending American fault.

Workings include a 600 foot deep inclined shaft on the dip and drifts on several levels which extend about 200 feet East of the incline and about 75 feet West of it. Workings attain a vertical depth of 250 feet. Workings aggregate some 3,000 feet of openings. Worked from about 1896 through 1964. Produced some 35,000 tons of ore averaging about 6% Pb, 8 ounces Ag/ton, 0.5% Cu and minor Zn and Au; and about 1,000 tons of Mn ore and concentrate averaging about 40% Mn. Reserve has a refractory metallurgical problem due to Mn.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded from this region.


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

25 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10103551, MRDS ID #M030387.
'Bisbeeite' ?
Formula: (Cu,Mg)SiO3·nH2O
Habit: Fibrous; crystals orthorhombic
Colour: Blue
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 137-138.
Braunite
Formula: Mn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
Reference: Wilson, E.D. & G.M. Butler (1930), Manganese ore deposits in AZ, AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 127: 91-94; Jones, E.L., Jr. & F.L. Ransome (1920), Deposits of manganese ore in Arizona, USGS Bull. 710-D: 176.
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Reference: Keith, Stanton B. (1975), Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 191, Index of Mining Properties in Santa Cruz County Arizona: 58 (Table 4); Wilson, E.D. & G.M. Butler (1930), Manganese ore deposits in AZ, AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 127: 91-94; Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
Cerussite var: Argentiferous Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Reference: Keith, Stanton B. (1975), Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 191, Index of Mining Properties in Santa Cruz County Arizona: 58 (Table 4); Wilson, E.D. & G.M. Butler (1930), Manganese ore deposits in AZ, AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 127: 91-94; Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
Chlorargyrite
Formula: AgCl
Reference: Keith, Stanton B. (1975), Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 191, Index of Mining Properties in Santa Cruz County Arizona: 58 (Table 4); Arizona Bureau of Mines file data; Rocks & Min.:64:145.
Cornubite
Formula: Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Reference: Collection by Bruce J. Murphy 1982. Analyzed Dr. Sid Williams.
Descloizite
Formula: PbZn(VO4)(OH)
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 299.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Wilson, E.D. & G.M. Butler (1930), Manganese ore deposits in AZ, AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 127: 91-94.
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10103551, MRDS ID #M030387.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: [www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]
Gypsum var: Selenite
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: [www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]
Hausmannite
Formula: Mn2+Mn3+2O4
Description: A constituent of the mnaganese ores.
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 244.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Rolf Luetcke
Hemimorphite
Formula: Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10103551, MRDS ID #M030387.
Hydrozincite
Formula: Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10103551, MRDS ID #M030387.
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Colour: Light brown, whitish
Description: On hanging wall side of deposit and from 8 to 30 feet wide.
Reference: Wilson, E.D. & G.M. Butler (1930), Manganese ore deposits in AZ, AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 127: 91-94; Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, AZ, USGS Bull. 582: 268.
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10103551, MRDS ID #M030387.
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Collected by Eckhard D. Stuart
'Manganese Oxides'
Reference: Rolf Luetcke
'Manganese Oxides var: Manganese Dendrites'
Reference: Rolf Luetcke
Manganite
Formula: Mn3+O(OH)
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10103551, MRDS ID #M030387.
Mimetite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Habit: Micro-crystals
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 299.
Nsutite
Formula: (Mn4+,Mn2+)(O,OH)2
Description: Occurs with several other manganese oxides.
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 315; Koutz, F. (1984), The Hardshell silver, base-metal, Mn-oxide deposit, in Wilkins, J. (editor), AZ Geol. Soc. Digest: 15: 199.
Phosphohedyphane
Formula: Ca2Pb3(PO4)3Cl
Reference: Am.Min. 91, 1909-1917(2006)
'Psilomelane'
Formula: Mn, O
Reference: Wilson, E.D. & G.M. Butler (1930), Manganese ore deposits in AZ, AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 127: 91-92; Jones, E.L., Jr. & F.L. Ransome (1920), Deposits of manganese ore in Arizona, USGS Bull. 710-D: 176.
Pyrolusite
Formula: Mn4+O2
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 343; Jones, E.L., Jr. & F.L. Ransome (1920), Deposits of manganese ore in Arizona, USGS Bull. 710-D: 176; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 31; Schrader, F.C. (1917), The geologic distribution and genesis of the metals in the Santa Rita-Patagonia Mountains, AZ, Econ.Geol.: 12: 237-269; Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, AZ, USGS Bull. 582: 265-271; Wilson, E.D. & G.M. Butler (1930), Manganese ore deposits in AZ, AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 127: 91-94.
Pyromorphite
Formula: Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 344; Wilson, E.D. & G.M. Butler (1930), Manganese ore deposits in AZ, AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 127: 91-94.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Rocks & Min.:64:145.
Quartz var: Chalcedony
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Rolf Luetcke
'Serpentine Subgroup'
Formula: D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Reference: Rolf Luetcke
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10103551, MRDS ID #M030387.
Vanadinite
Formula: Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Reference: In the collection or Brent Thorne.
Wulfenite
Formula: Pb(MoO4)
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10103551, MRDS ID #M030387.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Gold1.AA.05Au
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Group 3 - Halides
Chlorargyrite3.AA.15AgCl
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Hausmannite4.BB.10Mn2+Mn3+2O4
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Manganite4.FD.15Mn3+O(OH)
Nsutite4.DB.15c(Mn4+,Mn2+)(O,OH)2
Pyrolusite4.DB.05Mn4+O2
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Chalcedony4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
var: Argentiferous Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Hydrozincite5.BA.15Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Smithsonite5.AB.05ZnCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anglesite7.AD.35PbSO4
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
var: Selenite7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Wulfenite7.GA.05Pb(MoO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Cornubite8.BD.30Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Descloizite8.BH.40PbZn(VO4)(OH)
Mimetite8.BN.05Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Phosphohedyphane8.BN.05Ca2Pb3(PO4)3Cl
Pyromorphite8.BN.05Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Vanadinite8.BN.05Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Group 9 - Silicates
Braunite9.AG.05Mn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
Hemimorphite9.BD.10Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Bisbeeite' ?-(Cu,Mg)SiO3·nH2O
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Manganese Oxides'-
'var: Manganese Dendrites'-
'Psilomelane'-Mn, O
'Serpentine Subgroup'-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Nsutite4.4.8.1(Mn4+,Mn2+)(O,OH)2
Pyrolusite4.4.1.4Mn4+O2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Manganite6.1.3.1Mn3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Hausmannite7.2.7.1Mn2+Mn3+2O4
(AB)2X3
Braunite7.5.1.3Mn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX
Chlorargyrite9.1.4.1AgCl
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Smithsonite14.1.1.6ZnCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Hydrozincite16a.4.1.1Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq
Cornubite41.4.2.1Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Descloizite41.5.2.1PbZn(VO4)(OH)
A5(XO4)3Zq
Mimetite41.8.4.2Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pyromorphite41.8.4.1Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Vanadinite41.8.4.3Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Wulfenite48.1.3.1Pb(MoO4)
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] coordination
Hemimorphite56.1.2.1Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Bisbeeite' ?-(Cu,Mg)SiO3·nH2O
Cerussite
var: Argentiferous Cerussite
-PbCO3
Gypsum
var: Selenite
-CaSO4 · 2H2O
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Manganese Oxides'-
'var: Manganese Dendrites'-
Phosphohedyphane-Ca2Pb3(PO4)3Cl
'Psilomelane'-Mn, O
Quartz
var: Chalcedony
-SiO2
'Serpentine Subgroup'-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Gypsum (var: Selenite)CaSO4 · 2H2O
H DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
H Nsutite(Mn4+,Mn2+)(O,OH)2
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
H HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
H ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H CornubiteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H Bisbeeite(Cu,Mg)SiO3·nH2O
CCarbon
C Cerussite (var: Argentiferous Cerussite)PbCO3
C HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
C SmithsoniteZnCO3
C CerussitePbCO3
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
OOxygen
O MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
O Gypsum (var: Selenite)CaSO4 · 2H2O
O QuartzSiO2
O Cerussite (var: Argentiferous Cerussite)PbCO3
O DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
O HausmanniteMn2+Mn23+O4
O Nsutite(Mn4+,Mn2+)(O,OH)2
O PyrolusiteMn4+O2
O PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O PsilomelaneMn, O
O BrauniteMn2+Mn63+(SiO4)O8
O PhosphohedyphaneCa2Pb3(PO4)3Cl
O AnglesitePbSO4
O HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
O HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
O ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
O SmithsoniteZnCO3
O WulfenitePb(MoO4)
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
O CornubiteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O CerussitePbCO3
O HematiteFe2O3
O Quartz (var: Chalcedony)SiO2
O Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O Bisbeeite(Cu,Mg)SiO3·nH2O
MgMagnesium
Mg Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Mg Bisbeeite(Cu,Mg)SiO3·nH2O
AlAluminium
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si BrauniteMn2+Mn63+(SiO4)O8
Si HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Si Quartz (var: Chalcedony)SiO2
Si Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Si Bisbeeite(Cu,Mg)SiO3·nH2O
PPhosphorus
P PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
P PhosphohedyphaneCa2Pb3(PO4)3Cl
SSulfur
S Gypsum (var: Selenite)CaSO4 · 2H2O
S GalenaPbS
S AnglesitePbSO4
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
ClChlorine
Cl MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Cl ChlorargyriteAgCl
Cl PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Cl PhosphohedyphaneCa2Pb3(PO4)3Cl
Cl VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
CaCalcium
Ca Gypsum (var: Selenite)CaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca PhosphohedyphaneCa2Pb3(PO4)3Cl
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
VVanadium
V DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
V VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
MnManganese
Mn HausmanniteMn2+Mn23+O4
Mn Nsutite(Mn4+,Mn2+)(O,OH)2
Mn PyrolusiteMn4+O2
Mn PsilomelaneMn, O
Mn BrauniteMn2+Mn63+(SiO4)O8
Mn ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
Mn Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
FeIron
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
NiNickel
Ni Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
CuCopper
Cu CornubiteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu Bisbeeite(Cu,Mg)SiO3·nH2O
ZnZinc
Zn DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
Zn HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Zn HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Zn SmithsoniteZnCO3
Zn Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
AsArsenic
As MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
As CornubiteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
MoMolybdenum
Mo WulfenitePb(MoO4)
AgSilver
Ag ChlorargyriteAgCl
AuGold
Au GoldAu
PbLead
Pb MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pb Cerussite (var: Argentiferous Cerussite)PbCO3
Pb DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
Pb PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb PhosphohedyphaneCa2Pb3(PO4)3Cl
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb WulfenitePb(MoO4)
Pb VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
Pb CerussitePbCO3

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
The Resources of Arizona - A Manual of Reliable Information Concerning the Territory, compiled by Patrick Hamilton (1881), Scottsdale, Arizona: 42.
Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, USGS Bulletin 582: 265-271.
Schrader, F.C. (1917), The geologic distribution and genesis of the metals in the Santa Rita-Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, Economic Geology: 12: 237-269.
Jones, E.L., Jr. & F.L. Ransome (1920), Deposits of manganese ore in Arizona, USGS Bull. 710-D: 114-120, 174-177.
Wilson, E.D. & G.M. Butler (1930), Manganese ore deposits in Arizona, Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 127: 91-94.
Elsing, M.J. and Heineman, E.S. (1936) Arizona Metal Production, Arizona Bureau of Mines Bulletin 140.
Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of Arizona: 31.
Farnham, L.L., Stewart, L.A., and Delong, C.W. (1961), Manganese Deposits of Eastern Arizona, US Bureau of Mines Information Circular 7990: 170-171.
Von Fay (1965) ASARCO Report
Moores, R.C., III (1972) The geology and ore deposits of a portion of the Harshaw district, Santa Cruz County, Arizona: Tucson, University of Arizona, M.S. thesis, 98 p.
Keith, Stanton B. (1975), Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 191, Index of Mining Properties in Santa Cruz County Arizona: 58 (Table 4).
Koutz, F.R. (1977) Silver, base-metal, manganese oxides and fluid inclusion geothermometry, Hardshell Manto, Patagonia Mountains, Arizona [abs.]: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs: 9(7): 1056-1057.
Koutz, F.R. (1984) The Hardshell silver, base-metal, manganese oxide deposit, Patagonia Mountains, Santa Cruz County, Arizona; a field trip guide, in Wilkins, J., Jr., ed., Gold and silver deposits of the Basin and Range Province, western U.S.A.: Arizona Geological Society Digest: 15: 199-217.
Niemuth, N.J. (1987), Arizona Mineral Development 1984-1986, Arizona Department of Mines & Mineral Resources Directory 29, 46 pp.
Rocks & Minerals (1989): 64: 145.
Sawyer, M.B., Gurmendi, A.C., Daley, M.R., and Howell, S.B. (1992) Principal Deposits of Strategic and Critical Minerals in Arizona, U.S. Bureau of Mines Special Publication, 334 pp.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 137-138, 244, 299, 315, 343.
U.S. Bureau of Mines - Arizona Bureau of Geology and Mineral Technology file data.
U.S. Bureau of Mines Coronado National Forest Study.
Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
MRDS database Dep. ID file 10103551, MRDS ID M030387; and, Dep. ID 10210798, MAS ID 0040230003.

USGS MRDS Record:10103551

Localities in this Region

  • Arizona
    • Santa Cruz Co.

Other Regions, Features and Areas containg this locality

North America
North America PlateTectonic Plate

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