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Izalco Volcano, Sonsonate Department, El Salvador

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 13° 48' North , 89° 36' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 13.80000,-89.60000

The volcano was almost continously active from its birth in 1770 until 1958. Since then only a brief, very small flank eruption in 1966 has interrupted dormancy. Pre-1966 Izalco lavas are vesicular vitrophyric olivine basalts, usually with bytownite phenocrysts and augite.
Many new minerals have been found in the fumaroles and fumarolic sublimates which are unusually rich in vanadine.

Mineral List

15 valid minerals. 8 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on

Data and map coding provided by, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

This page contains all mineral locality references listed on This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.


Birnie, R.W., Hughes, J.M. (1979) Stoiberite, Cu5V2O10, a new copper vanadate from Izalco volcano, El Salvador, Central America. American Mineralogist, 64, 941-944.

Birnie, R.W., Hughes, J.M. (1980) Ziesite, β-Cu2(V2O7), a new copper vanadate and fumarole temperature indicator. American Mineralogist, 65, 1146-1149.

Hughes, J.M., Finger, L.W. (1980) Bannermanite, a new sodium-potassium vanadate isostructural with β-NaxV6O15. American Mineralogist 68, 634-642.

Hughes, J.M., Finger, L.W. (1983) The crystal chemistry of shcherbinaite, naturally occurring V2O5. American Mineralogist, 68(11-12), 1220-1222.

Hughes, J.M., Hadidiacos, C.G. (1985) Fingerite, Cu11O2(VO4)6, a new vanadium sublimate from Izalco crater, El Salvador: descriptive mineralogy. American Mineralogist, 70, 193-196.

Robinson, P.D., Hughes, J.M., Malinconico, M.L. (1987) Blossite, α-Cu2[V2O7], a new fumarolic sublimate from Izalco volcano, El Salvador. American Mineralogist, 72, 397-400.

Hughes, J.M., Starkey, S.J., Malinconico, M.L., Malinconico, L.L. (1987) Lyonsite, Cu32+Fe43+(VO4)63-, a new fumarolic sublimate from Izalco volcano, El Salvador: Descriptive mineralogy and crystal structure. American Mineralogist, 72, 1000-1005.

Hughes, J.M., Christian, B.S., Finger, L.W., Malinconico, L.L. (1987) Mcbirneyite, Cu3(VO4)2, a new sublimate mineral from the fumaroles of Izalco Volcano, El Salvador. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 33, 183–190.

Hughes, J.M., Drexler, J.W., Campana, C.F., Malinconico, M.L. (1988) Howardevansite, NaCuFe2(VO4)3, a new fumarolic sublimate from Izalco volcano, El Salvador: Descriptive mineralogy and crystal structure. American Mineralogist, 73, 181-186.

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