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Umba River (Umba Valley), Tanga Region, Tanzaniai
Regional Level Types
Umba River (Umba Valley)River
Tanga RegionRegion
TanzaniaCountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
4° 31' 41'' South , 38° 43' 53'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Köppen climate type:


Classic locality (known since the 1960s) for 'fancy' sapphire and "Umbalite" garnet (also known as "Malaya" garnet).

Regions containing this locality

Somali Plate (Somalia Plate)Tectonic Plate

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Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

20 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

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Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Zwaan, P. C., & Zwaan, P. C. (1974). Garnet, corundum and other gem minerals from Umba, Tanzania. Rijksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie.
Anorthite
Formula: Ca(Al2Si2O8)
Reference: Henry Hanni (1987) On Corundums from Umba Valley, Tanzania. J. Gemm. 20:278-284.
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Reference: Henry Hanni (1987) On Corundums from Umba Valley, Tanzania. J. Gemm. 20:278-284.; Zwaan, P. C., & Zwaan, P. C. (1974). Garnet, corundum and other gem minerals from Umba, Tanzania. Rijksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie.
Böhmite
Formula: AlO(OH)
Reference: Henry Hanni (1987) On Corundums from Umba Valley, Tanzania. J. Gemm. 20:278-284.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Henry Hanni (1987) On Corundums from Umba Valley, Tanzania. J. Gemm. 20:278-284.
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'
Reference: Zwaan, P. C., & Zwaan, P. C. (1974). Garnet, corundum and other gem minerals from Umba, Tanzania. Rijksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie.
Corundum
Formula: Al2O3
Reference: Keulen, Nynke et al (2014) Determination of the origin of corundum (ruby and sapphire) from Tanzania by geochemical fingerprinting. 31st Nordic Geological Meeting, Lund Sweden. ; Zwaan, P. C., & Zwaan, P. C. (1974). Garnet, corundum and other gem minerals from Umba, Tanzania. Rijksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie.
Corundum var: Padparadscha
Formula: Al2O3
Reference: Henn, U., Bank, H., & Bank, F. H. (1990). Red and orange corundum (ruby and padparadscha) from Malawi. Journal of Gemmology, 22(2), 83-89.
Corundum var: Ruby
Formula: Al2O3
Reference: Jaroslav Hyrsl specimens; Henry Hanni (1987) On Corundums from Umba Valley, Tanzania. J. Gemm. 20:278-284.; Zwaan, P. C., & Zwaan, P. C. (1974). Garnet, corundum and other gem minerals from Umba, Tanzania. Rijksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie.
Corundum var: Sapphire
Formula: Al2O3
Corundum var: Star Corundum
Formula: Al2O3
Reference: Van King
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Reference: Zwaan, P. C., & Zwaan, P. C. (1974). Garnet, corundum and other gem minerals from Umba, Tanzania. Rijksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie.
Elbaite
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Description: Shows the so called Usambara effect, with hue changing from green to red with increases in path length of light through the material.
Reference: Journal of Gemmology 1999, Volume 26 No. 6, 386-96
Elbaite var: Chromian Elbaite
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)(Al,Cr)6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Description: Shows the so called Usambara effect, with hue changing from green to red with increases in path length of light through the material.
Reference: Journal of Gemmology 1999, Volume 26 No. 6, 386-96
Enstatite
Formula: MgSiO3
Reference: Zwaan, P. C., & Zwaan, P. C. (1974). Garnet, corundum and other gem minerals from Umba, Tanzania. Rijksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie.
Enstatite var: Bronzite
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+)2[SiO3]2
Reference: Zwaan, P. C., & Zwaan, P. C. (1974). Garnet, corundum and other gem minerals from Umba, Tanzania. Rijksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie.
Graphite
Formula: C
Reference: Henry Hanni (1987) On Corundums from Umba Valley, Tanzania. J. Gemm. 20:278-284.; Zwaan, P. C., & Zwaan, P. C. (1974). Garnet, corundum and other gem minerals from Umba, Tanzania. Rijksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Henry Hanni (1987) On Corundums from Umba Valley, Tanzania. J. Gemm. 20:278-284.
Kyanite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Reference: Zwaan, P. C., & Zwaan, P. C. (1974). Garnet, corundum and other gem minerals from Umba, Tanzania. Rijksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie.
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: Zwaan, P. C., & Zwaan, P. C. (1974). Garnet, corundum and other gem minerals from Umba, Tanzania. Rijksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie.
Marialite
Formula: Na4Al3Si9O24Cl
Reference: Zwaan, P. C., & Zwaan, P. C. (1974). Garnet, corundum and other gem minerals from Umba, Tanzania. Rijksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie.
'Monazite'
Reference: Henry Hanni (1987) On Corundums from Umba Valley, Tanzania. J. Gemm. 20:278-284.
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'
Reference: Zwaan, P. C., & Zwaan, P. C. (1974). Garnet, corundum and other gem minerals from Umba, Tanzania. Rijksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie.
Pyrope
Formula: Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Gems and Gemology, Volume 28 p 149; Zwaan, P. C., & Zwaan, P. C. (1974). Garnet, corundum and other gem minerals from Umba, Tanzania. Rijksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie.
Pyrope var: Rhodolite
Formula: Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Zwaan, P. C., & Zwaan, P. C. (1974). Garnet, corundum and other gem minerals from Umba, Tanzania. Rijksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie.
Pyrope var: Umbalite
Formula: Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Gems and Gemology, Volume 28 p 149
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: Henry Hanni (1987) On Corundums from Umba Valley, Tanzania. J. Gemm. 20:278-284.; Zwaan, P. C., & Zwaan, P. C. (1974). Garnet, corundum and other gem minerals from Umba, Tanzania. Rijksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie.
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Henry Hanni (1987) On Corundums from Umba Valley, Tanzania. J. Gemm. 20:278-284.; Zwaan, P. C., & Zwaan, P. C. (1974). Garnet, corundum and other gem minerals from Umba, Tanzania. Rijksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie.
'Scapolite'
Reference: Zwaan, P. C., & Zwaan, P. C. (1974). Garnet, corundum and other gem minerals from Umba, Tanzania. Rijksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie.
Spinel
Formula: MgAl2O4
Reference: Zwaan, P. C., & Zwaan, P. C. (1974). Garnet, corundum and other gem minerals from Umba, Tanzania. Rijksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie.
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Zwaan, P. C., & Zwaan, P. C. (1974). Garnet, corundum and other gem minerals from Umba, Tanzania. Rijksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie.
Turquoise
Formula: Cu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Description: Veins of turquoise with a waxy lustre, up to one centimetre in thickness, are embedded in the sediments. The colour of the material varies from yellowish green to bluish green. Good quality turquoise was not found, except for minor quantities.
Reference: Zwaan, P. C., & Zwaan, P. C. (1974). Garnet, corundum and other gem minerals from Umba, Tanzania. Rijksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie.
Vermiculite
Formula: Mg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
Reference: Henry Hanni (1987) On Corundums from Umba Valley, Tanzania. J. Gemm. 20:278-284.; Zwaan, P. C., & Zwaan, P. C. (1974). Garnet, corundum and other gem minerals from Umba, Tanzania. Rijksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie.
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: Henry Hanni (1987) On Corundums from Umba Valley, Tanzania. J. Gemm. 20:278-284.; Zwaan, P. C., & Zwaan, P. C. (1974). Garnet, corundum and other gem minerals from Umba, Tanzania. Rijksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Graphite1.CB.05aC
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Böhmite4.FE.15AlO(OH)
Corundum4.CB.05Al2O3
var: Padparadscha4.CB.05Al2O3
var: Ruby4.CB.05Al2O3
var: Sapphire4.CB.05Al2O3
var: Star Corundum4.CB.05Al2O3
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Opal4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Spinel4.BB.05MgAl2O4
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Turquoise8.DD.15Cu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Almandine9.AD.25Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Anorthite9.FA.35Ca(Al2Si2O8)
Diopside9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
Elbaite9.CK.05Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
var: Chromian Elbaite9.CK.05Na(Li1.5Al1.5)(Al,Cr)6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Enstatite9.DA.05MgSiO3
var: Bronzite9.DA.05(Mg,Fe2+)2[SiO3]2
Kyanite9.AF.15Al2(SiO4)O
Marialite9.FB.15Na4Al3Si9O24Cl
Pyrope9.AD.25Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
var: Rhodolite9.AD.25Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
var: Umbalite9.AD.25Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
Vermiculite9.EC.50Mg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Monazite'-
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Scapolite'-
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Graphite1.3.6.2C
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Corundum4.3.1.1Al2O3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Böhmite6.1.2.1AlO(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Spinel7.2.1.1MgAl2O4
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)7(XO4)4Zq·xH2O
Turquoise42.9.3.1Cu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Almandine51.4.3a.2Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Pyrope51.4.3a.1Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
Kyanite52.2.2c.1Al2(SiO4)O
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
Elbaite61.3.1.8Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Enstatite65.1.2.1MgSiO3
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Vermiculite71.2.2d.3Mg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with H2O and organics
Opal75.2.1.1SiO2 · nH2O
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with other Be/Al/Si frameworks
Marialite76.3.1.1Na4Al3Si9O24Cl
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Anorthite-Ca(Al2Si2O8)
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'-
Corundum
var: Padparadscha
-Al2O3
var: Ruby-Al2O3
var: Sapphire-Al2O3
var: Star Corundum-Al2O3
Elbaite
var: Chromian Elbaite
-Na(Li1.5Al1.5)(Al,Cr)6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Enstatite
var: Bronzite
-(Mg,Fe2+)2[SiO3]2
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Monazite'-
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'-
Pyrope
var: Rhodolite
-Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
var: Umbalite-Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
'Scapolite'-
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Elbaite (var: Chromian Elbaite)Na(Li1.5Al1.5)(Al,Cr)6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H OpalSiO2 · nH2O
H TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
H VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
H ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
H BöhmiteAlO(OH)
H ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
LiLithium
Li Elbaite (var: Chromian Elbaite)Na(Li1.5Al1.5)(Al,Cr)6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Li ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
BBoron
B Elbaite (var: Chromian Elbaite)Na(Li1.5Al1.5)(Al,Cr)6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C GraphiteC
OOxygen
O AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
O Elbaite (var: Chromian Elbaite)Na(Li1.5Al1.5)(Al,Cr)6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O OpalSiO2 · nH2O
O Pyrope (var: Umbalite)Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
O Corundum (var: Sapphire)Al2O3
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O Corundum (var: Star Corundum)Al2O3
O Corundum (var: Ruby)Al2O3
O VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
O AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O RutileTiO2
O ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
O BöhmiteAlO(OH)
O HematiteFe2O3
O CalciteCaCO3
O CorundumAl2O3
O KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
O SpinelMgAl2O4
O Pyrope (var: Rhodolite)Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
O ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3
O MarialiteNa4Al3Si9O24Cl
O Enstatite (var: Bronzite)(Mg,Fe2+)2[SiO3]2
O EnstatiteMgSiO3
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O Corundum (var: Padparadscha)Al2O3
FFluorine
F ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
NaSodium
Na Elbaite (var: Chromian Elbaite)Na(Li1.5Al1.5)(Al,Cr)6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na MarialiteNa4Al3Si9O24Cl
MgMagnesium
Mg Pyrope (var: Umbalite)Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Mg VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
Mg SpinelMgAl2O4
Mg Pyrope (var: Rhodolite)Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
Mg PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3
Mg Enstatite (var: Bronzite)(Mg,Fe2+)2[SiO3]2
Mg EnstatiteMgSiO3
AlAluminium
Al AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al Elbaite (var: Chromian Elbaite)Na(Li1.5Al1.5)(Al,Cr)6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al Pyrope (var: Umbalite)Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
Al Corundum (var: Sapphire)Al2O3
Al TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Al Corundum (var: Star Corundum)Al2O3
Al Corundum (var: Ruby)Al2O3
Al VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
Al AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
Al BöhmiteAlO(OH)
Al CorundumAl2O3
Al KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Al SpinelMgAl2O4
Al Pyrope (var: Rhodolite)Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
Al ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3
Al MarialiteNa4Al3Si9O24Cl
Al Corundum (var: Padparadscha)Al2O3
SiSilicon
Si AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si Elbaite (var: Chromian Elbaite)Na(Li1.5Al1.5)(Al,Cr)6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si OpalSiO2 · nH2O
Si Pyrope (var: Umbalite)Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Si VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
Si AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
Si KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Si Pyrope (var: Rhodolite)Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
Si ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3
Si MarialiteNa4Al3Si9O24Cl
Si Enstatite (var: Bronzite)(Mg,Fe2+)2[SiO3]2
Si EnstatiteMgSiO3
PPhosphorus
P TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
P ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
SSulfur
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
ClChlorine
Cl ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Cl MarialiteNa4Al3Si9O24Cl
CaCalcium
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
Ca ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Ca CalciteCaCO3
TiTitanium
Ti RutileTiO2
CrChromium
Cr Elbaite (var: Chromian Elbaite)Na(Li1.5Al1.5)(Al,Cr)6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
FeIron
Fe AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Fe TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Fe VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe Enstatite (var: Bronzite)(Mg,Fe2+)2[SiO3]2
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
CuCopper
Cu TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Zwaan, P. C., & Zwaan, P. C. (1974). Garnet, corundum and other gem minerals from Umba, Tanzania. Rijksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie.
Henry Hanni (1987) On Corundums from Umba Valley, Tanzania. J. Gemm. 20:278-284.

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