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Benson Mine, Mudzi District, Mashonaland East, Zimbabwe

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 17° 0' 59'' South , 32° 16' 13'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -17.01639,32.27028
GeoHash:G#: ksyznq62r
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Cwa : Monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate


A tantalum mining operation in pegmatite.
40 different pegmatites in area.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

26 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Albite var: Cleavelandite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Amblygonite
Formula: LiAl(PO4)F
Reference: Hornung. G. PhD thesis. Pegmatites of th N. Mtoko Region. University of Leeds, Research Institute of African Geology. !961
'Amphibolite'
Reference: Ackermann, A. J. L., KJ, B., & KC, H. (1966). The geology of some beryl pegmatites in Southern Rhodesia. South African Journal of Geology, 69(01), 1-38.
'Apatite'
Reference: Hornung. G. PhD thesis. Pegmatites of th N. Mtoko Region. University of Leeds, Research Institute of African Geology. !961
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Hornung. G. PhD thesis. Pegmatites of th N. Mtoko Region. University of Leeds, Research Institute of African Geology. !961
'Biotite'
Bismutite
Formula: (BiO)2CO3
Reference: Hornung. G. PhD thesis. Pegmatites of th N. Mtoko Region. University of Leeds, Research Institute of African Geology. 1961
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Reference: Hornung. G. PhD thesis. Pegmatites of th N. Mtoko Region. University of Leeds, Research Institute of African Geology. !961
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
'Columbite-Tantalite'
Reference: Hornung. G. PhD thesis. Pegmatites of th N. Mtoko Region. University of Leeds, Research Institute of African Geology. 1961
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Reference: Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa. 35.
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Granite'
Reference: Ackermann, A. J. L., KJ, B., & KC, H. (1966). The geology of some beryl pegmatites in Southern Rhodesia. South African Journal of Geology, 69(01), 1-38.
Holmquistite
Formula: ☐{Li2}{Mg3Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Hornung. G. PhD thesis. Pegmatites of th N. Mtoko Region. University of Leeds, Research Institute of African Geology. !961
'Lepidolite'
Reference: Hornung. G. PhD thesis. Pegmatites of th N. Mtoko Region. University of Leeds, Research Institute of African Geology. !961
Lithiophilite
Formula: LiMn2+PO4
Reference: Hornung. G. PhD thesis. Pegmatites of th N. Mtoko Region. University of Leeds, Research Institute of African Geology. !961
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Margarite
Formula: CaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
'Mica Group'
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Microlite Group
Formula: A2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
Reference: Hornung. G. PhD thesis. Pegmatites of th N. Mtoko Region. University of Leeds, Research Institute of African Geology. !961
Montebrasite
Formula: LiAl(PO4)(OH)
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
'Pegmatite'
Reference: Ackermann, A. J. L., KJ, B., & KC, H. (1966). The geology of some beryl pegmatites in Southern Rhodesia. South African Journal of Geology, 69(01), 1-38.
Pollucite
Formula: (Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Reference: Hornung. G. PhD thesis. Pegmatites of th N. Mtoko Region. University of Leeds, Research Institute of African Geology. !961
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
'Schist'
Reference: Ackermann, A. J. L., KJ, B., & KC, H. (1966). The geology of some beryl pegmatites in Southern Rhodesia. South African Journal of Geology, 69(01), 1-38.
Simpsonite
Formula: Al4(Ta,Nb)3O13(OH,F)
Reference: Hornung. G. PhD thesis. Pegmatites of th N. Mtoko Region. University of Leeds, Research Institute of African Geology. !961
Spessartine
Formula: Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Spodumene
Formula: LiAlSi2O6
Reference: Hornung. G. PhD thesis. Pegmatites of th N. Mtoko Region. University of Leeds, Research Institute of African Geology. !961
Stibiotantalite
Formula: Sb(Ta,Nb)O4
Reference: Hornung. G. PhD thesis. Pegmatites of th N. Mtoko Region. University of Leeds, Research Institute of African Geology. !961
'Tantalite'
Formula: (Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6
Tantalite-(Mn)
Formula: MnTa2O6
Reference: Hornung. G. PhD thesis. Pegmatites of th N. Mtoko Region. University of Leeds, Research Institute of African Geology. !961
Topaz
Formula: Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Reference: Hornung. G. PhD thesis. Pegmatites of th N. Mtoko Region. University of Leeds, Research Institute of African Geology. !961
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: Hornung. G. PhD thesis. Pegmatites of th N. Mtoko Region. University of Leeds, Research Institute of African Geology. !961

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Chalcopyrite'2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Cassiterite'4.DB.05SnO2
Microlite Group4.00.A2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Simpsonite4.DC.10Al4(Ta,Nb)3O13(OH,F)
Stibiotantalite4.DE.30Sb(Ta,Nb)O4
Tantalite-(Mn)4.DB.35MnTa2O6
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Bismutite'5.BE.25(BiO)2CO3
'Calcite'5.AB.05CaCO3
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
'Amblygonite'8.BB.05LiAl(PO4)F
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Lithiophilite8.AB.10LiMn2+PO4
Montebrasite8.BB.05LiAl(PO4)(OH)
Group 9 - Silicates
'Albite'9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
var: Cleavelandite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
'Beryl'9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Holmquistite9.DD.05☐{Li2}{Mg3Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Margarite9.EC.30CaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Microcline9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Pollucite9.GB.05(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Spessartine9.AD.25Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Spodumene9.DA.30LiAlSi2O6
Topaz9.AF.35Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Amphibolite'-
'Apatite'-
'Biotite'-
Columbite-Tantalite-
Garnet Group-X3Z2(SiO4)3
Granite-
Lepidolite-
Mica Group-
Pegmatite-
Schist-
Tantalite-(Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
AX2
Cassiterite4.4.1.5SnO2
Group 8 - MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
ABO4
Stibiotantalite8.1.6.2Sb(Ta,Nb)O4
A2B2O6(O,OH,F)
Microlite Group8.2.2.1A2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
AB2O6
Tantalite-(Mn)8.3.2.3MnTa2O6
Miscellaneous
Simpsonite8.7.5.1Al4(Ta,Nb)3O13(OH,F)
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Bismutite16a.3.5.1(BiO)2CO3
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 38 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
ABXO4
Lithiophilite38.1.1.2LiMn2+PO4
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Amblygonite41.5.8.1LiAl(PO4)F
Montebrasite41.5.8.2LiAl(PO4)(OH)
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Spessartine51.4.3a.3Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only
Topaz52.3.1.1Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Beryl61.1.1.1Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Spodumene65.1.4.1LiAlSi2O6
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Holmquistite66.1.2.9☐{Li2}{Mg3Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Margarite71.2.2c.1CaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Pollucite77.1.1.2(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Albite
var: Cleavelandite
-Na(AlSi3O8)
'Amphibolite'-
'Apatite'-
'Biotite'-
'Columbite-Tantalite'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Granite'-
'Lepidolite'-
'Mica Group'-
'Pegmatite'-
'Schist'-
'Tantalite'-(Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Holmquistite☐{Li2}{Mg3Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
H MontebrasiteLiAl(PO4)(OH)
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Pollucite(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
H SimpsoniteAl4(Ta,Nb)3O13(OH,F)
H TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
LiLithium
Li AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
Li Holmquistite☐{Li2}{Mg3Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Li LithiophiliteLiMn2+PO4
Li MontebrasiteLiAl(PO4)(OH)
Li SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
BeBeryllium
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
CCarbon
C Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
C CalciteCaCO3
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
OOxygen
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
O Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
O CalciteCaCO3
O CassiteriteSnO2
O Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O Holmquistite☐{Li2}{Mg3Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O LithiophiliteLiMn2+PO4
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O MontebrasiteLiAl(PO4)(OH)
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Pollucite(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
O QuartzSiO2
O SimpsoniteAl4(Ta,Nb)3O13(OH,F)
O SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
O SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
O StibiotantaliteSb(Ta,Nb)O4
O Tantalite(Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6
O Tantalite-(Mn)MnTa2O6
O TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
FFluorine
F AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
F TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Na Pollucite(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg Holmquistite☐{Li2}{Mg3Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Al Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Al Holmquistite☐{Li2}{Mg3Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Al MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al MontebrasiteLiAl(PO4)(OH)
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Pollucite(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Al SimpsoniteAl4(Ta,Nb)3O13(OH,F)
Al SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Al TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
SiSilicon
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Si Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si Holmquistite☐{Li2}{Mg3Al2}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Pollucite(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Si QuartzSiO2
Si SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Si TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
PPhosphorus
P AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
P LithiophiliteLiMn2+PO4
P MontebrasiteLiAl(PO4)(OH)
SSulfur
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S PyriteFeS2
KPotassium
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Ca MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
MnManganese
Mn LithiophiliteLiMn2+PO4
Mn SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Mn Tantalite(Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6
Mn Tantalite-(Mn)MnTa2O6
FeIron
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe Tantalite(Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
NbNiobium
Nb Tantalite(Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6
SnTin
Sn CassiteriteSnO2
SbAntimony
Sb StibiotantaliteSb(Ta,Nb)O4
CsCaesium
Cs Pollucite(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
TaTantalum
Ta Microlite GroupA2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
Ta SimpsoniteAl4(Ta,Nb)3O13(OH,F)
Ta StibiotantaliteSb(Ta,Nb)O4
Ta Tantalite(Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6
Ta Tantalite-(Mn)MnTa2O6
BiBismuth
Bi Bismutite(BiO)2CO3

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Ectasian - Calymmian
1200 - 1600 Ma



ID: 3184642
Mesoproterozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Mesoproterozoic (1200 - 1600 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Neoarchean
2500 - 2800 Ma



ID: 3309661

Age: Neoarchean (2500 - 2800 Ma)

Lithology: Volcanic-sedimentary and plutonic

Reference: Thiéblemont, D. (ed.). New edition of the 1:10,000,000 geological map of Africa. CGMW-BRGM. [190]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

External Links

Von Knorring, O., & Hornung, G. (1963). Simpsonite and stibiotantalite from Benson pegmatite mine, Mtoko, Southern Rhodesia. Mineralogical Magazine, 33(261), 458-466.

Ackermann, A. J. L., KJ, B., & KC, H. (1966). The geology of some beryl pegmatites in Southern Rhodesia. South African Journal of Geology, 69(01), 1-38.

Localities in this Region
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