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Juan Diego Mine No. 1 (Juan Diego No. 1 deposit; Rainbow Mine; Rainbow prospects), Little Cahuilla Mountain, Cahuilla District, Riverside Co., California, USAi
Regional Level Types
Juan Diego Mine No. 1 (Juan Diego No. 1 deposit; Rainbow Mine; Rainbow prospects)Mine
Little Cahuilla MountainMountain
Cahuilla DistrictMining District
Riverside Co.County
CaliforniaState
USACountry

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Key
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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
33° 35' 50'' North , 116° 48' 9'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Anza3,014 (2011)12.8km
Idyllwild3,583 (2010)17.6km
Idyllwild-Pine Cove3,874 (2011)17.8km
Aguanga1,128 (2011)18.1km
Valle Vista14,578 (2011)18.7km


A deposit located in sec. 5, T7S, R2E, SBM, 1.3 km (0.8 mile) SE of Little Cahuilla Mountain (coordinates of record) and 8.4 km (5.2 miles) NW of Cahuilla (town), along the lower southern slope of the mountain, on the northern fringe of Juan Diego Flats. MRDS database stated accuracy for this location is 500 meters.

Local rocks include pre-Cenozoic granitic and metamorphic rocks undivided.

Summary:
Southern California is world famous among mineral collectors for their pegmatites which have produced vast quantities of gem-quality minerals. The pegmatites are well-known for their production of gem tourmaline, beryl and spodumene. Additional rare-element minerals reported include columbite-tantalite, stibiotantalite, lepidolite, and various primary and secondary phosphates.(Wise, M. A. and Taylor, M. (1994))

Many of the pegmatites are well exposed and because of their resistance to erosion, stand out as leucocratic wall-like projections extending across otherwise smooth slopes. Downhill from these dikes the slopes are strewn with pegmatite blocks and other persistent float minerals.

The Juan Diego Mine contains a gem-bearing granitic pegmatite mineral deposit, containing tourmaline and associated gem quality minerals. The primary pegmatite dike strikes northwest and dips to the east. Initial discovery of gem minerals upon portions of the surface indicate erosion of gem-bearing miarolitic cavities (pockets) formed within the pegmatite. Observations indicate the general character of the pegmatite dike is continuous laterally along strike and down dip for up to several thousand feet.

Eroded sections of gem-bearing pockets discovered on and near the surface occur at a frequency to compel the owners to initiate commercial underground mining to exploit the pegmatite along strike and down dip. Valuable minerals to be mined include tourmaline, beryl, garnet, and quartz.

Physiographic Data:
The San Jacinto Mountains form the northernmost and highest of the Peninsular Ranges of southern California , an are composed primarily of a pre-Cenozoic crystalline basement of plutonic and metamorphic rocks.

The southern San Jacinto Mountains are partly separated by Garner Valley at altitudes of about 4500 ft. (+ or - 1350 m) from the long low ridge of Thomas Mountain elevated as a strip of granitic terrain along the San Jacinto fault zone.

Cahuilla Mountain rises steeply from the Anza Valley floor to a height of 5604 feet. The intrusive pluton of tonalite of Mesozoic age can be seen where it outcrops on the southeast side of the mountain to form light colored cliffs that contrast sharply with the adjacent slopes that are underlain my metamorphic rocks.

The Juan Diego mine site encompasses a flat meadow known as Juan Diego Flats that is the central portion of the site. To the east of this flat is a small intermittent stream that flows with seasonal rains. Located west of the flat, are two gently sloping foothills stemming southeast from Little Cahuilla Mountain. The northwestern foothill (approx 4,280 feet AMSL) contains the primary granitic pegmatite of economic importance. From this location, maximum relief is approximately 160 feet. The pegmatite dike which is striking north to northwest, forms the high point of the hill and the slope conforms to the dip of the dike. There are two enriched zones of the pegmatite dike that appear as sections of increased width along the strike associated with a decrease in dip. These sections occur on the lower south side and upper north side of the hill associated with the eroded pocket zones.

Geologic Setting:
The material from which igneous rocks form is the magma, the viscous molten material from the interior of the Earth. If this fluid magmatic material penetrates into the lower parts of the Earth’s crust plutonic rocks develop after a period of slow cooling. If magmatic material pours out directly onto the Earth’s surface volcanic rocks form as the material cools down relatively quickly. Between these two groups lie the dike or microplutonic rocks as transitional members. Because the igneous rocks begin the rock cycle they are termed primary rocks.

Granite is an intrusive igneous crystalline rock typically composed of about 30 percent quartz, 60 percent feldspar, and 10 percent mica. Granite is considered hard (above 5½ on Mohs’ Scale) and weather resistant.

Granitic pegmatites can be described as coarse- to gigantic-grained rocks with mineralogy and chemical composition similar to granite. The essential minerals of pegmatites include quartz, potassium and sodium feldspars and muscovite. The presence of accessory minerals such as beryl, columbite-tantalite and spodumene indicate elevated concentrations of beryllium, tantalum and lithium, respectively.

Quartz, microcline, and albite are ubiquitous in these pegmatites, whereas important gem and rare-element-bearing species vary from district to district and pegmatite to pegmatite. (Kampf 1994)

The Juan Diego mine lies within the southeast San Jacinto Mountains of the the Peninsular Range province.

The Peninsular Range Province extends from the Los Angeles Basin on the north, 125 miles to the Mexican Border, and beyond it into Baja California. The core of these mountains consists mostly of Late Jurassic and Cretaceous plutonic rocks, older metamorphic wall rocks, and younger marine sediments. The Californian Peninsular Ranges are traversed by a large number of discontinuous northwest-trending faults, some of which have displayed movement during historic time. The seismicity of the area, combined with recent topographic fault-related features, suggests that many of these structures are active. These faults appear to be very steep to vertical and manifest a combination of right-lateral and vertical offset.

This batholith comprises many separate intrusive units, or plutons, that range in exposed diameter from a few hundred feet to ten miles or more. In composition they range from gabbro to granite; representatives of the gabbro, tonalite, and granodiorite groups are especially widespread.

The length of time between the injections of the gabbro and that of the final granite in the batholith is believed to have been of the order of 10 million years. The batholith is made up of many separate injections. The succession of intrusions is from gabbro to tonalite, to granodiorite, and finally granite.

Plutonic rocks form the major part of the San Jacinto Mountains and areas to the west and south. The range from gabbro to granite in composition, with quartz diorite as the most widespread and predominant type. The plutonic rocks were intruded as several generations of which the most mafic are the oldest and the most silicic are the youngest in most areas.

Dark gray to nearly black hornblende-rich mafic rocks, described as the San Marcos Gabbro by Larsen (1951) occur as generally small bodies mostly west of the San Jacinto fault zone. This rock, believed to be the oldest of the plutonic rocks (Fraser 1931; Larsen 1951; Sharp 1967) is of variable composition and texture, and is non-gneissoid. It is composed primarily of hornblende and plagioclase in variable amounts, and in places contains hypersthene and/or olivine. The texture ranges from coarse-to medium-fine-grained. The rock is commonly associated with metasedimentary rocks and may have formed as segregations of mafic minerals along the margins of the batholithic intrusions.

Granitic rocks of predominantly quartz diorite and granodiorite composition form the major part of the granitoid batholith of the San Jacinto Mountains and outcrop areas to the south and west. They are typical of those throughout the Peninsular Ranges Batholith as described by Larsen (1951). In the San Jacinto Mountains and adjacent areas these rocks may have been emplaced as several generations or facies of one major batholithic pluton. They are gray-white to gray, medium-even-grained granitic types composed of about one-third quartz, two-thirds feldspars, and minor amounts of biotite and hornblende. The feldspars are plagioclase (oligoclase-andesine), and K-feldspar (orthoclase or microcline), with plagioclase generally more than two-thirds of the total feldspar.

Leucocratic gray-white granitic rocks composed of granodiorite and quartz monzonite (or adamellite) occur as small bodies or stocks within both the quartz diorite and metasedimentary rocks, which they appear to intrude.

Discrete pegmatite bodies occur throughout the batholith and in some cases within the older meta-sedimentary and meta-volcanic rocks. Detailed observations suggest that different pegmatites were either injected into, or formed within the host rocks at different times and that the age is reflected by composition.

Microplutonic dikes of pegmatite transect the plutonic and metasedimentary rocks in many parts of the San Jacinto region. Some pegmatite dikes are as wide as one meter but generally are much less.

Internal Structure and Emplacement of Plutonic Rocks:
The plutonic rocks of the Southern California Batholith worked upward from great depths, as molten and semi-molten magma that melted and digested an enormously thick series of tightly folded and crystallized metasedimentary rocks and whatever basement rocks underlay them. From the radiometric evidence this happened in only a few million years in mid-Cretaceous time. Only a few isolated pendants of the metasedimentary series on this batholith remain after a long interval of Cenozoic uplift and erosion.

The Peninsular Range Batholith is generally interpreted to have been intruded into the metasedimentary rocks as numerous plutons of molten magma derived from deep sources (Larsen and others 1948; 1951; Hill and others 1979; Gastil and others 1980).

Foliation in plutonic rocks is generally interpreted as flow-structure formed as the magma of each pluton started to solidify, starting from its margins, and in some cases may reflect structure of the meta sedimentary rocks as they became assimilated into the plutonic rocks.

In the northern Peninsular Ranges, several large granitic masses have been mapped as separate major plutons, and numerous small masses as local intrusions. It is possible that many of the leucocratic masses mapped as separate plutons may be upward protrusion of the deeper part of the Peninsular Range Batholith.

The position of the southern extent of the San Jacinto Pluton south of the San Jacinto fault is unknown, but the leucocratic granitic mass southward of Hemet, could be a part of it, displaced northwestward by right-slip on the fault. This granitic mass is bordered by remnants of metasedimentary rocks which dip toward it, and foliation in the granitic rocks dips inward and plunges northwest near Hemet to form a northwest-plunging semi-concentric pattern. The genesis of this pattern is a matter of speculation.

The Cahuilla Mountain pluton has been dated at 98 M years plus or minus 5 M. Older metamorphic rocks, chiefly schist and quartzite, occur as screens, septa, and pendants among the plutons. Some of the area metasediments were derived from the Bautista bed sediments, poorly sorted sandstones and shales, and are in part responsible for the rare elements present in the complex pegmatites. The protolith age of the metasediments is uncertain, yet representative of the oldest rocks in the region . Where these deposits are classified as metasediments by Dibblee, it is geologically permissive to host gem bearing pegmatite dikes.

As the Cahuilla/Little Cahuilla pluton intruded the cooler country rock, it fractured, spalled and consumed large blocks of it, cooling and altering the chemistry of the melt and increasing viscosity, until upward mobility ceased. Many large xenoliths of metasediments and other extant country rock are present in the quartz diorite, partially assimilated as the pluton invaded the northeast trending sill of gabbro which had previously invaded the Bautista bed sediments.

The following succession provides a brief history of the geology and corresponding geologic time frames for the Peninsular Range Province:

- Triassic sediments were deposited and subsequently folded, mildly metamorphosed, and eroded;

- Volcanic material and sediments were deposited on top of the Triassic rock. All of these were greatly folded and mildly metamorphosed;

- Many injections of the differentiating magma of the batholith followed and the earlier magmas were largely crystalline before the succeeding magmas were emplaced during the upper early Cretaceous;

- Erosion developed an old age surface and exposed the batholithic rock;

- Sediments of the Cenozoic Era were laid down on the resulting surface. (Larsen 1954)

Numerous mineralogical and geological studies have been provided on the pegmatites of southern California (e.g. Hanley 1951; Jahns and Wright 1951; Simpson 1965; Foord 1977). The majority of these studies have been descriptive reports and only a small portion of the existing work consists of scientific information pertaining to the origin of the pegmatites (Foord 1976; Shigley and Brown 1985; Stern et al 1986).

Site Geology:
The geology of the Juan Diego mine site and adjacent area is comprised of localized alluvium overlying remnants of meta-sedimentary rocks, granodiorite, quartz diorite, and gabbro, containing granitic pegmatite intrusions. The granitic pegmatites appear as a localized series in which individual dikes parallel one another in terms of strike and dip.

At the southern boundary of the mine property, the pegmatite dikes dip under the quaternary alluvium and terminate at the north base of Cahuilla Mountain. At the northern border of the lease area, the primary gem-bearing dike is exposed on a hillock which rises approximately 160 feet above the alluvium of the flats. The pegmatites are confined primarily to the gabbro and metasediments. The northwestern area is bounded by a large granodiorite pluton, exposed along a north to northwest trending ridge. The oldest unit, a gabbro sill, runs diagonally through the area. It is this unit that hosts the gem-bearing pegmatite dike. A quartz diorite pluton which may be genetically related to the pegmatites has intruded at the northern and southern edges of the study area. A large pluton of granodiorite, the youngest intrusion of the study area forms the western boundary.

Gem bearing pegmatites are hosted by gabbros or niorites, and major outcroppings of these rock types correspond closely to the locations of the important pegmatite districts. Gabbro, due to the lack of elongate minerals, forms the large fractures when stressed, producing the open space requisite for the formation of pegmatites with gem crystals. With few exceptions, gem-bearing pegmatites are confined to gabbroic or aplitic plutons.

The quartz diorite pluton which is thought to be the heat engine intruded the older sill of gabbro producing the large fractures which eventually would host the pegmatite dikes. The heat and volatiles drove the mineral laden solutions and vapors into the gabbroic fractures emplacing the complex pegmatitic minerals. The vapors and solutions condensed on the cooler country rock depositing their minerals, and return to depth by gravity where they revaporize to carry newly dissolved minerals. The solutions initially coat the fracture walls with quartz, graphic granite (quartz/feldspar), pegmatite, and in some cases pocket minerals.

Where bulges and swells are encountered in the pegmatite, crystal growth and the chance for discovery of pocket minerals become great, especially if one encounters lepidolite mica or euhedral quartz crystals. Any open area or pocket region corresponds to a volatile or hydrous portion of the vein/dike structure trapped as the pegmatite solidified and is where gem crystals may be found as discrete mafic zones in the leucocratic host. Pocket size generally corresponds closely to crystal size, the larger the pocket, the larger the crystals. Exotic mineralization is often encountered in miarolitic cavities.

The primary pegmatite dike strikes north to northwest and dips approximately 45 to 30 degrees south to southwest. The dike remains continuous for approximately 1/2 mile from its intersection with Juan Diego road, up the hill, and around the west side of Little Cahuilla Mountain. The dike is continuous for approximately 1/4 mile within the Juan Diego mine property boundaries.

Mineral Deposit:
The valuable mineral deposit occurring at the Juan Diego mine is a tourmaline-rich, gem-bearing pegmatite deposit. Geologic conditions regarding this deposit fit the empirical/descriptive model for a tourmaline-rich, gem-bearing pegmatite deposit.

The primary deposit consists of a continuous subparallel pegmatite dike with an average thickness of 6 feet, an approximate length of 1400 feet within the property boundaries, and dips south to southwest (30 to 45 degree average). Gem-quality and specimen-quality pocket crystals of tourmaline group minerals (spec. elbaite and schorl), beryl (var. aquamarine), garnet (spec. almandine-spessartine), and quartz (vars. euhedral, optical, tourmalinated), and associated enriched pegmatite minerals (e.g. lepidolite, quartz, cleavelandite, muscovite) have been excavated within the pegmatite float immediately adjacent to the main dike. The large size, angularity, mineralogical similarity, and abundance of pegmatite float indicate that these minerals were moved from the host pegmatite to their current location by erosion.

Geochemical assays of pegmatite samples show anomalous concentrations of large-ion lithophyllic elements (LIL) such as potassium, lithium, and rubidium (Laurano 1991). The occurrence of these (LIL) elements in conjunction with the granitic composition of the pegmatite, indicates the deposit is a gem-bearing, complex granitic pegmatite, according to Landes’ Classification of Pegmatites. This data combined with the discovery of gem pocket crystals, and the empirical similarity between the Juan Diego mine main pegmatite and other local occurrences, clearly demonstrates the existence of complex gem-bearing granitic pegmatite capable of supporting commercial mining activities.

Mineralogy:
Beryl: Beryllium aluminum silicate. Aquamarine is blue to blue green, due to ferrous iron. Morganite is pink to peach colored, due to manganese. Hardness: 7.5 to 8. Cleavage: Indistinct in one direction. Specific gravity: 2.66 to 2.92. Crystals: hexagonal columnar prisms, striated lengthwise.

Garnet: A number of silicate minerals with similar structure but variable chemical composition and physical properties. The variety Almandine-spessartine is an iron to manganese rich aluminum silicate. Colors range from deep orange-red to orange to yellow. Hardness: 6.5 to 7.5. Cleavage: none. Specific gravity: 4.6. Crystals: isometric, typically dodecahedra and trapezohedra, at times recrystallized with lustrous etched facies.

Lepidolite: Potassium, lithium, aluminum fluorsilicate mica group. Lepidolite ranges in color from a pink to lavender to dark purple. Hardness: 2.5 to 3. Specific gravity: 2.8 to 2.9. Crystals: coarse- to fine-grained, often associated with intergrowths of quartz and feldspar.

- Muscovite: Basic potassium, aluminum, silicate. Color: white, yellow, green, and brown. Hardness: 2 to 2.5. Cleavage: perfect in one direction. Specific gravity: 2.7 to 2.8. Crystals: monoclinic, tabular.

- Orthoclase: Potassium, aluminum, silicate. Color: mostly white. Hardness: 6 to 6.5. Cleavage: good in two directions. Specific gravity: 2.5 to 2.6. Crystals : monoclinic for orthoclase, in prisms, plates, and twins. Microcline feldspar has the same chemical formula and similar physical properties as orthoclase, but microcline has triclinic crystals.

Plagioclase Group: A mixture of sodium and calcium aluminum silicate feldspars, including sodium rich albite (incl. cleavelandite), and oligoclase. Color: mostly white, gray, and light blue. Hardness: 6 to 6.5, brittle. Cleavage: good in two directions. Specific gravity: 2.62 to 2.76. Crystals: triclinic, often granular aggregates.

Quartz: Silicon dioxide. Crystalline quartz consists of large, euhedral hexagonal crystals. Varieties are named for their colors (due to impurities). Citrine is yellow, smoky quartz is pale brown to black, optical is colorless, and tourmalinated consists of tourmaline prisms enclosed in colorless to smoky. Hardness: 7. Cleavage: none. Specific gravity: 2.65. Crystals: hexagonal prisms.

Spodumene: Lithium aluminum silicate. A pyroxene group mineral found only in granitic pegmatites. Often associated with beryl, lepidolite, quartz, and tourmaline. Color: green (hiddenite), pink to purple (kunzite). Hardness: 6.5 to 7. Cleavage: bi-directional. Specific gravity: 3.1 to 3.2. Crystals: monoclinic, elongated and flat, with vertical striations parallel to the direction of growth.

Tourmaline: Boron aluminum silicate. Tourmaline is a solid solution series of mineral species with similar crystal structure, but widely varying complex chemical composition due to elemental substitutions. The variety Elbaite, is a sodium-lithium-aluminum tourmaline, often occurring as prismatic gem crystals with many color combinations ranging from pink to red (rubellite), blue (indicolite), green (verdelite), colorless (achroite), and black (schorl). Hardness: 7 to 7.5. Cleavage: none. Specific gravity: 3.0 to 3.2. Crystals: long, hexagonal prisms with vertical striations parallel to the direction of growth.

Mineral Exploration and Development Work:
Anthony Laurano began intense geological research and subsequent field exploration in the area of Cahuilla Mountain, in the month of April, in the year 1987. Juan Diego Flats was scrutinized due to the abundant feldspar and pegmatite minerals present. Lepidolite was discovered at the site and detailed research of the deposit type and similar occurrences led to the discovery of rubellite tourmaline and additional valuable gem and mineral specimens. By June of 1989, excavation within a 6’ x 6’ x 1’ area of pegmatite float enriched with gem pocket minerals eroded from the host pegmatite dike resulted in the discovery of 42 pounds of massive lepidolite mica, eight pounds of specimen quality complex pegmatite (rubellite, lepidolite, cleavelandite), 10 pounds of quartz crystals, 2 pounds of tourmalinated quartz crystals, and 950 grams of gem quality elbaite tourmaline (rubellite, indicolite, verdelite).

On November 1, 1989, the Bureau of Land Management issued a prospecting permit for a period of 2 years for continued site specific exploration and analysis. Two main test areas were located according to visible indicators of enriched pegmatite mineral float, consisting primarily of valuable gem and specimen quality minerals. The northern test area located just below and north of the main pegmatite dike outcrop striking across the top of the hill (adjacent to the June 1989, 6’ x 6’ x 1’ (1' = feet) float discovery area), consisted of a 9’ x 9’ x 1’ test area. This area produced approximately 1,000 grams of gem cabochon and facet grade elbaite (var. rubellite). The southern test area located southeast and below the main pegmatite outcrop on the southeastern portion of the hill consisted of a 10’ x 10’ x 1’ test area. This area produced approximately 30 pounds of carving grade schorl (black tourmaline), 1000 grams of gem cabochon and facet grade beryl (var. aquamarine), 9 pounds of specimen, gem cabochon and facet grade almandine garnet, and 15 pounds of gem grade tourmalinated quartz.

Sampling Procedures and Analytical Work:
Samples were collected upon the surface and during construction of pegmatite valuable mineral float sampling test areas. Dry screening techniques were employed in conjunction with hand sorting according to size and grade of material.

Pegmatite and individual mineral samples collected during exploration activities were assayed by the Hunter Mining Laboratories Incorporated, of Sparks, Nevada, USA. Assays consisted of an ionically coupled plasma, mass spectroscopy analysis, performed in September 1990 and again in January 1991. Assay values are represented in parts per million. Assays positively identify schorl, rubellite, and lepidolite. Assays confirm anomalous occurrences of aluminum, calcium, cesium, iron, lithium, magnesium, manganese, rubidium, sodium, titanium, tungsten, and vanadium.

Geochemical assays have been disregarded in valuable mineral grade determination as values in parts per million are for identification purposes only. Valuable minerals generally consist of crystal specimens greater than 3-4 millimeters in size, and 1/3 gram in weight.

History:
The Juan Diego mine has a unique history. Long-time rural residents and local ranchers believed the gemstone deposit was first discovered in the late 1800's by the legendary Mountain Cahuilla Indian "Juan Diego" whose life story became the basis for the famous novel by Helen Hunt Jackson (1830-1885) entitled "Ramona."

Juan Diego, his wife Ramona Lubo (daughter of Cahuilla village leader Captain Fernando Lubo), and their small child had a cabin, a garden, and a few fruit trees, by a spring in the flats that between Mt. Cahuilla and Little Cahuilla Mountain. This little valley is still known as Juan Diego Flat, located just a few miles north of the Cahuilla Band of Mission Indians' Reservation.

At the time of Diego's tragic death in 1883, he had been employed as a goat herder by the son of local Judge Samuel V. Tripp. Judge Tripp's son - Will Tripp (1861-1926) managed the family's extensive ranch adjacent to east of Juan Diego's homestead. Heartbroken from the tragedy, Ramona left behind the mountain home she and Juan had built high on the secluded flats, and moved a few miles south to the home of her brother, Cinciona Lubo - near the Indian settlement known as Cahuilla.

Years later, Ramona gave birth to another child, a boy she named Condino Hopkins. From all accounts he was a bright, pleasant youngster to whom Ramona was devoted. No doubt she conveyed to her youngest son the story of Juan Diego, and her life while living on the nearby flats.

Eventually Condino moved down into the town of San Jacinto where on March 7, 1907, it is recorded that he married an Indian girl by the name of Marta Kline. In the account of the wedding by the local newspaper, it was reported that Condino owned tourmaline mines in the local mountains. It is probable that Condino had been mining near his mother's former home on Juan Diego Flats, continuing to keep the location of his family inheritance in gem tourmaline a highly guarded secret.

The first government report of the gem tourmaline deposit near Juan Diego Flat dates back to 1958, relying on communication by the US Geological Survey with the respected regional geologist Richard B. Saul (1922-1995). The mineral record describes a pegmatite dike up to 20 feet wide, striking north 34 degrees west, and dipping 45 degrees to the southwest, in weathered gneiss.

It was noted by Saul that the deposit had been developed by three shallow pits located high along the northeast slope of the prominent ridge on the northwest side of Juan Diego Flat. These workings exposed areas of the pegmatite characterized by local pockets with garnet, muscovite, black and green tourmaline. Familiar with local history, Saul was inclined to name the hidden prospect "Juan Diego mine #1."

In 1989, chemical engineer Anthony Laurano of Riverside discovered the abandoned brush-covered workings noted by the USGS 31 years earlier, just 2 miles NW of Cahuilla Mountain. Laurano had been prospecting the remote area for a commercial source of colored gemstones for several years when finally he made the important discovery. When further digging in the shallow pits uncovered eroded pockets of fine pink tourmaline, Laurano concluded that he had indeed found Juan Diego's lost gem mine.

Since 1989, the Juan Diego mine is sometimes referred to by the name of Rainbow, based on the complete spectrum of colored gemstones found at the site, which prompted Laurano to name the deposit accordingly upon his federal prospecting permit application. The legal description of the property is the N/2 NW/4 Section 5, Township 7S, Range 2E, San Bernardino Meridian; containing approximately 80 acres. The mineral estate is managed by the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and Minerals Management Service (MMS). Surface resources are managed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.

Note:
Persistent unauthorized removal of tourmaline and other associated valuable gemstones and mineral specimens from the acquired land occurred for nearly a decade after the permitted phase of surface development had ceased. The problem ultimately caused the Bureau of Land Management and Forest Service to post the estate in an attempt to prevent continued mineral trespass. Since 2006, visitors to the site have been warned via official signs that any unauthorized removal of mineral materials is prohibited.

Regions containing this locality

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Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


11 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Crother R. A. (1992) Host Rock Lithologies and Structural Constraints on Complex Pegmatites in the San Jacinto Mountains of California. Department of Geological Sciences, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona; June.
Albite var: Cleavelandite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Crother R. A. (1992) Host Rock Lithologies and Structural Constraints on Complex Pegmatites in the San Jacinto Mountains of California. Department of Geological Sciences, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona; June.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Reference: Laurano, A. F., Jr. (1991) Rainbow mine (Juan Diego) case files, 1988 thru 1991: unpublished.
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Laurano, A. F., Jr. (1991) Rainbow mine (Juan Diego) case files, 1988 thru 1991: unpublished.
'Almandine-Spessartine Series'
Reference: Callens, A. C. (1997) Rainbow Mine (Juan Diego) Mineral Report, Southern California Gem Industries.
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Crother R. A. (1992) Host Rock Lithologies and Structural Constraints on Complex Pegmatites in the San Jacinto Mountains of California. Department of Geological Sciences, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona; June.
Beryl var: Aquamarine
Formula: Be3Al2Si6O18
Reference: Callens, A. C. (1997) Rainbow Mine (Juan Diego) Mineral Report, Southern California Gem Industries.
'Biotite'
Reference: Crother R. A. (1992) Host Rock Lithologies and Structural Constraints on Complex Pegmatites in the San Jacinto Mountains of California. Department of Geological Sciences, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona; June.
Elbaite
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: Crother R. A. (1992) Host Rock Lithologies and Structural Constraints on Complex Pegmatites in the San Jacinto Mountains of California. Department of Geological Sciences, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona; June.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Crother R. A. (1992) Host Rock Lithologies and Structural Constraints on Complex Pegmatites in the San Jacinto Mountains of California. Department of Geological Sciences, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona; June.
'Feldspar Group'
Reference: Laurano, A. F., Jr. (1991) Rainbow mine (Juan Diego) case files, 1988 thru 1991: unpublished.
'Feldspar Group var: Perthite'
Reference: Laurano, A. F., Jr. 1991. Rainbow mine (Juan Diego) case files, 1988 thru 1991: unpublished.
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Reference: Laurano, A. F., Jr. (1991) Rainbow mine (Juan Diego) case files, 1988 thru 1991: unpublished.
'Hornblende'
Reference: Crother R. A. (1992) Host Rock Lithologies and Structural Constraints on Complex Pegmatites in the San Jacinto Mountains of California. Department of Geological Sciences, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona; June.
'Indicolite'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Laurano, A. F., Jr. (1991) Rainbow mine (Juan Diego) case files, 1988 thru 1991: unpublished.
'Lepidolite'
Reference: Crother R. A. (1992) Host Rock Lithologies and Structural Constraints on Complex Pegmatites in the San Jacinto Mountains of California. Department of Geological Sciences, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona; June.
'Mica Group'
Reference: Laurano, A. F., Jr. (1991) Rainbow mine (Juan Diego) case files, 1988 thru 1991: unpublished.
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Crother R. A. (1992) Host Rock Lithologies and Structural Constraints on Complex Pegmatites in the San Jacinto Mountains of California. Department of Geological Sciences, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona; June.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Crother R. A. (1992) Host Rock Lithologies and Structural Constraints on Complex Pegmatites in the San Jacinto Mountains of California. Department of Geological Sciences, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona; June.
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Crother R. A. (1992) Host Rock Lithologies and Structural Constraints on Complex Pegmatites in the San Jacinto Mountains of California. Department of Geological Sciences, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona; June.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Crother R. A. (1992) Host Rock Lithologies and Structural Constraints on Complex Pegmatites in the San Jacinto Mountains of California. Department of Geological Sciences, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona; June.
'Rubellite'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Laurano, A. F., Jr. (1991) Rainbow mine (Juan Diego) case files, 1988 thru 1991: unpublished.
Schorl
Formula: Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: Callens, A. C. (1997) Rainbow Mine (Juan Diego) Mineral Report, Southern California Gem Industries.
'Tourmalinated Quartz'
Reference: Laurano, A. F., Jr. (1991) Rainbow mine (Juan Diego) case files, 1988 thru 1991: unpublished.
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Laurano, A. F., Jr. (1991) Rainbow mine (Juan Diego) case files, 1988 thru 1991: unpublished.
'Verdelite'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Laurano, A. F., Jr. (1991) Rainbow mine (Juan Diego) case files, 1988 thru 1991: unpublished.
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: Crother R. A. (1992) Host Rock Lithologies and Structural Constraints on Complex Pegmatites in the San Jacinto Mountains of California. Department of Geological Sciences, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona; June.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
var: Cleavelandite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Almandine9.AD.25Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Beryl9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Aquamarine9.CJ.05Be3Al2Si6O18
Elbaite9.CK.05Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Microcline9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Orthoclase9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Schorl9.CK.05Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Almandine-Spessartine Series'-
'Biotite'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'var: Perthite'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Hornblende'-
'Indicolite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'Lepidolite'-
'Mica Group'-
'Rubellite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'Tourmalinated Quartz'-
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'Verdelite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Almandine51.4.3a.2Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Beryl61.1.1.1Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
Elbaite61.3.1.8Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Schorl61.3.1.10Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
Orthoclase76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Albite
var: Cleavelandite
-Na(AlSi3O8)
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Almandine-Spessartine Series'-
Beryl
var: Aquamarine
-Be3Al2Si6O18
'Biotite'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'var: Perthite'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Hornblende'-
'Indicolite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'Lepidolite'-
'Mica Group'-
'Rubellite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'Tourmalinated Quartz'-
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'Verdelite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
LiLithium
Li ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
BeBeryllium
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Be Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
BBoron
B ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B RubelliteA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B IndicoliteA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B VerdeliteA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
OOxygen
O ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
O QuartzSiO2
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
O RubelliteA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O IndicoliteA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O VerdeliteA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
NaSodium
Na ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Na SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
AlAluminium
Al ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
SiSilicon
Si ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si QuartzSiO2
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
KPotassium
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
CaCalcium
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
FeIron
Fe AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Late Cretaceous - Paleoproterozoic
66 - 2500 Ma



ID: 2826368
pre-Cenozoic granitic and metamorphic rocks undivided

Age: to Cretaceous (66 - 2500 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Ash Mountain Complex; Placerita Formation; Sur Series

Description: Granitic and metamorphic rocks, mostly gneiss and other metamorphic rocks injected by granitic rocks. Mesozoic to Precambrian.

Comments: Southern California, Mojave Desert, Sierra Nevada, central California Coast Ranges Original map source: Saucedo, G.J., Bedford, D.R., Raines, G.L., Miller, R.J., and Wentworth, C.M., 2000, GIS Data for the Geologic Map of California, California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology, CD-ROM 2000-07, scale 1:750,000.

Lithology: Major:{plutonic,gneiss}, Incidental:{metasedimentary, metavolcanic}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Cretaceous
66 - 145 Ma



ID: 3186295
Mesozoic intrusive rocks

Age: Cretaceous (66 - 145 Ma)

Lithology: Intrusive igneous rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
San Jacinto Register (1907), Account of wedding between Condino Hopkins and Marta Kline, March 7.
James, G. W. (1909), Through Ramona's Country.
Fraser, D. M. (1931), Geology of the San Jacinto quadrangle south of San Gorgonio Pass, California: California Journal, Division of Mines Geology v. 27, n. 4, p. 494-540.
Landes, K. K. (1933), Origin and Classification of Pegmatites (concluded): Journal of Mineralogical Society of America, Vol. 18, No. 2, p.96
Larsen, E. S., Jr. (1948), Batholith and associated rocks of Corona, Elsinore, and San Luis Rey quadrangles, southern California: Geological Society of America Memoir 29, 182 p.
Hanley, J. B. (1951), Economic Geology of the Rincon pegmatites, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines, Special Report 7B: 24 pp.
Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L. A. (1951), Gem and lithium bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, SD County, California. California Division of Mines, Special Report 7A: 72 pp.
Larsen, E. S. Jr., Everhart, D. L., and Merriam, R. (1951), Crystalline rocks of southwestern California: California Division of Mines Bulletin 159, 128 p.
Jahns, R. H. (1954), Northern Part of the Peninsular Range Province, Geologic Guide No. 5: in Jahns, R. H., ed., Geology of Southern California: California Division of Mines Bulletin 170.
Jahns, R. H. (1954), Geology of the Peninsular Range Province, Southern California and Baja California: California Division of Mines Bulletin 170; pt. 2, Chapter VII, pp. 37-49.
Larsen, E. S., Jr. (1954), The Batholith of Southern California: California Division of Mines Bulletin 170, pt. 2, Ch. VII, pp. 25-30.
Simpson, D. R. (1965), Geology of the central part of the Ramona pegmatite district, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology, Special Report 86: pp. 3-23.
Sharp, R. V. (1967), San Jacinto fault zone in the Peninsular Ranges of southern California: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 78, p. 705-730.
Foord, E. E. (1976), Mineralogy and petrogenesis of layered pegmatite-aplite dikes in the Mesa Grande district, San Diego County, California. Ph.D. thesis, Stanford University, Stanford, CA: 326 pp.
Foord, E. E. (1977), The Himalaya dike system, Mesa Grande district, San Diego County, California . Mineralogical Record, 8: pp. 461-474.
California Division of Mines and Geology Open-File Report 77-14 (1977): 254.
Hill, R. I. and Silver, L. T. (1979), Strontium isotopic variability in the pluton of San Jacinto Peak , Southern California: American Geography Union, EOS Transactions, v. 61, p. 411.
Gastil, R. G., Morgan, G. and Krummenacher, D. (1980), The tectonic history of Peninsular California and adjacent Mexico, in Ernst, W.G. (ed.), The Geotectonic Development of California (Volume 1): Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 706 p.
Dibblee, T. W., Jr. (1981), Geology of the San Jacinto Mountains and Vicinity: South Coast Geological Society, Annual Field Trip Guidebook No. 9: pp. 1-47.
Ruff, R. W., Bogseth, A. P., MacGregor, B. M. (1981), Geology of the San Jacinto Mountains and Vicinity: South Coast Geological Society, Annual Field Trip Guidebook No. 9: p 189.
Shigley, J. E. and Brown, G. E., Jr. (1985), Occurrence and alteration of phosphate minerals at the Stewart pegmatite, Pala District, San Diego County, California. American Mineralogist, 70: pp. 395-408.
Stern, L. A., Brown, G. E., Jr., Bird, D. K., Jahns, R. H., Foord, E. E., Shigley, J. E., and Spaulding, L. B., Jr. (1986), Mineralogy and geochemical evolution of the Little Three pegmatite-aplite layered intrusive; Ramona, CA. American Mineralogist, 62: 966-978.
Gundry, R. (1989), Personal Communication to Anthony F. Laurano Jr. by Bureau of Land Management, California Desert District Office, Geologist Richard Gundry.
Foord, E. E., London, D., Kamph, A. R., Shigley, J. E., Snee, L. W. (1991), Gem-bearing pegmatites of San Diego County, California. Geologic Society of America 1991 Annual Meeting field trip guide 9.
Laurano, A. F., Jr. (1991), Rainbow mine (Juan Diego) case files, 1988 thru 1991: unpublished.
Crother R. A. (1992), Host Rock Lithologies and Structural Constraints on Complex Pegmatites in the San Jacinto Mountains of California. Department of Geological Sciences, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona; June.
Schuman, W. (1993), Handbook of Rocks, Minerals, and Gemstones: pp.190-258.
Brigandi, P. and Robinson, J. W. (1994), The Killing of Juan Diego, From Murder to Mythology. The Journal of San Diego History, Volume 40.
DeMouthe, J. F. (1994), Geology of California: Rocks and Minerals, 69 (6): pp. 360-365.
Kampf, A. R. (1994), The Minerals of California. Rocks & Minerals, 69 (6): pp. 397-408.
Wise, M. A. and Taylor, M. (1994), Geochemical Evolution and Petrogenesis of Granitic Pegmatites of Southern California: 10 pp.
Krause, B. (1996), Mineral collector’s handbook, 192 pp.
Callens, A. C. (1997), Rainbow Mine (Juan Diego) Mineral Report, Southern California Gem Industries.
Laurano, A. F., Jr. (1999), The Rainbow Mine (Juan Diego) Gem-Bearing Complex Granite Pegmatite Dikes, Feb.: unpublished manuscript.
Ritchie, S. L. (1999), Rainbow Mine (Juan Diego) Valuable Mineral Report, Southern California Gem Industries.
USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10164618.
U.S. Bureau of Mines (1995), Minerals Availability System/Mineral Industry Location System (MAS/MILS): file #0060650074.

USGS MRDS Record:10164618
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