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Black Angel Mine, Maarmorilik, Avannaata, Greenland, Denmarki
Regional Level Types
Black Angel MineMine
MaarmorilikGroup of Villages
AvannaataMunicipality
GreenlandConstituent Country
DenmarkCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
71° 7' 29'' North , 51° 16' 48'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Saattut211 (2018)37.1km
Other Languages:
Danish:
Sorte Engel Mine, Maamorilik, Avannaata Kommune, Grønland, Danmark


Operated from 1973 to 1990. Known as one of the most unaccessible mines in the world. Reopened in 2010.

The ores are hosted by a greenschist facies calcitic marble of the Marmorilik Formation of the Paleoproterozoic Karrat Group.
The origin of the deposit remains ambiguous (Horn et al., 2019). The deposit may be a metamorphosed carbonate-​hosted polymetallic Kipushi-​type deposit.

Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


25 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Reference: Horn, S., Dziggel, A., Kolb, J., Sindern, S. (2019): Textural characteristics and trace element distribution in carbonate-​hosted Zn-​Pb-​Ag ores at the Paleoproterozoic Black Angel deposit, central West Greenland. Mineralium Deposita 54, 507-524.
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Reference: Pedersen, F. D. (1980) Remobilization of the massive sulfide ore of the Black Angel Mine, central West Greenland. Econonomic Geology, 75:1022-1041; Horn, S., Dziggel, A., Kolb, J., Sindern, S. (2019): Textural characteristics and trace element distribution in carbonate-​hosted Zn-​Pb-​Ag ores at the Paleoproterozoic Black Angel deposit, central West Greenland. Mineralium Deposita 54, 507-524.
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Reference: Pedersen, F. D. (1980) Remobilization of the massive sulfide ore of the Black Angel Mine, central West Greenland. Econonomic Geology, 75:1022-1041
Briartite
Formula: Cu2(Fe,Zn)GeS4
Reference: Horn, S., Dziggel, A., Kolb, J., Sindern, S. (2019): Textural characteristics and trace element distribution in carbonate-​hosted Zn-​Pb-​Ag ores at the Paleoproterozoic Black Angel deposit, central West Greenland. Mineralium Deposita 54, 507-524.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Pedersen, F. D. (1980) Remobilization of the massive sulfide ore of the Black Angel Mine, central West Greenland. Econonomic Geology, 75:1022-1041
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Pedersen, F. D. (1980) Remobilization of the massive sulfide ore of the Black Angel Mine, central West Greenland. Econonomic Geology, 75:1022-1041; Horn, S., Dziggel, A., Kolb, J., Sindern, S. (2019): Textural characteristics and trace element distribution in carbonate-​hosted Zn-​Pb-​Ag ores at the Paleoproterozoic Black Angel deposit, central West Greenland. Mineralium Deposita 54, 507-524.
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Pedersen, F. D. (1980) Remobilization of the massive sulfide ore of the Black Angel Mine, central West Greenland. Econonomic Geology, 75:1022-1041
'Electrum'
Formula: (Au, Ag)
Reference: Pedersen, F. D. (1980) Remobilization of the massive sulfide ore of the Black Angel Mine, central West Greenland. Econonomic Geology, 75:1022-1041
Enargite
Formula: Cu3AsS4
Reference: Pedersen, F. D. (1980) Remobilization of the massive sulfide ore of the Black Angel Mine, central West Greenland. Econonomic Geology, 75:1022-1041
Freibergite
Formula: (Ag,Cu,◻)10Fe2+2Sb4S12
Reference: Horn, S., Dziggel, A., Kolb, J., Sindern, S. (2019): Textural characteristics and trace element distribution in carbonate-​hosted Zn-​Pb-​Ag ores at the Paleoproterozoic Black Angel deposit, central West Greenland. Mineralium Deposita 54, 507-524.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Pedersen, F. D. (1980) Remobilization of the massive sulfide ore of the Black Angel Mine, central West Greenland. Econonomic Geology, 75:1022-1041; Horn, S., Dziggel, A., Kolb, J., Sindern, S. (2019): Textural characteristics and trace element distribution in carbonate-​hosted Zn-​Pb-​Ag ores at the Paleoproterozoic Black Angel deposit, central West Greenland. Mineralium Deposita 54, 507-524.
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: Pedersen, F. D. (1980) Remobilization of the massive sulfide ore of the Black Angel Mine, central West Greenland. Econonomic Geology, 75:1022-1041
Graphite
Formula: C
Reference: Pedersen, F. D. (1980) Remobilization of the massive sulfide ore of the Black Angel Mine, central West Greenland. Econonomic Geology, 75:1022-1041; Horn, S., Dziggel, A., Kolb, J., Sindern, S. (2019): Textural characteristics and trace element distribution in carbonate-​hosted Zn-​Pb-​Ag ores at the Paleoproterozoic Black Angel deposit, central West Greenland. Mineralium Deposita 54, 507-524.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Pedersen, F. D. (1980) Remobilization of the massive sulfide ore of the Black Angel Mine, central West Greenland. Econonomic Geology, 75:1022-1041
Löllingite
Formula: FeAs2
Reference: Pedersen, F. D. (1980) Remobilization of the massive sulfide ore of the Black Angel Mine, central West Greenland. Econonomic Geology, 75:1022-1041
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Pedersen, F. D. (1980) Remobilization of the massive sulfide ore of the Black Angel Mine, central West Greenland. Econonomic Geology, 75:1022-1041
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Pedersen, F. D. (1980) Remobilization of the massive sulfide ore of the Black Angel Mine, central West Greenland. Econonomic Geology, 75:1022-1041
Polybasite
Formula: [(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Reference: Pedersen, F. D. (1980) Remobilization of the massive sulfide ore of the Black Angel Mine, central West Greenland. Econonomic Geology, 75:1022-1041
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Pedersen, F. D. (1980) Remobilization of the massive sulfide ore of the Black Angel Mine, central West Greenland. Econonomic Geology, 75:1022-1041; Horn, S., Dziggel, A., Kolb, J., Sindern, S. (2019): Textural characteristics and trace element distribution in carbonate-​hosted Zn-​Pb-​Ag ores at the Paleoproterozoic Black Angel deposit, central West Greenland. Mineralium Deposita 54, 507-524.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Pedersen, F. D. (1980) Remobilization of the massive sulfide ore of the Black Angel Mine, central West Greenland. Econonomic Geology, 75:1022-1041
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Pedersen, F. D. (1980) Remobilization of the massive sulfide ore of the Black Angel Mine, central West Greenland. Econonomic Geology, 75:1022-1041; Horn, S., Dziggel, A., Kolb, J., Sindern, S. (2019): Textural characteristics and trace element distribution in carbonate-​hosted Zn-​Pb-​Ag ores at the Paleoproterozoic Black Angel deposit, central West Greenland. Mineralium Deposita 54, 507-524.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Pedersen, F. D. (1980) Remobilization of the massive sulfide ore of the Black Angel Mine, central West Greenland. Econonomic Geology, 75:1022-1041; Horn, S., Dziggel, A., Kolb, J., Sindern, S. (2019): Textural characteristics and trace element distribution in carbonate-​hosted Zn-​Pb-​Ag ores at the Paleoproterozoic Black Angel deposit, central West Greenland. Mineralium Deposita 54, 507-524.
Stannite
Formula: Cu2FeSnS4
Reference: Pedersen, F. D. (1980) Remobilization of the massive sulfide ore of the Black Angel Mine, central West Greenland. Econonomic Geology, 75:1022-1041; Horn, S., Dziggel, A., Kolb, J., Sindern, S. (2019): Textural characteristics and trace element distribution in carbonate-​hosted Zn-​Pb-​Ag ores at the Paleoproterozoic Black Angel deposit, central West Greenland. Mineralium Deposita 54, 507-524.
Tennantite
Formula: Cu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2As4S12S
Reference: Pedersen, F. D. (1980) Remobilization of the massive sulfide ore of the Black Angel Mine, central West Greenland. Econonomic Geology, 75:1022-1041; Horn, S., Dziggel, A., Kolb, J., Sindern, S. (2019): Textural characteristics and trace element distribution in carbonate-​hosted Zn-​Pb-​Ag ores at the Paleoproterozoic Black Angel deposit, central West Greenland. Mineralium Deposita 54, 507-524.
Tetrahedrite
Formula: Cu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2Sb4S12S
Reference: Horn, S., Dziggel, A., Kolb, J., Sindern, S. (2019): Textural characteristics and trace element distribution in carbonate-​hosted Zn-​Pb-​Ag ores at the Paleoproterozoic Black Angel deposit, central West Greenland. Mineralium Deposita 54, 507-524.
Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Pedersen, F. D. (1980) Remobilization of the massive sulfide ore of the Black Angel Mine, central West Greenland. Econonomic Geology, 75:1022-1041

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
'Electrum'1.AA.05(Au, Ag)
Gold1.AA.05Au
Graphite1.CB.05aC
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Briartite2.KA.10Cu2(Fe,Zn)GeS4
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Enargite2.KA.05Cu3AsS4
Freibergite2.GB.05(Ag,Cu,◻)10Fe2+2Sb4S12
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Löllingite2.EB.15aFeAs2
Polybasite2.GB.15[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Stannite2.CB.15aCu2FeSnS4
Tennantite2.GB.05Cu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2As4S12S
Tetrahedrite2.GB.05Cu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2Sb4S12S
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anhydrite7.AD.30CaSO4
Group 9 - Silicates
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Tremolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Semi-metals and non-metals
Graphite1.3.6.2C
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Briartite2.9.2.3Cu2(Fe,Zn)GeS4
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
Stannite2.9.2.1Cu2FeSnS4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Löllingite2.12.2.9FeAs2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
ø > 4
Polybasite3.1.7.2[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
ø = 4
Enargite3.2.1.1Cu3AsS4
3 <ø < 4
Freibergite3.3.6.3(Ag,Cu,◻)10Fe2+2Sb4S12
Tennantite3.3.6.2Cu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2As4S12S
Tetrahedrite3.3.6.1Cu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2Sb4S12S
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anhydrite28.3.2.1CaSO4
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Tremolite66.1.3a.1☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Electrum'-(Au, Ag)

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CCarbon
C GraphiteC
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C CalciteCaCO3
OOxygen
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O CalciteCaCO3
O Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O QuartzSiO2
O RutileTiO2
O HematiteFe2O3
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O AnhydriteCaSO4
MgMagnesium
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
SSulfur
S SphaleriteZnS
S GalenaPbS
S PyriteFeS2
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S StanniteCu2FeSnS4
S TennantiteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2As4S12S
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S EnargiteCu3AsS4
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
S AnhydriteCaSO4
S BriartiteCu2(Fe,Zn)GeS4
S Freibergite(Ag,Cu,◻)10Fe22+Sb4S12
S TetrahedriteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2Sb4S12S
KPotassium
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca AnhydriteCaSO4
TiTitanium
Ti RutileTiO2
FeIron
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe StanniteCu2FeSnS4
Fe TennantiteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2As4S12S
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe LöllingiteFeAs2
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe BriartiteCu2(Fe,Zn)GeS4
Fe Freibergite(Ag,Cu,◻)10Fe22+Sb4S12
Fe TetrahedriteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2Sb4S12S
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu StanniteCu2FeSnS4
Cu TennantiteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2As4S12S
Cu EnargiteCu3AsS4
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Cu BriartiteCu2(Fe,Zn)GeS4
Cu Freibergite(Ag,Cu,◻)10Fe22+Sb4S12
Cu TetrahedriteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2Sb4S12S
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn TennantiteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2As4S12S
Zn TetrahedriteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2Sb4S12S
GeGermanium
Ge BriartiteCu2(Fe,Zn)GeS4
AsArsenic
As TennantiteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2As4S12S
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
As LöllingiteFeAs2
As EnargiteCu3AsS4
As Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
AgSilver
Ag Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Ag Electrum(Au, Ag)
Ag Freibergite(Ag,Cu,◻)10Fe22+Sb4S12
SnTin
Sn StanniteCu2FeSnS4
SbAntimony
Sb Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Sb Freibergite(Ag,Cu,◻)10Fe22+Sb4S12
Sb TetrahedriteCu6Cu4(Fe2+,Zn)2Sb4S12S
AuGold
Au Electrum(Au, Ag)
Au GoldAu
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Pedersen, F. D. (1980) Remobilization of the massive sulfide ore of the Black Angel Mine, central West Greenland. Econonomic Geology, 75: 1022-1041.
Mining Annual Review (1985): 507.
Horn, S., Dziggel, A., Kolb, J., Sindern, S. (2019): Textural characteristics and trace element distribution in carbonate-​hosted Zn-​Pb-​Ag ores at the Paleoproterozoic Black Angel deposit, central West Greenland. Mineralium Deposita 54, 507-524.


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