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Columbus Mine (Gem Borate Mine; Gem Mine), Daggett Ridge, Belleville District, San Bernardino Co., California, USAi
Regional Level Types
Columbus Mine (Gem Borate Mine; Gem Mine)Mine
Daggett RidgeRidge
Belleville DistrictMining District
San Bernardino Co.County

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Lock Map
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
34° 48' 11'' North , 116° 52' 24'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Nearest Settlements:
Barstow23,692 (2017)17.3km
Barstow Heights24,202 (2006)18.2km
Lenwood3,543 (2011)22.6km
Lucerne Valley5,811 (2011)40.8km
Silver Lakes5,623 (2017)43.2km

A former B(borates) deposit/mine located in the NW¼SW¼NW¼ sec. 10, T8N, R1E, SBM, 4.6 km (2.9 miles) ENE of Daggett Ridge (coordinates of record) and 7.0 km (4.4 miles) S of Daggett (town), on private (patented) land. Owned by the Columbus Borax Company (1898>). First produced in 1897. MRDS database stated accuracy for this location is 10 meters.

Mineralization is hosted in rocks of the Tropico Group, Barstow Formation (lake sediments, Miocene shale). Local rocks include Miocene nonmarine rocks and/or Plio-Pleistocene and Pliocene loosely consolidated deposits.

Workings include unspecified underground openings.

B-bearing shale was mined and processed. In many places, the borates were not visible, but the shale had a distinctive color(s).

Analytical data results: Some ore was reported in 1903 to average 15% B2O3.

Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

5 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Formula: CaCO3
Reference: MarekC, pers. coll., 2019
Formula: SrSO4
Habit: long prismatic, up to a few cm
Colour: clear
Reference: Dr. Housley R., pers. comm. 2019
Formula: Ca[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O
Reference: Vonsen, Magnus (1951), Borates of California: Rocks & Minerals: 26: 494-503.
Formula: SiO2
Reference: MarekC, pers. coll., 2019
Formula: SrCO3
Habit: white needles in vugs
Description: only reported association with colemanite
Reference: Vonsen, Magnus (1951), Borates of California: Rocks & Minerals: 26: 494-503.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Group 6 - Borates
Colemanite6.CB.10Ca[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Colemanite26.3.5.1Ca[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si

List of minerals for each chemical element

H ColemaniteCa[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O
B ColemaniteCa[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O
C StrontianiteSrCO3
C CalciteCaCO3
O ColemaniteCa[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O
O StrontianiteSrCO3
O CelestineSrSO4
O CalciteCaCO3
O QuartzSiO2
Si QuartzSiO2
S CelestineSrSO4
Ca ColemaniteCa[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Sr StrontianiteSrCO3
Sr CelestineSrSO4

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on

Quaternary - Miocene
0 - 23.03 Ma

ID: 3185380
Cenozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Cenozoic (0 - 23.03 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Pleistocene - Oligocene
0.0117 - 33.9 Ma

ID: 2938742
Miocene nonmarine rocks

Age: Cenozoic (0.0117 - 33.9 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Barstow Formation; Bena Gravels; Bissell Formation; Bopesta Formation; Caliente Formation; Clews Fanglomerate; Coachella Fanglomerate; Fiss Fanglomerate; Mint Canyon Formation; Oso Canyon Formation; Pickhandle Formation; Punchbowl Formation; San Pablo Group; Santa Barbara Formation; Split Mountain Formation; Tick Canyon Formation; Tropico Group; Valley Springs Formation

Description: Sandstone, shale, conglomerate, and fanglomerate; in part Pliocene and Oligocene.

Comments: Original map source: Saucedo, G.J., Bedford, D.R., Raines, G.L., Miller, R.J., and Wentworth, C.M., 2000, GIS Data for the Geologic Map of California, California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology, CD-ROM 2000-07, scale 1:750,000.

Lithology: Major:{sandstone,conglomerate}, Minor:{siltstone,mudstone}, Incidental:{sedimentary breccia, limestone, dolostone, felsic volcanic, basalt, chert}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Data and map coding provided by, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License


Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Yale, Charles G. (1904), Borax: Mineral Resources U.S., 1903: 1017-1028.
Vonsen, Magnus (1951), Borates of California: Rocks & Minerals: 26: 494-503.
Wright, L.A., et al (1953), Mines and mineral resources of San Bernardino County, California: California Journal of Mines and Geology, California Division of Mines (Report 49): 49(1-2): 225.
Anctil, R. J. (1956), Geology and Mineral Resouyrces of Yownship 8 North, RAnge 1 East - San Bernardino Meridian, San Bernardino County, California, San Francisco, Southern Pacific Land Company (unpublished report): 3-4.
Anctil, R. J. (1956), Geology and Mineral Resources of Township 8 North, Range 1 and 2 East - San Bernardino Meridian, San Bernardino County, California, San Francisco, Southern Pacific Land Company (unpublished map), #W-0102-08, scale 1:24,000, in part modified by W.L. Coonrad and E.A. Danehy, 1958, and W.L. Coonrad, 1959.
Ver Planck, W.E. (1956) History of Borax Production in the United States: California Journal of Mines and Geology: 52(3): 273-291.
Oesterling, W.A. and Spurck, W.H. (1964), Minerals for Industry, Summary of Geological Survey 1955 - 1961: Vol III - 242 pp., Southern California, Southern Pacific Company, San Francisco, CA 94105: 161.
Dibblee, T. W., Jr. (1970), Geologic map of the Daggett Quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California. USGS Miscellaneous Geologic Investigations Map I-592, scale 1:62,500.
Link, Martin H. (1980), Sedimentary Facies and Mineral Deposits of the Miocene Barstow Formation, California, in: Fife, D.L. and Brown, A.R., editors, Geology and Mineral Wealth of the California Desert: Santa Ana, California, South Coast Geological Society, Dibblee Volume: 199.
Piper, J.R. (1985) Borate deposits of the Calico-Daggett area, California: in Barker, J.M., and Lefond, S.J., eds., Borates: Economic Geology and Production: New York, Society of Mining Engineers of the A.I.M.E., Inc.: 147-155.
Rapp, J.S. and Vredenburgh, L.M. (1992) Industrial Mineral Resource Potential of Tertiary Playa Deposits of the Fort Irwin area, San Bernardino County, California: Society of Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc. Preprint Number 92-44, 9 p.
USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10023824 & 10140884.
U.S. Bureau of Mines (1995), Minerals Availability System/Mineral Industry Location System (MAS/MILS): file #0060710538.

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