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Total Wreck Mine, Cienega Creek, The Narrows, Empire Mining District, Empire Mts, Pima Co., Arizona, USAi
Regional Level Types
Total Wreck MineMine
Cienega CreekCreek
The Narrows- not defined -
Empire Mining DistrictMining District
Empire MtsMountain Range
Pima Co.County
ArizonaState
USACountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
31° 53' 44'' North , 110° 35' 32'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Pimaco Two682 (2011)14.5km
Mescal1,812 (2011)18.1km
Corona de Tucson5,675 (2011)19.0km
Vail10,208 (2011)20.4km
Whetstone2,617 (2011)24.6km


A former underground Pb-Ag-Cu-Mo-Au-Mn-V mine located on 7 claims, several of which are patented, in East-central sec. 3, T.18S., R.17E., 7 miles south of Pantano on Cienega Creek, northeastern part of the Empire Mountains, at an altitude of 4,600 feet. Discovered in 1879 by Mr. John Dilden, a cowboy. Owned by M. Bonner Denton. Operated at times, or in part, by the Empire Mining & Development Co. (1881-1882); Vail & Gates (1884 by tax auction until at least circa 1915); C.T. Roberts (1907-1908); E.P. Drew (March, 1909-1911); Schley; Adams & Saxby; Gardner & Young; and, Torres.

Mineralization is secondary lead, copper and silver minerals with minor lead and copper sulfides in irregular replacement orebodies in badly faulted Permian limestone beds intruded by Laramide diorite stringers and dikes. The ore zone is 2.44 meters wide, depth to bottom of 152.4 meters, 30.48 meters thick, strikes NW and dips 85NE. There are 3 major vein systems. The principal vein is 5 feet wide. Silver values decrease and copper values increase with depth.

This mine is within the Permian Snyder Hill formation, which consists of thin-bedded gray and black limestone and dolomite together with thin beds of quartzite. Basal Cretaceous conglomerate overlies the Snyder Hill on the southeast. Small dikes of diorite intrude these rocks.

In general the beds strike N.60ºE. and dip 35ºSE. Immediately north of the mine is the Andrada fault, whose irregular outcrop averages NW in strike and 85º NE in dip. Hence, the rocks in the vicinity of the mine are affected by faults and fissures of east-west and northeasterly trend and somewhat folded.

Vein No. 1, or North fissure, and Vein No. 2, or South fissure, are 90 feet apart, strike east-west, and dip 85ºN. Intersecting them with downthrown side on the southeast is the Main vein or fault, which strikes N.30ºE., dips 85º southeastward, and disappears under low-angle faults on the SW.

The ore deposits occur within zones of the No. 1 and No. 2 fissures and Main fault and as replacements extending from them along bedding planes of the limestone. The 'veins' are 6 to 8 feet wide. The replacements extend outward for a few feet to about 100 feet, both above and beneath beds of quartzite, north from the No. 1 and No. 2 veins and on both sides of the Main vein.

The ore occurs within altered, more or less crushed, limestone with calcite and cellular quartz. Associated with the mineralization in places, as on the 450 level, is breccia 40 to 50 feet wide, together with some light-colored clay material. The ore is essentially all oxidized. The host rock units are the Concha Limestone and the Rain Valley Formation. An associated rock unit is the Sycamore Canyon Quartz Monzonite.

A local structure is the Andrade Fault with a strike NW and dip of 85NE.

Workings include shafts, adits, drifts, inclines, winzes, and stopes, which aggregated about 5,000 feet (1,524 meters) of workings by 1910. The mine is developed to approximately 500 feet (152.4 meters). Worked from the 1880's to 1940. Produced some 14,000 tons of ore averaging about 8% Pb, 7 oz. Ag/T and minor Cu and Au. Some 8 tons of molybdenum concentrates were shipped in 1918. Of this, more than 10,000 tons was produced before 1902 and 7500 tons worth $450,000 after 1902.

The mine can be reached by a road from state highway 83, which has several forks and runs through mostly private land, or from a road off interstate highway 10, which runs mostly through state land but is very rough.

For a more historical account of the mine and its environs, see:

http://www.wyattearpexplorers.com/total-wreck.html

Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate
Sonoran Desert, North AmericaDesert

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


23 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Reference: Rolf Luetcke specimen
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Reference: Keith, Stanton B. (1974), AZ Bur. of Geol. & Min. Technology, Geol. Survey Br. Bull. 189, Index of Mining Properties in Pima County, AZ: 119 (Table 4); Schrader (1915): 142-147; Wilson, E.D. (1951): 52-53; Wilson, E.D., et al (1951), Arizona zinc and lead deposits, part II, AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 158: 53; Schrader & Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, AZ, USGS Bull. 582: 147; Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10103752, MRDS ID #M050396.
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Reference: Keith, Stanton B. (1974), AZ Bur. of Geol. & Min. Technology, Geol. Survey Br. Bull. 189, Index of Mining Properties in Pima County, AZ: 119 (Table 4); Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 158, 262; Schrader & Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, AZ, USGS Bull. 582; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 50; Wilson, E.D. (1951): 52-53; Wilson, E.D., et al (1951), Arizona zinc and lead deposits, part II, AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 158: 53; Schrader & Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, AZ, USGS Bull. 582: 145; Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Description: A little occurs.
Reference: Wilson, E.D., et al (1951), Arizona zinc and lead deposits, part II, AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 158: 53; Schrader & Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, AZ, USGS Bull. 582: 147.
Chlorargyrite
Formula: AgCl
Reference: Keith, Stanton B. (1974), AZ Bur. of Geol. & Min. Technology, Geol. Survey Br. Bull. 189, Index of Mining Properties in Pima County, AZ: 119 (Table 4); Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 169, 262; Schrader, F.C. (1917), The geologic distribution and genesis of the metals in the Santa Rita-Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, Econ.Geol.: 12: 237-269; Schrader & Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, AZ, USGS Bull. 582:142-147; Wilson, E.D. (1951): 52-53; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 42, 64; Wilson, E.D., et al (1951), Arizona zinc and lead deposits, part II, AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 158: 53; Schrader & Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, AZ, USGS Bull. 582: 145; Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Reference: Keith, Stanton B. (1974), AZ Bur. of Geol. & Min. Technology, Geol. Survey Br. Bull. 189, Index of Mining Properties in Pima County, AZ: 119 (Table 4); Schrader (1915): 142-147; Wilson, E.D. (1951): 52-53; Wilson, E.D., et al (1951), Arizona zinc and lead deposits, part II, AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 158: 53; Schrader & Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, AZ, USGS Bull. 582: 147; Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Rolf Luetcke specimen
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Rolf Luetcke
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Wilson, E.D., et al (1951), Arizona zinc and lead deposits, part II, AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 158: 53; Schrader & Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, AZ, USGS Bull. 582: 147.
Hemimorphite
Formula: Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Description: Occurs with plattnerite on limonite.
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 248; Bideaux, R.A., et al (1960), Some new occurrences of minerals of Arizona, AZ Geol. Soc. Digest: 3: 53-56.
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 262; Wilson, E.D., et al (1951), Arizona zinc and lead deposits, part II, AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 158: 53; Schrader & Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, AZ, USGS Bull. 582: 147; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ:64.
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 248, 331; Wilson, E.D., et al (1951), Arizona zinc and lead deposits, part II, AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 158: 53; Bideaux, R.A., et al (1960), Some new occurrences of minerals of Arizona, AZ Geol. Soc. Digest: 3: 53-56; Schrader & Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, AZ, USGS Bull. 582: 147.
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Keith, Stanton B. (1974), AZ Bur. of Geol. & Min. Technology, Geol. Survey Br. Bull. 189, Index of Mining Properties in Pima County, AZ: 119 (Table 4); Schrader (1915): 142-147; Wilson, E.D. (1951): 52-53; Wilson, E.D., et al (1951), Arizona zinc and lead deposits, part II, AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 158: 53; Schrader & Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, AZ, USGS Bull. 582: 145-147; Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
Mimetite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Habit: Micro-crystals
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 299.
Mottramite
Formula: PbCu(VO4)(OH)
Description: Microcrystalline masses and as complete pseudomorphic replacements of wulfenite crystals.
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 307; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 70; Rocks & Min.: 65: 29.
Plattnerite
Formula: PbO2
Description: Occurs with hemimorphite on limonite.
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 248, 331; Bideaux, R.A., et al (1960), Some new occurrences of minerals of Arizona, AZ Geol. Soc. Digest: 3: 53-56.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Rolf Luetcke
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Rolf Luetcke specimen
Quartz var: Chalcedony
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Rolf Luetcke
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: Wilson, E.D., et al (1951), Arizona zinc and lead deposits, part II, AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 158: 53; Schrader & Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, AZ, USGS Bull. 582: 147.
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 262.
Vanadinite
Formula: Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Reference: Keith, Stanton B. (1974), AZ Bur. of Geol. & Min. Technology, Geol. Survey Br. Bull. 189, Index of Mining Properties in Pima County, AZ: 119 (Table 4); Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 262, 411; Schrader, F.C. (1917), The geologic distribution and genesis of the metals in the Santa Rita-Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, Econ.Geol.: 12: 237-269; Schrader & Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, AZ, USGS Bull. 582; Wilson, E.D. (1951): 52-53; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 64, 73; Wilson, E.D., et al (1951), Arizona zinc and lead deposits, part II, AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 158: 53; Schrader & Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, AZ, USGS Bull. 582: 147; Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
'Wad'
Reference: Wilson, E.D., et al (1951), Arizona zinc and lead deposits, part II, AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 158: 53.
Willemite
Formula: Zn2SiO4
Reference: Rolf Luetcke
Wulfenite
Formula: Pb(MoO4)
Reference: Keith, Stanton B. (1974), AZ Bur. of Geol. & Min. Technology, Geol. Survey Br. Bull. 189, Index of Mining Properties in Pima County, AZ: 119 (Table 4); Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 262, 299, 426; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 64, 80; Wilson, E.D., et al (1951), Arizona zinc and lead deposits, part II, AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 158: 53; Schrader & Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, AZ, USGS Bull. 582: 145; Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Group 3 - Halides
Chlorargyrite3.AA.15AgCl
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Plattnerite4.DB.05PbO2
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Chalcedony4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Smithsonite5.AB.05ZnCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anglesite7.AD.35PbSO4
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Jarosite7.BC.10KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Wulfenite7.GA.05Pb(MoO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Mimetite8.BN.05Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Mottramite8.BH.40PbCu(VO4)(OH)
Vanadinite8.BN.05Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Group 9 - Silicates
Chrysocolla9.ED.20Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Hemimorphite9.BD.10Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Willemite9.AA.05Zn2SiO4
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Wad'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Plattnerite4.4.1.6PbO2
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX
Chlorargyrite9.1.4.1AgCl
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Smithsonite14.1.1.6ZnCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Mottramite41.5.2.2PbCu(VO4)(OH)
A5(XO4)3Zq
Mimetite41.8.4.2Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Vanadinite41.8.4.3Pb5(VO4)3Cl
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Wulfenite48.1.3.1Pb(MoO4)
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [4] coordination
Willemite51.1.1.2Zn2SiO4
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] coordination
Hemimorphite56.1.2.1Zn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Chrysocolla74.3.2.1Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Quartz
var: Chalcedony
-SiO2
'Wad'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
CCarbon
C CerussitePbCO3
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C SmithsoniteZnCO3
C SideriteFeCO3
C CalciteCaCO3
OOxygen
O MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
O WulfenitePb(MoO4)
O CerussitePbCO3
O VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
O PlattneritePbO2
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
O HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O SmithsoniteZnCO3
O HematiteFe2O3
O SideriteFeCO3
O CalciteCaCO3
O QuartzSiO2
O AnglesitePbSO4
O Quartz (var: Chalcedony)SiO2
O WillemiteZn2SiO4
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
AlAluminium
Al ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
SiSilicon
Si ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Si HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Quartz (var: Chalcedony)SiO2
Si WillemiteZn2SiO4
SSulfur
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S AnglesitePbSO4
S GalenaPbS
S PyriteFeS2
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
ClChlorine
Cl VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
Cl ChlorargyriteAgCl
Cl MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
KPotassium
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
VVanadium
V MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
V VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
FeIron
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe PyriteFeS2
CuCopper
Cu MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
ZnZinc
Zn HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Zn SmithsoniteZnCO3
Zn WillemiteZn2SiO4
AsArsenic
As MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
MoMolybdenum
Mo WulfenitePb(MoO4)
AgSilver
Ag ChlorargyriteAgCl
PbLead
Pb MottramitePbCu(VO4)(OH)
Pb WulfenitePb(MoO4)
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
Pb PlattneritePbO2
Pb MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb GalenaPbS

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
The Resources of Arizona - A Manual of Reliable Information Concerning the Territory, compiled by Patrick Hamilton (1881), Prescott, AZ: 46.
Schrader & Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, USGS Bull. 582: 142-147.
Schrader, F.C. (1917), The geologic distribution and genesis of the metals in the Santa Rita-Patagonia Mountains, Arizona, Economic Geology: 12: 237-269.
Petar, A.V. (1932) Molybdenum: U.S. Bureau of Mines Economic Paper 15, 38 p.
Wilson, E.D., et al (1951), Arizona zinc and lead deposits, part II, Arizona Bureau of Mines Bull. 158: 52-53.
Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of Arizona: 42, 50, 64, 70, 73, 80.
Bideaux, R.A., et al (1960), Some new occurrences of minerals of Arizona, Arizona Geological Society Digest: 3: 53-56.
Finnell, T.L. (1971) Preliminary geologic map of the Empire Mountains quadrangle, Pima County, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 71-0106, 2 sheets, scale 1:48,000.
Keith, Stanton B. (1974), Arizona Bureau of Geology & Mineral Technology, Geological Survey Branch Bull. 189, Index of Mining Properties in Pima County, AZ: 119 (Table 4).
Heylmun, Edgar B. (1989) Total Wreck Silver Mine, Arizona, California Mining Journal: 59(4): 17-22.
Rocks & Minerals (1990): 65: 29.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 158, 169, 248, 262, 299, 307, 331, 411, 426.
USGS Empire Mountains Quadrangle topo map.
Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
USGS MRDS database (2005), dep. file ID #10103752, MRDS ID #M050396; and, Dep. ID #10210828.
Minerals Availability System (MAS) file ID #0040190429.

USGS MRDS Record:10103752
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