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Grace Mine, Morgantown, Berks Co., Pennsylvania, USAi
Regional Level Types
Grace MineMine
Morgantown- not defined -
Berks Co.County
PennsylvaniaState
USACountry

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Key
Lock Map
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
40° North , 75° West (est.)
Estimate based on other nearby localities or region boundaries.
Margin of Error:
~45km
Locality type:
Köppen climate type:


Bethlehem Steel's Grace Mine exploited magnetite ore with an iron content of approximately 40 percent. The magnetite mineralization replaced a large wedge of impure Cambrian limestone already altered to calcium and magnesian silicates by contact metamorphism from a thick, subjacent intrusive sheet of diabase (Sims, 1968, p. 122–123). The deposit was the first instance of an ore discovery resulting from an airborne magnetometer survey. The Grace mine anomaly was identified in 1948, core drilling began in September of 1949 and on December 19, 1949, iron ore was hit at a depth of 1,524 feet. Work started in 1951 with the sinking of "A" shaft to a depth of 2,208 feet, used for hoisting ore and transporting materials. "A" shaft was eventually sunk to depth of "B" shaft, at 3,079 feet, which was used for men and materials.

The Grace Mine closed operations in 1977 due in part to depressed iron/steel prices and the high cost of underground ore extraction. The dumps were later used in road/ramp highway construction. Final reclamation of the property by Morgantowwn Properties began sometime after 2004, for an extensive housing development project.

The project "Bryn Eyre" is a housing project in which an entire town, 12,393 residential homes, commercial, school and public areas will be built on site. Projected to be constructed over a 20-25 year period, it is the largest such project in Pennsylvania since the 1950's. (Ref. R. Robinson, Lanc. New Era, 2007)

Ground breaking began April 1, 2007 (observations: Ms Sophia Shultz).

As of November of 2011, the site has been fenced and tailings crushed and hauled away. Police monitor the property. A sad end to yet another good collecting spot. (David S. Bernstein).

Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


26 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Mineral collecting in Pennsylvania, 1965 - Lapham & Geyer, pg. 130
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: The Mineralogy of Pennsylvania 1966-1975; Robert C. Smith II, pg. 232, Table 27
Antigorite
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: The Mineralogy of Pennsylvania 1966-1975; Robert C. Smith II, pg. 232, Table 27; Econ Geol (1985) 80:418-443
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Reference: Mineralogy of Pennsylvania-1976; Robert C. Smith, pg. 88
'Apophyllite'
Reference: The Mineralogy of Pennsylvania 1966-1975; Robert C. Smith II, pg. 232, Table 27
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Reference: Mineralogy of Pennsylvania-1976; Robert C. Smith, pg. 88
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: The Mineralogy of Pennsylvania 1966-1975; Robert C. Smith II, pg. 232, Table 27
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Mineralogy of Pennsylvania-1976; Robert C. Smith, pg. 88
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Mineralogy of Pennsylvania-1976; Robert C. Smith, pg. 88
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Habit: often in distorted foliae, up to several centimeters across
Colour: greenish grey to green with pearly luster
Description: Clinochlore at Grace Mine occurs often in distorted foliae, up to several centimeters across. Although bent and severly distorted at times, it exhibits perfect cleavage.
Reference: The Mineralogy of Pennsylvania 1966-1975; Robert C. Smith pg. 82-83, Table4 pg. 78
Clinochlore var: Pennine
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Mineralogy of Pennsylvania-1976; Robert C. Smith, pg. 88
Datolite
Formula: CaB(SiO4)(OH)
Reference: The Mineralogy of Pennsylvania 1966-1975; Robert C. Smith II, pg. 232, Table 27
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Mineralogy of Pennsylvania-1976; Robert C. Smith, pg. 88
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Mineral collecting in Pennsylvania, 1965 - Lapham & Geyer, pg. 130
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: The Mineralogy of Pennsylvania 1966-1975; Robert C. Smith II, pg. 232, Table 27
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Reference: Mineral collecting in Pennsylvania, 1965 - Lapham & Geyer, pg. 130
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Mineralogy of Pennsylvania-1976; Robert C. Smith, pg. 259
Gypsum var: Selenite
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Mineralogy of Pennsylvania-1976; Robert C. Smith, pg. 258
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Mineral collecting in Pennsylvania, 1965 - Lapham & Geyer, pg. 130
Laumontite
Formula: CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Reference: Gilpin R. Robinson, Jr. and C. M. Sears (1992) Inventory of Metal Mines and Occurrences Associated with the early Mesozoic Basins of the Eastern United States II., USGS Open-File Report 92-448
Laumontite var: Leonhardite
Formula: CaAl2Si4O12 · 3H2O
Reference: Gilpin R. Robinson, Jr. and C. M. Sears (1992) Inventory of Metal Mines and Occurrences Associated with the early Mesozoic Basins of the Eastern United States II., USGS Open-File Report 92-448
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: [www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]; Econ Geol (1985) 80:418-443
Marialite
Formula: Na4Al3Si9O24Cl
Reference: Reed, Juliet C. (1976), Annotated Biblio. of Mins. New to the PA List 1965-1974, The Min. Soc. of PA, Inc.: 54; Sims, Samuel J. (1968), "The Grace Mine Magnetite Dep., Berks Co., PA" in Ridge, John D. ed., Ore Deps. of the US 1933-1967, Vol I:115.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Mineral collecting in Pennsylvania, 1965 - Lapham & Geyer, pg. 130
Natrolite
Formula: Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Reference: Mineral collecting in Pennsylvania, 1965 - Lapham & Geyer, pg. 130
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Mineral collecting in Pennsylvania, 1965 - Lapham & Geyer, pg. 130
Prehnite
Formula: Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Reference: The Mineralogy of Pennsylvania 1966-1975; Robert C. Smith II, pg. 232, Table 27
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Mineralogy of Pennsylvania-1976; Robert C. Smith, pg. 88
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: Mineralogy of Pennsylvania-1976; Robert C. Smith, pg. 88
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Mineralogy of Pennsylvania-1976; Robert C. Smith, pg. 88
'Stilbite subgroup'
Reference: Mineral collecting in Pennsylvania, 1965 - Lapham & Geyer, pg. 130
Talc
Formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Reference: Mineralogy of Pennsylvania-1976; Robert C. Smith, pg. 88; Econ Geol (1985) 80:418-443
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: Gilpin R. Robinson, Jr. and C. M. Sears (1992) Inventory of Metal Mines and Occurrences Associated with the early Mesozoic Basins of the Eastern United States II., USGS Open-File Report 92-448
Tochilinite
Formula: Fe2+5-6(Mg,Fe2+)5S6(OH)10
Habit: aggregate in Gypsum associated with enhydro inclusions, on calcite and laminate coatings on calcite
Colour: Black greasy Graphite-like, also coatings giving calcite a Bronzy appearance
Fluorescence: none
Description: The first US locality for Tochilinite, collected in the summer of 1975 by Byron Brookmeyer. Some of the most complete data published on the properties of Tochilinite were compiled using specimens collected by Mr. Brookmeyer at Grace mine.
Reference: Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990 Ref. 2) The Mineralogy of Pennsylvania; Robert Smith II, Pgs. 256-261
Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: The Mineralogy of Pennsylvania 1966-1975; Robert C. Smith II, pg. 232, Table 27

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Tochilinite2.FD.35Fe2+5-6(Mg,Fe2+)5S6(OH)10
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
var: Selenite7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Actinolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Antigorite9.ED.15Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Clinochlore9.EC.55Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
var: Pennine9.EC.55Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Datolite9.AJ.20CaB(SiO4)(OH)
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Laumontite9.GB.10CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
var: Leonhardite9.GB.10CaAl2Si4O12 · 3H2O
Marialite9.FB.15Na4Al3Si9O24Cl
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Natrolite9.GA.05Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Prehnite9.DP.20Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Talc9.EC.05Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Tremolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Apophyllite'-
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Chlorite Group'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Stilbite subgroup'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Hydroxysulfides and Hydrated Sulfides
Tochilinite2.14.2.1Fe2+5-6(Mg,Fe2+)5S6(OH)10
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 54 - NESOSILICATES Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates
Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates with B in [4] coordination
Datolite54.2.1a.1CaB(SiO4)(OH)
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Tremolite66.1.3a.1☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Antigorite71.1.2a.1Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Talc71.2.1.3Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Clinochlore71.4.1.4Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 4-membered rings
Prehnite72.1.3.1Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Al-Si Framework with other Be/Al/Si frameworks
Marialite76.3.1.1Na4Al3Si9O24Cl
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Laumontite77.1.1.4CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Natrolite77.1.5.1Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Actinolite-☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Apophyllite'-
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Chlorite Group'-
Clinochlore
var: Pennine
-Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
Gypsum
var: Selenite
-CaSO4 · 2H2O
Laumontite
var: Leonhardite
-CaAl2Si4O12 · 3H2O
'Stilbite subgroup'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H TochiliniteFe2+5-6(Mg,Fe2+)5S6(OH)10
H ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
H DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
H AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
H TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
H ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
H BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
H Clinochlore (var: Pennine)Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H Gypsum (var: Selenite)CaSO4 · 2H2O
H Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Laumontite (var: Leonhardite)CaAl2Si4O12 · 3H2O
H LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
BBoron
B DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
OOxygen
O TochiliniteFe2+5-6(Mg,Fe2+)5S6(OH)10
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O MarialiteNa4Al3Si9O24Cl
O ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
O DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
O CalciteCaCO3
O TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
O BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
O Clinochlore (var: Pennine)Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O Gypsum (var: Selenite)CaSO4 · 2H2O
O Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O HematiteFe2O3
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O Laumontite (var: Leonhardite)CaAl2Si4O12 · 3H2O
O LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
FFluorine
F ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
F BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
NaSodium
Na MarialiteNa4Al3Si9O24Cl
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg TochiliniteFe2+5-6(Mg,Fe2+)5S6(OH)10
Mg ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Mg Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Mg TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Mg Clinochlore (var: Pennine)Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Mg Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al MarialiteNa4Al3Si9O24Cl
Al ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Al Clinochlore (var: Pennine)Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Laumontite (var: Leonhardite)CaAl2Si4O12 · 3H2O
Al LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
SiSilicon
Si MarialiteNa4Al3Si9O24Cl
Si ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Si DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
Si BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Si Clinochlore (var: Pennine)Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si Laumontite (var: Leonhardite)CaAl2Si4O12 · 3H2O
Si LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
PPhosphorus
P ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
SSulfur
S TochiliniteFe2+5-6(Mg,Fe2+)5S6(OH)10
S GalenaPbS
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S PyriteFeS2
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S SphaleriteZnS
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S Gypsum (var: Selenite)CaSO4 · 2H2O
ClChlorine
Cl MarialiteNa4Al3Si9O24Cl
Cl ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
KPotassium
K BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Ca DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca Gypsum (var: Selenite)CaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca Laumontite (var: Leonhardite)CaAl2Si4O12 · 3H2O
Ca LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
TiTitanium
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
FeIron
Fe TochiliniteFe2+5-6(Mg,Fe2+)5S6(OH)10
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Fe Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Sims, Samuel J. (1968), "The Grace Mine Magnetite Deposit, Berks Co., Pennsylvania" in Ridge, John D. ed., Ore Deposits of the US 1933-1967: Volume I: 115.
Reed, Juliet C. (1976), Annotated Bibliography of Minerals New to the Pennsylvania List 1965-1974, The Mineralogical Society of Pennsylvania, Inc.: 54.
Economic Geology (1985): 80: 418-443.
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols (1990), "Handbook of Mineralogy," Volume 1.
Wharton, Heyward M. (2003) The 1949 discovery of the Grace mine iron deposit, Pennsylvania Geology: 33(1): 2.


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