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Gem Star Mine (Gem Lepidolite mine; Labaugh mine; Loughbaugh mine), Tourmaline Queen Mountain (Pala Mtn; Queen Mtn), Pala, Pala District, San Diego Co., California, USA

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 33° 23' 6'' North , 117° 3' 44'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 33.38500,-117.06222
GeoHash:G#: 9muvbjtcs
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Csa : Hot-summer Mediterranean climate


A gemstone/specimen Li pegmatite mine located along the Stewart pegmatite.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


7 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Colour: Apple-green
Reference: Jahns, Richard Henry & Lauren A. Wright (1951), Gem and lithium bearing pegmatites of the Pala district, San Diego County, California: California Division Mines Special Report 7-A: 57-59.
'Clays'
Colour: Pale-pink to light-gray
Reference: Jahns, Richard Henry & Lauren A. Wright (1951), Gem and lithium bearing pegmatites of the Pala district, San Diego County, California: California Division Mines Special Report 7-A: 57-59.
'Feldspar Group'
Description: Perthite forms giant euhedral crystals associated with massive quartz.
Reference: Jahns, Richard Henry & Lauren A. Wright (1951), Gem and lithium bearing pegmatites of the Pala district, San Diego County, California: California Division Mines Special Report 7-A: 57-59.
'Feldspar Group var: Perthite'
Description: Perthite forms giant euhedral crystals associated with massive quartz.
Reference: Jahns, Richard Henry & Lauren A. Wright (1951), Gem and lithium bearing pegmatites of the Pala district, San Diego County, California: California Division Mines Special Report 7-A: 57-59.
Helvine
Formula: Be3Mn2+4(SiO4)3S
Habit: Tetrahedra
Colour: Honey-colored
Description: An exceedingly rare constituent of the pegmatite in the Gem Star mine. It forms small honey-colored tetrahedral crystals that are less than 1 millimeter in diameter. They occur on the surfaces of cleavelandite and spodumene crystals, and in general are typical of the pocket-bearing parts of the dike.
Reference: Jahns, Richard Henry & Lauren A. Wright (1951), Gem and lithium bearing pegmatites of the Pala district, San Diego County, California: California Division Mines Special Report 7-A: 31, 38; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 215; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 368.
'Lepidolite'
Colour: Pink to lavender
Reference: Merrill, F. J. H. 1914. Geology and Mineral Resources of San Diego and Imperial Counties: Gems, Lithia Minerals. California State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, Cal. California State Printing Office, December. Chapter 1, p. 67.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Description: Fine to medium grained plumose muscovite forms with albite-quartz-perthite footwall unit of the pegmatite that contains local concentrations of schorl.
Reference: Jahns, Richard Henry & Lauren A. Wright (1951), Gem and lithium bearing pegmatites of the Pala district, San Diego County, California: California Division Mines Special Report 7-A: 57-59.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Jahns, Richard Henry & Lauren A. Wright (1951), Gem and lithium bearing pegmatites of the Pala district, San Diego County, California: California Division Mines Special Report 7-A: 57-59.
Quartz var: Smoky Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Jahns, Richard Henry & Lauren A. Wright (1951), Gem and lithium bearing pegmatites of the Pala district, San Diego County, California: California Division Mines Special Report 7-A: 57-59.
'Rubellite'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Colour: Pink
Description: Many clear fragments of small crystals are present in the dumps, and some clear, gem-quality crystals as much as 4 inches in diameter and 15 inches long were recovered.
Reference: Jahns, Richard Henry & Lauren A. Wright (1951), Gem and lithium bearing pegmatites of the Pala district, San Diego County, California: California Division Mines Special Report 7-A: 57-59.
Schorl
Formula: Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: Jahns, Richard Henry & Lauren A. Wright (1951), Gem and lithium bearing pegmatites of the Pala district, San Diego County, California: California Division Mines Special Report 7-A: 57-59.
Spodumene
Formula: LiAlSi2O6
Colour: Colorless
Description: Fragments of clear, colorless spodumene associated with gem-quality tourmaline.
Reference: Jahns, Richard Henry & Lauren A. Wright (1951), Gem and lithium bearing pegmatites of the Pala district, San Diego County, California: California Division Mines Special Report 7-A: 57-59.
Swinefordite
Formula: Li(Al,Li,Mg)4((Si,Al)4O10)2(OH,F)4 · nH2O
Reference: Harvard Museum of Natural History specimen no. 108086
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Merrill, F. J. H. 1914. Geology and Mineral Resources of San Diego and Imperial Counties: Gems, Lithia Minerals. California State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, Cal. California State Printing Office, December. Chapter 1, p. 67.
'Verdelite'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Merrill, F. J. H. 1914. Geology and Mineral Resources of San Diego and Imperial Counties: Gems, Lithia Minerals. California State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, Cal. California State Printing Office, December. Chapter 1, p. 67.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Quartz'4.DA.05SiO2
var: Smoky Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 9 - Silicates
'Albite'9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
'Helvine'9.FB.10Be3Mn2+4(SiO4)3S
'Muscovite'9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
'Schorl'9.CK.05Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Spodumene9.DA.30LiAlSi2O6
Swinefordite9.EC.45Li(Al,Li,Mg)4((Si,Al)4O10)2(OH,F)4 · nH2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Clays'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'var: Perthite'-
'Lepidolite'-
'Rubellite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Tourmaline-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Verdelite-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
Schorl61.3.1.10Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Spodumene65.1.4.1LiAlSi2O6
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
Swinefordite71.3.1a.5Li(Al,Li,Mg)4((Si,Al)4O10)2(OH,F)4 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Al-Si Framework Feldspathoids and related species
Helvine76.2.4.1Be3Mn2+4(SiO4)3S
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Clays'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'var: Perthite'-
'Lepidolite'-
Quartz
var: Smoky Quartz
-SiO2
'Rubellite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'Verdelite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H SwineforditeLi(Al,Li,Mg)4((Si,Al)4O10)2(OH,F)4 · nH2O
LiLithium
Li SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Li SwineforditeLi(Al,Li,Mg)4((Si,Al)4O10)2(OH,F)4 · nH2O
BeBeryllium
Be HelvineBe3Mn42+(SiO4)3S
BBoron
B RubelliteA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B VerdeliteA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
OOxygen
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O HelvineBe3Mn42+(SiO4)3S
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O QuartzSiO2
O RubelliteA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
O SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
O SwineforditeLi(Al,Li,Mg)4((Si,Al)4O10)2(OH,F)4 · nH2O
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O VerdeliteA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
FFluorine
F SwineforditeLi(Al,Li,Mg)4((Si,Al)4O10)2(OH,F)4 · nH2O
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
MgMagnesium
Mg SwineforditeLi(Al,Li,Mg)4((Si,Al)4O10)2(OH,F)4 · nH2O
AlAluminium
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Al SwineforditeLi(Al,Li,Mg)4((Si,Al)4O10)2(OH,F)4 · nH2O
SiSilicon
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si HelvineBe3Mn42+(SiO4)3S
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
Si SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Si SwineforditeLi(Al,Li,Mg)4((Si,Al)4O10)2(OH,F)4 · nH2O
SSulfur
S HelvineBe3Mn42+(SiO4)3S
KPotassium
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
MnManganese
Mn HelvineBe3Mn42+(SiO4)3S
FeIron
Fe SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Holocene - Pliocene
0 - 5.333 Ma



ID: 2817582
Quaternary alluvium and marine deposits

Age: Cenozoic (0 - 5.333 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Temescal Formation; Modesto Formation; Victor Formation; Alameda Formation; Aromas Red Sands; Bautista Beds; Brawley Formation; Borrego Formation; Burnt Canyon Breccia; Cabezon Fanglomerate; Campus Formation; Casitas Formation; Chemehuevi Formation; Corcoran Clay; Cushenbury Springs Formation; Dos Picachos Gravels; Dripping Springs Formation; Frazier Mountain Formation; Friant Formation; Harold Formation; Heights Fanglomerate; Hookton Formation; Huichica Formation; La Habra Formation; Manix Lake Beds; Mohawk Lake Beds; Montezuma Formation; Nadeau Gravel; Ocotillo Conglomerate; Orcutt Formation; Pacoima Formation; Pauba Formation; Peckham Formation; Pinto Formation; Resting Springs Formation; Riverbank Formation; Rohnerville Formation; San Dimas Formation; Shoemaker Gravel; Temecula Arkose; Battery Formation; Bay Point Formation; Colma Formation; Lindavista Formation; Lomita Marl; Merritt Sand; Millerton Formation; Palos Verdes Sand; San Pedro Formation; Sweitzer Formation; Timms Point Silt

Description: Alluvium, lake, playa, and terrace deposits; unconsolidated and semi-consolidated. Mostly nonmarine, but includes marine deposits near the coast.

Comments: Original map source: Saucedo, G.J., Bedford, D.R., Raines, G.L., Miller, R.J., and Wentworth, C.M., 2000, GIS Data for the Geologic Map of California, California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology, CD-ROM 2000-07, scale 1:750,000.

Lithology: Major:{coarse alluvium}, Minor:{fine alluvium}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Cretaceous
66 - 145 Ma



ID: 2706610
Granite pegmatite dike

Age: Cretaceous (66 - 145 Ma)

Description: Tabular, pegmatitic-textured granitic dikes. Most dikes range in thickness from a few centimeters to over a meter. Larger dikes are typically zoned compositionally and texturally.

Reference: Kennedy, M.P., and S.S. Tan. digital prep. by Bovard et al. Geologic Map of the Oceanside 30’ x 60’ Quadrangle, California. California Department of Conservation California Geological Survey. [131]

Cretaceous
66 - 145 Ma



ID: 3186295
Mesozoic intrusive rocks

Age: Cretaceous (66 - 145 Ma)

Lithology: Intrusive igneous rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Merrill, F. J. H. (1914), Geology and Mineral Resources of San Diego and Imperial Counties: Gems, Lithia Minerals. California State Mining Bureau, San Francisco, Cal. California State Printing Office, December. Chapter 1, p. 67, 77-78.
Jahns, Richard Henry & Wright, Lauren A. (1951), Gem and lithium bearing pegmatites of the Pala district, San Diego County, California: California Division Mines Special Report 7-A: pages 14, 17, 57-59; plate 2.
Weber, F. H. (1963), Geology and mineral resources of San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3: p. 103.
Murdoch, Joseph & Webb, Robert W. (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 215.
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 368.


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