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United Mines (Gwennap United Mines), Clifford Amalgamated Mines, St Day, Gwennap, Cornwall, England, UK

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 50° 13' 52'' North , 5° 9' 25'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 50.23115,-5.15714
GeoHash:G#: gbumf8k9t
Locality type:Group of Mines
Köppen climate type:Cfb : Temperate oceanic climate


United Mines (Gwennap United Mines) was the name taken by the company consisting of the former Ale and Cakes Mine, Wheal Cupboard and Poldory who amalgamated in about 1780. Later the group was expanded to include East Ale and Cakes Mine and Wheals Andrew (Friendship), Clifford and Squire, which all are located within a distance of about 1 km from United Downs. The United Mines worked mainly two lodes: the 'Great South Lode' and, a little further to the north, the 'Hot Lode', named for its extreme temperatures at greater depth.

In 1861, the United Mines were combined with the Great Consolidated Mines which ceased working in 1856, and which lay about 1 km further to the north, and included Wheals Girl, West Virgin, Virgin, East Virgin and Fortune.

The combined group was renamed Clifford Amalgamated Mines and continued, unprofitably, until 1870.


Note: Not to be mistaken for the St Day United Mines.

Alternative Label Names

This is a list of additional names that have been recorded for mineral labels associated with this locality in the minID database. This may include previous versions of the locality name hierarchy from mindat.org, data entry errors, and it may also include unconfirmed sublocality names or other names that can only be matched to this level.

United Mines (Gwennap United Mines), Clifford Amalgamated Mines, Gwennap, Camborne - Redruth - St Day District, Cornwall, England, UK

Regions containing this locality

Devon and Cornwall metalliferous mining district, England, UK

District - 752 mineral species & varietal names listed

Camborne-Redruth and St Day Mining District, Cornwall, England, UK

Mining District - 257 mineral species & varietal names listed

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

28 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Anatase
Formula: TiO2
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Reference: P Haas collection (no. 22-015), ex Bissoe Office
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Reference: Dines, H.G. (1956): The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. HMSO Publications (London), Vol. 1, pp. 420-426.
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Chalcophyllite
Formula: Cu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Reference: Lapis 11(2), 33 (1986)
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Dines, H.G. (1956): The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. HMSO Publications (London), Vol. 1, pp. 420-426.
Chalcopyrite var: Blister Copper
Formula: CuFeS2
Copper
Formula: Cu
Reference: Hill, J.B., MacAlister, D.A., and Flett, J.S. (1906): The geology of Falmouth and Truro and of the mining district of Camborne and Redruth. HSMO Publications (London), 335 pp.
Cornubite
Formula: Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Reference: No reference listed
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: Hill, J.B., MacAlister, D.A., and Flett, J.S. (1906): The geology of Falmouth and Truro and of the mining district of Camborne and Redruth. HSMO Publications (London), 335 pp.
Cuprite var: Chalcotrichite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: Henwood, W.J. (1843): Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall 5, 1-386; Hill, J.B., MacAlister, D.A., and Flett, J.S. (1906): The geology of Falmouth and Truro and of the mining district of Camborne and Redruth. HSMO Publications (London), 335 pp.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Galena
Formula: PbS
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Ian Jones collection; Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Melanterite
Formula: Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Millerite
Formula: NiS
Reference: Lapis 11(2), 33 (1986)
Mimetite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Reference: Hogg, T. (1825): A Manual of Mineralogy. Polyblank Publishers (London), p. 11
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Olivenite
Formula: Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Pseudomalachite
Formula: Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Reference: No reference listed
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Dines, H.G. (1956): The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. HMSO Publications (London), Vol. 1, pp. 420-426.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Dines, H.G. (1956): The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. HMSO Publications (London), Vol. 1, pp. 420-426.
Quartz var: Rock Crystal
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Hall, T.M. (1868): The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Collins, J.H. (1892): "A Handbook to the Mineralogy of Cornwall and Devon", 2nd ed., D. Bradford Barton Ltd. (Truro, UK), 108 pp.
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Dines, H.G. (1956): The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. HMSO Publications (London), Vol. 1, pp. 420-426.
Tennantite
Formula: Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Reference: P Haas collection (no. 22-015), ex Bissoe Office
Tenorite
Formula: CuO
Reference: Dines, H.G. (1956): The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. HMSO Publications (London), Vol. 1, pp. 420-426.
'Wolframite'
Formula: (Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
Reference: Dines, H.G. (1956): The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. HMSO Publications (London), Vol. 1, pp. 420-426.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Arsenopyrite'2.EB.20FeAsS
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
var: Blister Copper2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Millerite2.CC.20NiS
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Tennantite2.GB.05Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Anatase'4.DD.05TiO2
Cassiterite4.DB.05SnO2
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
var: Chalcotrichite4.AA.10Cu2O
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Rock Crystal4.DA.05SiO2
Tenorite4.AB.10CuO
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Baryte'7.AD.35BaSO4
Brochantite7.BB.25Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Melanterite7.CB.35Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Chalcophyllite8.DF.30Cu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Cornubite8.BD.30Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Mimetite8.BN.05Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Olivenite8.BB.30Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Pseudomalachite8.BD.05Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Wolframite-(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Millerite2.8.16.1NiS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
3 <ø < 4
Tennantite3.3.6.2Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
AX
Tenorite4.2.3.1CuO
AX2
Anatase4.4.4.1TiO2
Cassiterite4.4.1.5SnO2
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Melanterite29.6.10.1Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Brochantite30.1.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq
Cornubite41.4.2.1Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Pseudomalachite41.4.3.1Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
A2(XO4)Zq
Olivenite41.6.6.1Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
A5(XO4)3Zq
Mimetite41.8.4.2Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Group 43 - COMPOUND PHOSPHATES, ETC.
Hydrated Compound Phosphates, etc·, Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Chalcophyllite43.5.14.1Cu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Chalcopyrite
var: Blister Copper
-CuFeS2
Cuprite
var: Chalcotrichite
-Cu2O
Quartz
var: Rock Crystal
-SiO2
'Wolframite'-(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
H CornubiteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
H OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
H PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
CCarbon
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C SideriteFeCO3
OOxygen
O AnataseTiO2
O BaryteBaSO4
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O CassiteriteSnO2
O ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
O Cuprite (var: Chalcotrichite)Cu2O
O CornubiteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
O CupriteCu2O
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
O MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
O OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
O PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
O QuartzSiO2
O Quartz (var: Rock Crystal)SiO2
O SideriteFeCO3
O TenoriteCuO
O Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
FFluorine
F FluoriteCaF2
AlAluminium
Al ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Quartz (var: Rock Crystal)SiO2
PPhosphorus
P PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
SSulfur
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S BaryteBaSO4
S Chalcopyrite (var: Blister Copper)CuFeS2
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
S ChalcociteCu2S
S ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S GalenaPbS
S MarcasiteFeS2
S MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
S MilleriteNiS
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S PyriteFeS2
S SphaleriteZnS
S TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
ClChlorine
Cl MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
CaCalcium
Ca FluoriteCaF2
TiTitanium
Ti AnataseTiO2
MnManganese
Mn Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
FeIron
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe Chalcopyrite (var: Blister Copper)CuFeS2
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
NiNickel
Ni MilleriteNiS
CuCopper
Cu Chalcopyrite (var: Blister Copper)CuFeS2
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu Cuprite (var: Chalcotrichite)Cu2O
Cu CopperCu
Cu CornubiteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
Cu PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Cu TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
Cu TenoriteCuO
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
As ChalcophylliteCu18Al2(AsO4)4(SO4)3(OH)24 · 36H2O
As CornubiteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
As MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
As OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
As TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
MoMolybdenum
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
SnTin
Sn CassiteriteSnO2
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
WTungsten
W Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl

Geochronology

Geologic TimeRocks, Minerals and Events
Phanerozoic
 Paleozoic
  Permian
   Guadalupian
ⓘ Major polymetallic mineralization~270 MaCornwall, England, UK
   Cisuralian
ⓘ Porphyry dikes intruded (latest age)~275 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Greisenization (latest age)~280 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Porphyry dikes intruded (earliest age)~280 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Formation of metallized pegmatites~285 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Greisenization (earliest age)~285 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Emplacement of major plutons~295 MaCornwall, England, UK

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Permian
251.902 - 298.9 Ma



ID: 3186762
Paleozoic intrusive rocks

Age: Phanerozoic (251.902 - 298.9 Ma)

Lithology: Intrusive igneous rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Late Devonian
358.9 - 382.7 Ma



ID: 2033495
Upper Devonian Rocks (Undifferentiated)

Age: Late Devonian (358.9 - 382.7 Ma)

Lithology: Mudstone, siltstone and sandstone

Reference: British Geological Survey. DiGMapGB-625. British Geological Survey ©NERC. [23]

Late Devonian
358.9 - 382.7 Ma



ID: 3135052
Late Devonian claystone

Age: Late Devonian (358.9 - 382.7 Ma)

Lithology: Claystone

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Dines, H.G. (1956): The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. HMSO Publications (London), Vol. 1, pp. 420-426.
Lapis 11(2), 33 (1986)

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