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Caledonia Mine, Mass City, Ontonagon Co., Michigan, USAi
Regional Level Types
Caledonia MineMine
Mass CityCity
Ontonagon Co.County
MichiganState
USACountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
46° 45' 3'' North , 89° 7' 13'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Ontonagon1,324 (2017)19.9km
White Pine474 (2017)35.3km


An underground copper mine consisting of two shafts and four adits located approx. 40 miles SW of Houghton, MI. The Caledonia Mining Co. was organized in 1863 after purchasing the Nebraska and Kansas Mining Co. properties. Operations continued until 1871, when Caledonia and the Flinsteel Copper Co. merged together. In 1872, the mine closed having produced approx. 903,000 lbs. of refined copper. From 1873 to 1881, the mine was tributed and another 330,000 lbs. of copper was produced, including one mass weighing 40 tons. The mine was dormant until 1937, when Calumet & Hecla reopened the #4 adit for exploration, but stopped the project due to World War 2. In 1950, C&H returned to continue exploration, drifting, and stoping. Between 1951 and 1958, C&H removed approx. 5.5 million lbs. of refined copper from the #4 adit. In 1985, Red Metal Explorations acquired the Caledonia Mine and conducted exploration of the property until 2013, when Evergreen Explorations purchased the property. The mine is the centerpiece for a week long series of mineral collecting field trips in August put on by local organizations. The mine is exceptional for copper, silver, and datolite, as well as a range of microminerals.

Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate
Keweenaw Peninsula, Michigan, USAPeninsula

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


17 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Mineralogy of Michigan (E. W. Heinrich & G. W. Robinson)
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
Clinochlore var: Pennine
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
Copper
Formula: Cu
Reference: Ref.: Rocks & Min.: 58:112; 63:494; 65:240-243.
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: Ref.: Rocks & Min.: 58:112; 63:494; 65:240-243.
Datolite
Formula: CaB(SiO4)(OH)
Reference: Ref.: Rocks & Min.: 58:112; 63:494; 65:240-243.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Ref.: Rocks & Min.: 58:112; 63:494; 65:240-243.
Gerhardtite
Formula: Cu2(NO3)(OH)3
Reference: Ref.: Rocks & Min.: 58:112; 63:494; 65:240-243.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Ref.: Rocks & Min.: 58:112; 63:494; 65:240-243.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Ref.: Rocks & Min.: 58:112; 63:494; 65:240-243.
'K Feldspar'
Reference: Ref.: Rocks & Min.: 58:112; 63:494; 65:240-243.
'K Feldspar var: Adularia'
Formula: KAlSi3O8
Reference: Ref.: Rocks & Min.: 58:112; 63:494; 65:240-243.
Likasite
Formula: Cu3(NO3)(OH)5 · 2H2O
Reference: Mineralogy of Michigan (E. W. Heinrich & G. W. Robinson)
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Ref.: Rocks & Min.: 58:112; 63:494; 65:240-243.
Prehnite
Formula: Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Reference: Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
'Pumpellyite'
Reference: Ref.: Rocks & Min.: 58:112; 63:494; 65:240-243.
Pumpellyite-(Mg)
Formula: Ca2MgAl2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2O
Reference: www.sauktown sales. com
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Ref.: Rocks & Min.: 58:112; 63:494; 65:240-243.
Saponite
Formula: Ca0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Reference: Ref.: Rocks & Min.: 58:112; 63:494; 65:240-243.
Silver
Formula: Ag
Reference: Ref.: Rocks & Min.: 58:112; 63:494; 65:240-243.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Silver1.AA.05Ag
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Gerhardtite5.NB.05Cu2(NO3)(OH)3
Likasite5.ND.05Cu3(NO3)(OH)5 · 2H2O
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Brochantite7.BB.25Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Group 9 - Silicates
Clinochlore9.EC.55Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
var: Pennine9.EC.55Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Datolite9.AJ.20CaB(SiO4)(OH)
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Microcline9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Prehnite9.DP.20Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Pumpellyite-(Mg)9.BG.20Ca2MgAl2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2O
Saponite9.EC.45Ca0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
'Pumpellyite'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Silver1.1.1.2Ag
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 19 - NITRATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Anhydrous Nitrates Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Gerhardtite19.1.1.1Cu2(NO3)(OH)3
Likasite19.1.5.1Cu3(NO3)(OH)5 · 2H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Brochantite30.1.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Group 54 - NESOSILICATES Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates
Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates with B in [4] coordination
Datolite54.2.1a.1CaB(SiO4)(OH)
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Pumpellyite-(Mg)58.2.2.7Ca2MgAl2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2O
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
Saponite71.3.1b.2Ca0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Clinochlore71.4.1.4Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 4-membered rings
Prehnite72.1.3.1Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Clinochlore
var: Pennine
-Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
'Pumpellyite'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
H GerhardtiteCu2(NO3)(OH)3
H LikasiteCu3(NO3)(OH)5 · 2H2O
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H Clinochlore (var: Pennine)Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
H Pumpellyite-(Mg)Ca2MgAl2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2O
H ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
BBoron
B DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
NNitrogen
N GerhardtiteCu2(NO3)(OH)3
N LikasiteCu3(NO3)(OH)5 · 2H2O
OOxygen
O DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
O K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O QuartzSiO2
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
O HematiteFe2O3
O GerhardtiteCu2(NO3)(OH)3
O CupriteCu2O
O LikasiteCu3(NO3)(OH)5 · 2H2O
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O Clinochlore (var: Pennine)Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O CalciteCaCO3
O PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
O Pumpellyite-(Mg)Ca2MgAl2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2O
O ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
NaSodium
Na SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
MgMagnesium
Mg SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Mg Clinochlore (var: Pennine)Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Mg Pumpellyite-(Mg)Ca2MgAl2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2O
Mg ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
AlAluminium
Al K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Al Clinochlore (var: Pennine)Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Al Pumpellyite-(Mg)Ca2MgAl2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2O
Al ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
SiSilicon
Si DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
Si K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si QuartzSiO2
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Si Clinochlore (var: Pennine)Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Si Pumpellyite-(Mg)Ca2MgAl2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2O
Si ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
SSulfur
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
KPotassium
K K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
CaCalcium
Ca DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Ca Pumpellyite-(Mg)Ca2MgAl2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2O
FeIron
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Fe HematiteFe2O3
CuCopper
Cu CopperCu
Cu GerhardtiteCu2(NO3)(OH)3
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu LikasiteCu3(NO3)(OH)5 · 2H2O
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
AgSilver
Ag SilverAg

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Stenian
1000 - 1200 Ma



ID: 2928167
Portage Lake Volcanics

Age: Stenian (1000 - 1200 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Portage Lake Volcanics

Description: Lava flows, mostly basalt, andesite and felsite flows and subordinate interflow sedimentary rocks.

Comments: This unit is the same as unit Yp on paper map of Sims (1992). Description is taken from that unit description. Original map source: Cannon, W.F., Kress, T.H., Sutphin, D.M., Morey, G.B., Meints, Joyce, and Barber-Delach, Robert, 1997, Digital Geologic Map and mineral deposits of the Lake Superior Region, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan: USGS Open-File Report 97-455 (version 3, Nov. 19

Lithology: Major:{basalt}, Minor:{basaltic andesite}, Incidental:{rhyolite, sandstone mudstone}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Mesoproterozoic
1000 - 1600 Ma



ID: 3190266
Mesoproterozoic volcanic rocks

Age: Mesoproterozoic (1000 - 1600 Ma)

Comments: Mid-Continent Rift

Lithology: Bimodal volcanic rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Rocks & Minerals: 58:112; 63:494; 65:240-243
Butler, B.S., and Burbank, W.S., 1929, The Copper Deposits of Michigan. U.S. Geological Survey. Professional Paper 144. 238 pp.
The Copper Country Rock & Mineral Club, 2001, Red Gold and Tarnished Silver, 2nd Ed., 44 pp.


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