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Caledonia Mine, Mass City, Ontonagon Co., Michigan, USA

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An underground copper mine consisting of two shafts and four adits located approx. 40 miles SW of Houghton, MI. The Caledonia Mining Co. was organized in 1863 after purchasing the Nebraska and Kansas Mining Co. properties. Operations continued until 1871, when Caledonia and the Flinsteel Copper Co. merged together. In 1872, the mine closed having produced approx. 903,000 lbs. of refined copper. From 1873 to 1881, the mine was tributed and another 330,000 lbs. of copper was produced, including one mass weighing 40 tons. The mine was dormant until 1937, when Calumet & Hecla reopened the #4 adit for exploration, but stopped the project due to World War 2. In 1950, C&H returned to continue exploration, drifting, and stoping. Between 1951 and 1958, C&H removed approx. 5.5 million lbs. of refined copper from the #4 adit. In 1985, Red Metal Explorations acquired the Caledonia Mine and conducted exploration of the property until 2013, when Evergreen Explorations purchased the property. The mine is the centerpiece for a week long series of mineral collecting field trips in August put on by local organizations. The mine is exceptional for copper, silver, and datolite, as well as a range of microminerals.

Mineral List

17 valid minerals.

The above list contains all mineral locality references listed on This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.


Rocks & Minerals: 58:112; 63:494; 65:240-243

Butler, B.S., and Burbank, W.S., 1929, The Copper Deposits of Michigan. U.S. Geological Survey. Professional Paper 144. 238 pp.

The Copper Country Rock & Mineral Club, 2001, Red Gold and Tarnished Silver, 2nd Ed., 44 pp.

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