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Wheal Carpenter, Fraddam, Gwinear-Gwithian, Cornwall, England, UKi
Regional Level Types
Wheal CarpenterMine (Reclaimed)
Fraddam- not defined -
Gwinear-GwithianCivil Parish
CornwallCounty
EnglandConstituent Country
UKCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
50° 10' 4'' North , 5° 22' 50'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
UK National Grid Reference:
SW586353
Locality type:
Mine (Reclaimed) - last checked 2019
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Leedstown267 (2017)2.0km
Hayle8,210 (2017)3.4km
Uny Lelant1,056 (2017)4.6km
Germoe175 (2017)5.8km
Breage471 (2017)7.4km


A small mine which has a recorded history starting in 1792-1798. The next recorded working was from the early 1800's to 1818. And again from 1850 to 1855. The mine is known to have produced copper, tin and silver ores. But the only recorded output is 1230 tons of copper ore. The silver ore was in the form of capillary native silver. Engine (Red) lode (east-west) is intersected by a cross-course lode (north-south), this is where the silver may have come from. Silver mineralisation associated with the north-south cross-course faulting is not unknown in Cornwall.

The site was largely destroyed about 20-30 years ago.

Copper Production

CopperOre(tons)Metal(tons)Value(£)
1854488.0016.601444.40
1855212.008.30745.00

Data for period 1854-1855 from "Cornish Mines, University of Exeter (1987)"

Specimens of adamite in the Natural History Museum, London supposedly collected here 1953-55 by Arthur Kingsbury (1906-68) are now considered "implausible" and are probably from Lavrion, Greece. This is one of a number of likely or definitely falsified Kingsbury localities.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


20 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Adamite ?
Formula: Zn2(AsO4)(OH)
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications; Kloprogge, J. T., & Wood, B. J. (2017). X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopic and Raman spectroscopic study of bayldonite from Wheal Carpenter, Cornwall, UK. Vacuum, 141, 49-56.
Arsenopyrite ?
Formula: FeAsS
Description: Kingsbury reference.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 32, n° 249, 423-432.
Bayldonite
Formula: PbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Description: Kingsbury reference.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 32, n° 249, 423-432.; Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications.; Kloprogge, J. T., & Wood, B. J. (2017). X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopic and Raman spectroscopic study of bayldonite from Wheal Carpenter, Cornwall, UK. Vacuum, 141, 49-56.
Beudantite
Formula: PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Colour: yellowish-green to greenish-brown
Description: Kingsbury reference.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 32, n° 249, 423-432.; Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications.; Kloprogge, J. T., & Wood, B. J. (2017). X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopic and Raman spectroscopic study of bayldonite from Wheal Carpenter, Cornwall, UK. Vacuum, 141, 49-56.
'Beudantite Group'
Formula: AM3(XO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: S. Rust Collection
Carminite ?
Formula: PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
Description: Kingsbury reference.
Reference: Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 32, n° 249, 423-432.; Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Reference: Dines, H.G. (1956): The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. HMSO Publications (London), Vol. 1, p. 167.
Cornubite (TL)
Formula: Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Type Locality:
Reference: Claringbull, G.F., Hey, M.H., and Davis, R.J. (1959): Mineralogical Magazine 32, 1–5.; Kloprogge, J. T., & Wood, B. J. (2017). X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopic and Raman spectroscopic study of bayldonite from Wheal Carpenter, Cornwall, UK. Vacuum, 141, 49-56.
Cornwallite
Formula: Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Reference: Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols; Mineralogical Magazine 1959 32 : 1-5.; Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications; Kloprogge, J. T., & Wood, B. J. (2017). X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopic and Raman spectroscopic study of bayldonite from Wheal Carpenter, Cornwall, UK. Vacuum, 141, 49-56.
Linarite
Formula: PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications; Kloprogge, J. T., & Wood, B. J. (2017). X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopic and Raman spectroscopic study of bayldonite from Wheal Carpenter, Cornwall, UK. Vacuum, 141, 49-56.
Liskeardite
Formula: [(Al,Fe)32(AsO4)18(OH)42(H2O)22] · 52H2O
Reference: No reference listed
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Carne, J. (1822): Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall 2, 49-128; Hogg, T. (1825): A Manual of Mineralogy. Polyblank Publishers (London), p. 34; Braithwaite, R. S. W., & Ryback, G. (1994). Reichenbachite from Cornwall and Portugal. Mineralogical Magazine, 58(392), 449-454.; Kloprogge, J. T., & Wood, B. J. (2017). X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopic and Raman spectroscopic study of bayldonite from Wheal Carpenter, Cornwall, UK. Vacuum, 141, 49-56.
Mimetite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications; Kloprogge, J. T., & Wood, B. J. (2017). X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopic and Raman spectroscopic study of bayldonite from Wheal Carpenter, Cornwall, UK. Vacuum, 141, 49-56.
Mixite
Formula: BiCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications; Kloprogge, J. T., & Wood, B. J. (2017). X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopic and Raman spectroscopic study of bayldonite from Wheal Carpenter, Cornwall, UK. Vacuum, 141, 49-56.
Philipsburgite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
Reference: [Golley & Williams, 1995, 47 - "Cornish Mineral Reference Manual"]
'Phillipsite' ?
Description: May be reference to philipsburgite
Reference: Kloprogge, J. T., & Wood, B. J. (2017). X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopic and Raman spectroscopic study of bayldonite from Wheal Carpenter, Cornwall, UK. Vacuum, 141, 49-56.
Plumbojarosite
Formula: Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: [Golley & Williams, 1995, 48 - "Cornish Mineral Reference Manual"]; Kloprogge, J. T., & Wood, B. J. (2017). X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopic and Raman spectroscopic study of bayldonite from Wheal Carpenter, Cornwall, UK. Vacuum, 141, 49-56.
Pseudomalachite
Formula: Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Reference: [Golley & Williams, 1995, 49 - "Cornish Mineral Reference Manual"]; Braithwaite, R. S. W., & Ryback, G. (1994). Reichenbachite from Cornwall and Portugal. Mineralogical Magazine, 58(392), 449-454.; Kloprogge, J. T., & Wood, B. J. (2017). X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopic and Raman spectroscopic study of bayldonite from Wheal Carpenter, Cornwall, UK. Vacuum, 141, 49-56.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Claringbull, G.F., Hey, M.H., and Davis, R.J. (1959) Cornubite, a new mineral dimorphous with cornwallite. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 32, n° n° 244, 1-5.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 32, n° 249, 423-432.; Kloprogge, J. T., & Wood, B. J. (2017). X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopic and Raman spectroscopic study of bayldonite from Wheal Carpenter, Cornwall, UK. Vacuum, 141, 49-56.
Silver
Formula: Ag
Reference: Kloprogge, J. T., & Wood, B. J. (2017). X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopic and Raman spectroscopic study of bayldonite from Wheal Carpenter, Cornwall, UK. Vacuum, 141, 49-56.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Dines, H.G. (1956): The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. HMSO Publications (London), Vol. 1, p. 167.
'Tetrahedrite'
Formula: Cu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
Reference: Kloprogge, J. T., & Wood, B. J. (2017). X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopic and Raman spectroscopic study of bayldonite from Wheal Carpenter, Cornwall, UK. Vacuum, 141, 49-56.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Silver1.AA.05Ag
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Arsenopyrite ?2.EB.20FeAsS
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
'Tetrahedrite'2.GB.05Cu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Cassiterite4.DB.05SnO2
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Anglesite7.AD.35PbSO4
Linarite7.BC.65PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Plumbojarosite7.BC.10Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Adamite ?8.BB.30Zn2(AsO4)(OH)
Bayldonite8.BH.45PbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Beudantite8.BL.05PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Carminite ?8.BH.30PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
Cornubite (TL)8.BD.30Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Cornwallite8.BD.05Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Liskeardite8.DF.10[(Al,Fe)32(AsO4)18(OH)42(H2O)22] · 52H2O
Mimetite8.BN.05Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Mixite8.DL.15BiCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Philipsburgite8.DA.35(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
Pseudomalachite8.BD.05Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Beudantite Group'-AM3(XO4)(SO4)(OH)6
'Phillipsite' ?-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Silver1.1.1.2Ag
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite ?2.12.4.1FeAsS
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
3 <ø < 4
'Tetrahedrite'3.3.6.1Cu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
AX2
Cassiterite4.4.1.5SnO2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Linarite30.2.3.1PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Plumbojarosite30.2.5.6Pb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq
Cornubite (TL)41.4.2.1Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Cornwallite41.4.2.2Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Pseudomalachite41.4.3.1Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Bayldonite41.5.14.1PbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
A2(XO4)Zq
Adamite ?41.6.6.3Zn2(AsO4)(OH)
A5(XO4)3Zq
Mimetite41.8.4.2Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
(AB)3(XO4)2Zq
Carminite ?41.10.6.1PbFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A3(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Liskeardite42.1.1.1[(Al,Fe)32(AsO4)18(OH)42(H2O)22] · 52H2O
(AB)3(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Philipsburgite42.2.4.2(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
(AB)7(XO4)3Zq·xH2O
Mixite42.5.1.1BiCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Group 43 - COMPOUND PHOSPHATES, ETC.
Anhydrous Compound Phosphates, etc·, Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Beudantite43.4.1.1PbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Beudantite Group'-AM3(XO4)(SO4)(OH)6
'Phillipsite' ?-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H CornubiteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
H BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
H BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
H CornwalliteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
H LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
H MixiteBiCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
H Philipsburgite(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
H PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
H PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
H Liskeardite[(Al,Fe)32(AsO4)18(OH)42(H2O)22] · 52H2O
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H Beudantite GroupAM3(XO4)(SO4)(OH)6
H AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
H CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
CCarbon
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
OOxygen
O CornubiteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
O AnglesitePbSO4
O BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
O BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
O CornwalliteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
O LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
O MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
O MixiteBiCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
O Philipsburgite(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
O PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
O PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
O Liskeardite[(Al,Fe)32(AsO4)18(OH)42(H2O)22] · 52H2O
O QuartzSiO2
O CassiteriteSnO2
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O Beudantite GroupAM3(XO4)(SO4)(OH)6
O AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
O CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al Liskeardite[(Al,Fe)32(AsO4)18(OH)42(H2O)22] · 52H2O
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
PPhosphorus
P Philipsburgite(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
P PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
SSulfur
S AnglesitePbSO4
S BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
S LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
S PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
S SphaleriteZnS
S Beudantite GroupAM3(XO4)(SO4)(OH)6
S TetrahedriteCu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
ClChlorine
Cl MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
FeIron
Fe BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Fe PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe Liskeardite[(Al,Fe)32(AsO4)18(OH)42(H2O)22] · 52H2O
Fe CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
CuCopper
Cu CornubiteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Cu BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Cu CornwalliteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Cu LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Cu MixiteBiCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
Cu Philipsburgite(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
Cu PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu TetrahedriteCu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
ZnZinc
Zn Philipsburgite(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
AsArsenic
As CornubiteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
As BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
As BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
As CornwalliteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
As MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
As MixiteBiCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O
As Philipsburgite(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2O
As Liskeardite[(Al,Fe)32(AsO4)18(OH)42(H2O)22] · 52H2O
As AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
As CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
AgSilver
Ag SilverAg
SnTin
Sn CassiteriteSnO2
SbAntimony
Sb TetrahedriteCu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
PbLead
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb BayldonitePbCu3(AsO4)2(OH)2
Pb BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Pb LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Pb MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pb PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
Pb CarminitePbFe23+(AsO4)2(OH)2
BiBismuth
Bi MixiteBiCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2O

Geochronology

Geologic TimeRocks, Minerals and Events
Phanerozoic
 Paleozoic
  Permian
   Guadalupian
ⓘ Major polymetallic mineralization~270 MaCornwall, England, UK
   Cisuralian
ⓘ Porphyry dikes intruded (latest age)~275 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Greisenization (latest age)~280 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Porphyry dikes intruded (earliest age)~280 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Formation of metallized pegmatites~285 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Greisenization (earliest age)~285 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Emplacement of major plutons~295 MaCornwall, England, UK

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Dines, H.G. (1956) The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. HMSO Publications (London), Vol. 1, p. 167.
Claringbull, G.F., Hey, M.H., and Davis, R.J. (1959) Cornubite, a new mineral dimorphous with cornwallite. Mineralogical Magazine 32, 1–5.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1960) Carminite and beudantite from the northern part of the Lake District and from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 32, n° 249, 423-432.
Ryback, G., Hart, A.D., and Stanley, C.J. (2001) Journal of the Russell Society 7(2)

Other Regions, Features and Areas containing this locality

British IslesGroup of Islands
Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate
EuropeContinent
UK

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