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Caspari Mine, Uentrop, Arnsberg, Sauerland, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germanyi
Regional Level Types
Caspari MineMine
Uentrop- not defined -
Arnsberg- not defined -
Sauerland- not defined -
North Rhine-WestphaliaDistrict
GermanyCountry

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Name(s) in local language(s):Caspari-Zeche (Antimon-Grube Gaspari), Uentrop, Arnsberg, Sauerland, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Deutschland
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 51° 24' 25'' North , 8° 5' 52'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 51.40694,8.09778
GeoHash:G#: u1ju2q2e5
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Cfb : Temperate oceanic climate
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Arnsberg76,612 (2015)2.8km
Möhnesee11,559 (2015)10.6km
Sundern29,609 (2015)10.9km
Meschede32,224 (2015)14.3km
Eslohe9,304 (2015)17.7km


Ancient antimony mine, worked from 1825 to 1885. The deposit was worked earlier in search of lead ores, in 1725 and around 1787, but soon abandoned at these times. Today, the underground workings are completely inaccessible, but some dumps, consisting to some part of ancient slags (separate sublocality), still remain northeast of Uentrop, about 2.5 km NE of Arnsberg.

Regions containing this locality

Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate
EuropeContinent
Rhenish Massif, EuropeMassif

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

43 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Ammoniojarosite
Formula: (NH4)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Reference: Lapis, 14 (6), 11-32+50.
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Lapis, 14 (6), 11-32+50.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Lapis, 14 (6), 11-32+50.
Berthierite
Formula: FeSb2S4
Reference: Bindi, L. & Menchetti, S. (2005): GarMineralogy and Petrology, 85, 131-140.
'Bindheimite'
Formula: Pb2Sb2O6O
Reference: Lapis, 14 (6), 11-32+50.
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Reference: Bindi, L. & Menchetti, S. (2005): GarMineralogy and Petrology, 85, 131-140.
Boulangerite
Formula: Pb5Sb4S11
Reference: Dana 7:I:421.
Bournonite
Formula: PbCuSbS3
Reference: Lapis, 14 (6), 11-32+50.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Lapis, 14 (6), 11-32+50.
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Reference: Lapis, 14 (6), 11-32+50.
Cervantite
Formula: Sb3+Sb5+O4
Reference: Lapis, 14 (6), 11-32+50.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Bindi, L. & Menchetti, S. (2005): GarMineralogy and Petrology, 85, 131-140.
Chalcostibite
Formula: CuSbS2
Reference: Lapis, 14 (6), 11-32+50.
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Wagner, T., and Cook, N.J. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 206-222.
Claudetite
Formula: As2O3
Reference: Lapis, 14 (6), 11-32+50.
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Lapis, 14 (6), 11-32+50.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: Lapis, 14 (6), 11-32+50.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
Garavellite
Formula: FeSbBiS4
Reference: Bindi, L. & Menchetti, S. (2005): Garavellite, FeSbBiS4, from the Caspari mine, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany: composition, physical properties and determination of the crystal structure. Mineralogy and Petrology, 85, 131-140.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Lapis, 14 (6), 11-32+50.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Lapis, 14 (6), 11-32+50.
Heteromorphite (TL)
Formula: Pb7Sb8S19
Type Locality:
Reference: Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, volume 151, pp. 193 (1980); Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
Hidalgoite
Formula: PbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Lapis, 14 (6), 11-32+50.
Hydroniumjarosite
Formula: (H3O)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Lapis, 14 (6), 11-32+50.
Jamesonite
Formula: Pb4FeSb6S14
Reference: Lapis, 14 (6), 11-32+50.
Kermesite
Formula: Sb2S2O
Reference: Lapis, 14 (6), 11-32+50.
Larsenite
Formula: PbZnSiO4
Reference: Schnorrer-Köhler, G. (1989): Das Antimonerzvorkommen der Caspari-Zeche bei Arnsberg im Sauerland. Lapis 14(6), 11-32, 50.
Leiteite ?
Formula: Zn(As2O4)
Description: Considered questionable by Blaß & Graf (1993) who found all "leiteites" to be valentinite instead.
Reference: Schnorrer-Köhler, G. (1989): Das Antimonerzvorkommen der Caspari-Zeche bei Arnsberg im Sauerland. Lapis 14(6), 11-32, 50; Blaß, G. & Graf, H.W. (1993):
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Lapis, 14 (6), 11-32+50.
Metastibnite
Formula: Sb2S3
Reference: Lapis, 14 (6), 11-32+50.
Mimetite
Formula: Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Reference: Lapis, 14 (6), 11-32+50.
Plagionite
Formula: Pb5Sb8S17
Reference: Lapis, 14 (6), 11-32+50.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Lapis, 14 (6), 11-32+50.
Pyromorphite
Formula: Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Reference: Lapis, 14 (6), 11-32+50.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Lapis, 14 (6), 11-32+50; Wagner, T., and Cook, N.J. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 206-222.
Rosasite
Formula: (Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Lapis, 14 (6), 11-32+50.
Semseyite
Formula: Pb9Sb8S21
Reference: Lapis, 14 (6), 11-32+50.
Senarmontite
Formula: Sb2O3
Reference: Lapis, 14 (6), 11-32+50.
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: Bindi, L. & Menchetti, S. (2005): GarMineralogy and Petrology, 85, 131-140.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Lapis, 14 (6), 11-32+50.
'Stibiconite'
Formula: Sb3+Sb5+2O6(OH)
Reference: Lapis, 14 (6), 11-32+50.
Stibnite
Formula: Sb2S3
Reference: Wagner, T., and Cook, N.J. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 206-222.
Valentinite
Formula: Sb2O3
Reference: Lapis, 14 (6), 11-32+50.
Vivianite
Formula: Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: Schnorrer-Köhler, G. (1989): Das Antimonerzvorkommen der Caspari-Zeche bei Arnsberg im Sauerland. Lapis 14(6), 11-32, 50.
Zinkenite
Formula: Pb9Sb22S42
Reference: Lapis, 14 (6), 11-32+50; Wagner, T., and Cook, N.J. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 206-222

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Berthierite2.HA.20FeSb2S4
Bismuthinite2.DB.05Bi2S3
Boulangerite2.HC.15Pb5Sb4S11
Bournonite2.GA.50PbCuSbS3
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Chalcostibite2.HA.05CuSbS2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Garavellite2.HA.20FeSbBiS4
Heteromorphite (TL)2.HC.10cPb7Sb8S19
Jamesonite2.HB.15Pb4FeSb6S14
Kermesite2.FD.05Sb2S2O
Metastibnite2.DB.05Sb2S3
Plagionite2.HC.10bPb5Sb8S17
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Semseyite2.HC.10dPb9Sb8S21
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Stibnite2.DB.05Sb2S3
Zinkenite2.JB.35aPb9Sb22S42
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Bindheimite'4.DH.20Pb2Sb2O6O
Cervantite4.DE.30Sb3+Sb5+O4
Claudetite4.CB.45As2O3
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Leiteite ?4.JA.05Zn(As2O4)
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Senarmontite4.CB.50Sb2O3
'Stibiconite'4.DH.20Sb3+Sb5+2O6(OH)
Valentinite4.CB.55Sb2O3
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Aragonite5.AB.15CaCO3
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Rosasite5.BA.10(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Ammoniojarosite7.BC.10(NH4)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Anglesite7.AD.35PbSO4
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Hydroniumjarosite7.BC.10(H3O)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Hidalgoite8.BL.05PbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Mimetite8.BN.05Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pyromorphite8.BN.05Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Vivianite8.CE.40Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Larsenite9.AB.10PbZnSiO4
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Chlorite Group'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Bismuthinite2.11.2.3Bi2S3
Metastibnite2.11.3.1Sb2S3
Stibnite2.11.2.1Sb2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Oxysulfides
Kermesite2.13.1.1Sb2S2O
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
ø = 3
Bournonite3.4.3.2PbCuSbS3
2.5 < ø < 3
Boulangerite3.5.2.1Pb5Sb4S11
2 < ø < 2.49
Heteromorphite (TL)3.6.20.3Pb7Sb8S19
Jamesonite3.6.7.1Pb4FeSb6S14
Plagionite3.6.20.2Pb5Sb8S17
Semseyite3.6.20.4Pb9Sb8S21
ø = 2
Berthierite3.7.9.3FeSb2S4
Chalcostibite3.7.5.1CuSbS2
Garavellite3.7.9.4FeSbBiS4
1 < ø < 2
Zinkenite3.8.1.1Pb9Sb22S42
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Claudetite4.3.10.1As2O3
Senarmontite4.3.9.2Sb2O3
Valentinite4.3.11.1Sb2O3
AX2
Cervantite4.4.16.1Sb3+Sb5+O4
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Rosasite16a.3.1.2(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Ammoniojarosite30.2.5.4(NH4)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
A3(XO4)2·xH2O
Vivianite40.3.6.1Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Mimetite41.8.4.2Pb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pyromorphite41.8.4.1Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Group 43 - COMPOUND PHOSPHATES, ETC.
Anhydrous Compound Phosphates, etc·, Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Hidalgoite43.4.1.3PbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Group 44 - ANTIMONATES
A2X2O6(O,OH,F)
'Bindheimite'44.1.1.2Pb2Sb2O6O
'Stibiconite'44.1.1.1Sb3+Sb5+2O6(OH)
Group 45 - ACID AND NORMAL ANTIMONITES AND ARSENITES
Miscellaneous
Leiteite ?45.1.7.1Zn(As2O4)
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [4] as well as >[4]
Larsenite51.2.1.2PbZnSiO4
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Aragonite-CaCO3
'Chlorite Group'-
Hydroniumjarosite-(H3O)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H StibiconiteSb3+Sb25+O6(OH)
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
H Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
H HidalgoitePbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H Ammoniojarosite(NH4)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
H VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C AragoniteCaCO3
C CerussitePbCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
C SideriteFeCO3
NNitrogen
N Ammoniojarosite(NH4)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
OOxygen
O KermesiteSb2S2O
O ValentiniteSb2O3
O SenarmontiteSb2O3
O ClaudetiteAs2O3
O StibiconiteSb3+Sb25+O6(OH)
O BindheimitePb2Sb2O6O
O QuartzSiO2
O CervantiteSb3+Sb5+O4
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O CalciteCaCO3
O AragoniteCaCO3
O CerussitePbCO3
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
O BaryteBaSO4
O AnglesitePbSO4
O Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
O HidalgoitePbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
O MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
O LarsenitePbZnSiO4
O Ammoniojarosite(NH4)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
O SideriteFeCO3
O VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
O LeiteiteZn(As2O4)
FFluorine
F FluoriteCaF2
MgMagnesium
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
AlAluminium
Al HidalgoitePbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si LarsenitePbZnSiO4
PPhosphorus
P PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
P VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
SSulfur
S HeteromorphitePb7Sb8S19
S BoulangeritePb5Sb4S11
S SphaleriteZnS
S MetastibniteSb2S3
S KermesiteSb2S2O
S PyriteFeS2
S BournonitePbCuSbS3
S ZinkenitePb9Sb22S42
S PlagionitePb5Sb8S17
S JamesonitePb4FeSb6S14
S SemseyitePb9Sb8S21
S BaryteBaSO4
S AnglesitePbSO4
S Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
S HidalgoitePbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S ChalcostibiteCuSbS2
S Ammoniojarosite(NH4)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
S StibniteSb2S3
S GalenaPbS
S GaravelliteFeSbBiS4
S BerthieriteFeSb2S4
S BismuthiniteBi2S3
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
ClChlorine
Cl PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Cl MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
CaCalcium
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
FeIron
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe JamesonitePb4FeSb6S14
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe Ammoniojarosite(NH4)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe GaravelliteFeSbBiS4
Fe BerthieriteFeSb2S4
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
CuCopper
Cu BournonitePbCuSbS3
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu ChalcostibiteCuSbS2
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
Zn LarsenitePbZnSiO4
Zn LeiteiteZn(As2O4)
AsArsenic
As ClaudetiteAs2O3
As HidalgoitePbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
As MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
As LeiteiteZn(As2O4)
SbAntimony
Sb HeteromorphitePb7Sb8S19
Sb BoulangeritePb5Sb4S11
Sb MetastibniteSb2S3
Sb KermesiteSb2S2O
Sb BournonitePbCuSbS3
Sb ZinkenitePb9Sb22S42
Sb PlagionitePb5Sb8S17
Sb JamesonitePb4FeSb6S14
Sb SemseyitePb9Sb8S21
Sb ValentiniteSb2O3
Sb SenarmontiteSb2O3
Sb StibiconiteSb3+Sb25+O6(OH)
Sb BindheimitePb2Sb2O6O
Sb CervantiteSb3+Sb5+O4
Sb ChalcostibiteCuSbS2
Sb StibniteSb2S3
Sb GaravelliteFeSbBiS4
Sb BerthieriteFeSb2S4
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
PbLead
Pb HeteromorphitePb7Sb8S19
Pb BoulangeritePb5Sb4S11
Pb BournonitePbCuSbS3
Pb ZinkenitePb9Sb22S42
Pb PlagionitePb5Sb8S17
Pb JamesonitePb4FeSb6S14
Pb SemseyitePb9Sb8S21
Pb BindheimitePb2Sb2O6O
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb HidalgoitePbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Pb PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
Pb MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Pb LarsenitePbZnSiO4
Pb GalenaPbS
BiBismuth
Bi GaravelliteFeSbBiS4
Bi BismuthiniteBi2S3

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Late Carboniferous
298.9 - 323.2 Ma



ID: 3142656
Late Carboniferous quartzite

Age: Pennsylvanian (298.9 - 323.2 Ma)

Lithology: Major:{quartzite}, Minor{sandstone,shale/slate}

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Early Carboniferous
323.2 - 358.9 Ma



ID: 2607419

Age: Mississippian (323.2 - 358.9 Ma)

Description: marine

Comments: Kulm facies

Lithology: Graywacke, shale and/or slate, plattenkalk, kieselkalk, radiolarite, alum shale

Reference: Toloczyki, M., P. Trurnit, A. Voges, H. Wittekindt, A. Zitzmann. Geological Map of Germany 1:M. Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe. [94]

Devonian
358.9 - 419.2 Ma



ID: 3186341
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Devonian (358.9 - 419.2 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
- Dana 7:I:421
- Hatton, H. (1979): Flußspatvorkommen auf der Casparizeche bei Arnsberg/Westfalen. Der Aufschluss, 30 (6), 210-xx.
- Pardun, H. (1987): Die Caspari-Zeche in der Gemarkung Uentrop bei Arnsberg. Heimatblätter Arnsberger Heimatbund, Bd. 8, 37-44.
- Schnorrer-Köhler, G. (1989): Das Antimonerzvorkommen der Caspari-Zeche bei Arnsberg im Sauerland. Lapis 14(6), 11-32, 50.
- D. Pawlowski: "Mineralfundstellen im Sauerland", Weise (Munich), 1991
- Wagner, T., and Cook, N.J. (2000): Late-Variscan antimony mineralisation in the Rheinisches Schiefergebirge, NW Germany: evidence for stibnite precipitation by drastic cooling of high-temperature fluid systems. Mineralium Deposita 35, 206-222.
- Wagner, T., Boyce, A.J. (2003) Sulphur isotope geochemistry of black shale-hosted antimony mineralization, Arnsberg, northern Rhenish Massif, Germany: Implications for late-stage fluid flow during the Variscan orogeny. J. Geol. Soc. London, 160, 299-308.
- Bindi, L. & Menchetti, S. (2005): Garavellite, FeSbBiS4, from the Caspari mine, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany: composition, physical properties and determination of the crystal structure. Mineralogy and Petrology, 85, 131-140.

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This page contains all mineral locality references listed on mindat.org. This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in mindat.org without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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