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Katerina Mine (Ashley mine; Caterina mine; Catherin mine; Catherina mine; Katrina mine), Hiriart Mountain (Hariat Mtn; Harriot Mtn; Heriart Mtn; Heriot Mtn; Hiriat Hill), Pala, Pala District, San Diego Co., California, USA

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 33° 22' 23'' North , 117° 2' 33'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 33.37306,-117.04250
GeoHash:G#: 9muvbekk0
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Csa : Hot-summer Mediterranean climate


"Katerina"
—Italian, meaning "pure".

Setting:
Located in the center of the S2SW4 Sec. 24 T9S R2W SBM, the mine is low on the southwest slope of Hiriart Mountain, aggregating 20.66 acres, more or less. Over 2,056 tons of material had been excavated from open pit operations at the Katerina mine, principally during the period from 1902 to 1940. Approximately 2,019 tons of rock and ore had been removed from 13 underground workings between 1902 and 1992.

The Katerina mine is located approximately 2.5 miles east of the town of Pala, in San Diego county. Access is 1.3 miles north from state highway 76, on Magee road. The west boundary (endline) of the lode mining claim is 321 feet east of Magee road. Access to the property is by a two track dirt road, ending 992 feet from the intersection with Magee road. Slopes on the claim are steep, measured by Brunton compass at approximately 24 degrees. The claim is positioned on the south slope of Hirart Mountain at an elevation varying from 820 feet at the southwest corner to 1,240 feet above sea level at the northeast corner. A steep, narrow, south flowing drainage dissects the claim across the center of the property.

History:
The deposit was discovered by Bernardo Hiriart and first located under the general mining laws by Marion M. Sickler on March 15th of 1902. Sickler reported that later that year, he and his son Frederick, discovered nodular to blade-like crystal fragments of a clear, colorless to straw-yellow and pale-lilac mineral. Several unsuccessful efforts were made to identify the mineral, until December of 1902, when they sent specimens to George Frederick Kunz, a gem expert for Tiffany and Company of New York. This newfound gem variety of liliac-colored spodumene was subsequently named in honor of Dr. Kunz, and was popularly known as "California's own gem"[1].

Not long after the date of the Katerina location, the surrounding vacant public lands were temporarily withdrawn and removed from mineral entry under the United States land and mineral laws pursuant to Secretarial Order dated January 24, 1903. This order was a temporary withdrawal pending acquisition of all private inholdings, including valid existing rights, for the benefit of the Pala Tribe, under Indian tract allotment pursuant to the Act of January 12, 1891.

In 1905, Kunz described the Katerina mine as a cut 40 feet in length and 30 feet in width, which exposed a ledge of lepidolite 2.5 feet thick, producing about 6 tons of lepidolite. Also from this cut was reported some kunzite and spodumene production, the greater part of which was considered float. Other gems found included pink beryl and a few tourmalines.

In 1906, Kunz described the main Katerina development as a large open cut which cut the "pay streak", or central part gem-bearing part of the ledge, which varied from 2 to 4 feet in thickness, and consisted of quartz, albite and lepidolite. Several pockets were reported to be found, primarily containing quartz crystals and violet-colored kunzite. Another cut some one hundred yards to the east was said to reveal similar pockets, with pink kunzite and some indicolite, together with quartz crystals, often clear and fine. One pocket from here was said to yield nearly a ton of crystallized quartz, with some individual crystals weighing up to 40 pounds.

Between 1907 and 1938, Marion Sickler reported a total approximately 538 days of work extending tunnels and open pit at the Katerina mine. On August 27th, 1938, Marion M. Sickler deeded the mine to his son Fred for 1 dollar and 'love and affection'. Between 1939 and 1946, Fred reported a total of approximately 150 days of work prospecting the ledges.

On July 28, 1947, Fred M. Sickler and his wife Florence A. Sickler sold the mine to George A. Ashley of Pala. In 1948 Ashley reported running over 68 feet of tunnels. Between 1949 and 1956, a small amount of work was accomplished, and Ashley continued filing his affidavit of annual assessment work.

Ashley sold the claim to Karl V. Morin Jr. of Vista and Jean P. Oddous on January 4th of 1957. Work began improving the road, and renewed tunneling and drifting at the Katerina throughout 1959. In 1960, a well was drilled on the property, and other sections of pegmatite were prospected for gem minerals. Again in 1964 tunneling and drifting operations at the Katerina throughout 1965. Between 1972 and 1984, additional tunneling and some open pit work was accomplished by Morin and mineral collector Al Ordway of Hesperia.

On November 1, 1990, Morin leased the Katerina mine for 5 years to Otto Komarek and Byron Weege, both of Pala. In December of 1990, Weege discovered a large pocket while working underground which contained several cathedral-style quartz crystals, many with tiny indicolite inclusions, giving the quartz a pale bluish cast. Over 125 feet of underground drift was constructed by Komarek and Weege, utilizing a small diesel wheeled loader to load and haul waste rock to the surface for dumping, combined with hand tool work while working the pocket zone. On December 21st of 1992, Morin quitclaimed an undivided 2/3rds interest in the Katerina lode mining claim to Komarek and Weege.

On December 9, 1992, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), initiated an investigation and verification of rights under the United States mining laws in order for the claimants to proceed with planned mining activities. Field examinations of the Katerina mine were conducted beginning with a preliminary examination on January 7th, 1993. In March and April of 1994, the BLM conducted surveys of the mining claim boundaries. Investigations continued in January of 1996, with detailed field examinations of the Katerina lode claim conducted by mineral examiners Robert M. Waiwood and Walter R. Todd between March and April. These examinations detailed the mineralization of the claim, and included survey and mapping of all improvements and access to them.

On March 20, 1996, two pockets were discovered underground by Karl Morin, Otto Komarek, and Byron Weege, and over 1,200 grams of kunzite and over 2,000 grams of morganite specimens were removed from the pockets. On October 30, 1996, a mineral report was completed and serialized, completing the validity examination of the Katerina Lode, which concluded that the claimants had fulfilled all obligations under the mining laws, and had a right to proceed with mineral operations, and a right of access guaranteed under the General Mining Law of May 10, 1872 (30 USC 22 et seq.).

In November of 1998, a small find of kunzite was made in the area of the dike worked by Ashley during the early 1950's. The mine area was consumed by wildfire which started near the southern claim boundary in July of 2001.

On May 5, 2003, Otto Komarek quitclaimed his one half of one third portion of the Katerina mining claim to Byron C. Weege.

On April 5, 2005, Karl Morin quitclaimed his two thirds portion of the Katerina mine claim to Byron C. Weege, giving Byron Weege ownership of the entire Katerina mining claim.

In 2007 - 2010 Byron Weege with the help of friends Stephen and Lisa Koonce and Joe Johnson minor prospecting and exploration of the Katerina mine claim was conducted with the purpose of beginning operations at the mine in the near future. During this period a few small pockets were encountered in the upper tunnels yielding both Kunzite and Morganite crystals.

In July of 2010 Byron C. Weege passed away and transfered the Katerina mining claim to his brother.

On October 1, 2012, Greg Weege quitclaimed the entire Katerina mining claim over to Joe Johnson. With the intent to once again get the Katerina mine in working condition as Byron wanted.

Currently the Katerina mining claim is again being prospected and a plan of operations has be made for beginning operations at the Katerina mine in early 2013. Joe Johnson, Stephen and Lisa Koonce and several other experienced Pala area miners are working hard to once again bring the Katerina mine back into active operation.



Footnotes:
1.Kunz received spodumene samples from Frederick M. Sickler, but no locality information was given at that time. There is, however, ample supporting evidence that the samples sent to New York were from the discovery workings of the Katerina mine.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

24 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Rocks & Minerals: May, 1999.
Albite var: Cleavelandite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Rocks & Minerals: May, 1999.
Amblygonite
Formula: LiAl(PO4)F
Reference: Rocks & Minerals: May, 1999.
Bertrandite
Formula: Be4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Rocks & Minerals: May, 1999.
Beryl var: Goshenite
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L. A. (1951), Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A: 40.
Beryl var: Morganite
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Rocks & Minerals: May, 1999.; Jesse Fisher (2011) Mines and Minerals of the Southern California Pegmatite Province. Rocks & Minerals 86:14-34.
Columbite-(Fe)
Formula: FeNb2O6
'Columbite-Tantalite'
Cookeite
Formula: (Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
'Feldspar Group'
Reference: Rocks & Minerals: May, 1999.
'Feldspar Group var: Perthite'
Reference: Rocks & Minerals: May, 1999.
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Reference: Rocks & Minerals: May, 1999.
Foitite ?
Formula: (□,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Reference: Rocks & Minerals: May, 1999
Helvine
Formula: Be3Mn2+4(SiO4)3S
Reference: Jahns, Richard Henry & Lauren A. Wright (1951), Gem and lithium bearing pegmatites of the Pala district, San Diego County, California: California Division Mines Special Report 7-A: 31, 38.
'Lepidolite'
Reference: Rocks & Minerals: May, 1999.
Lithiophilite
Formula: LiMn2+PO4
Reference: Rocks & Minerals, May, 1999 Moore, P. B., 2000, Analyses of Primary Phosphates from Pegmatites in Maine and Other Localities, in V. T. King (editor), Mineralogy of Maine. Mining History, Gems, and Geology, Maine Geological Survey, Augusta, Maine, p. 333-336.
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Rocks & Minerals: May, 1999.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Rocks & Minerals: May, 1999.
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L. A. (1951), Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A: 40.
Phenakite
Formula: Be2SiO4
Pseudomalachite
Formula: Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Reference: Wentzell, Christopher N. (~1991), Discovery of pseudomalachite while chip sampling walls in the main underground workings developed by Sickler.
Pucherite
Formula: Bi(VO4)
Reference: Fisher, J. (1999), The Katerina Mine, A Morganite And Kunzite bearing Pegmatite In The Pala District, San Diego County, California. Rocks & Minerals, May.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Rocks & Minerals: May, 1999.
Schorl
Formula: Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: Rocks & Minerals: May, 1999.
Spodumene
Formula: LiAlSi2O6
Reference: Rocks & Minerals: May, 1999.
Spodumene var: Kunzite
Formula: LiAlSi2O6
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 23:517.; Jesse Fisher (2011) Mines and Minerals of the Southern California Pegmatite Province. Rocks & Minerals 86:14-34.
Stibiotantalite
Formula: Sb(Ta,Nb)O4
Reference: Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L. A. (1951), Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A: 31, 40.
Tantalite-(Mn)
Formula: MnTa2O6
Reference: Dana 6:A3:22.
Topaz
Formula: Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Rocks & Minerals: May, 1999.
Triplite
Formula: (Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
Vivianite
Formula: Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 8H2O

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Columbite-(Fe)4.DB.35FeNb2O6
'Quartz'4.DA.05SiO2
'Stibiotantalite'4.DE.30Sb(Ta,Nb)O4
'Tantalite-(Mn)'4.DB.35MnTa2O6
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
'Amblygonite'8.BB.05LiAl(PO4)F
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Lithiophilite8.AB.10LiMn2+PO4
'Pseudomalachite'8.BD.05Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
'Pucherite'8.AD.40Bi(VO4)
'Triplite'8.BB.10(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
'Vivianite'8.CE.40Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
'Albite'9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
var: Cleavelandite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
'Bertrandite'9.BD.05Be4(Si2O7)(OH)2
'Beryl'9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Goshenite9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Morganite9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Cookeite9.EC.55(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Foitite ?9.CK.05(□,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Helvine9.FB.10Be3Mn2+4(SiO4)3S
Microcline9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Orthoclase9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
'Phenakite'9.AA.05Be2SiO4
'Schorl'9.CK.05Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
'Spodumene'9.DA.30LiAlSi2O6
var: Kunzite9.DA.30LiAlSi2O6
'Topaz'9.AF.35Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Columbite-Tantalite-
Feldspar Group-
'var: Perthite'-
Lepidolite-
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 8 - MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
ABO4
Stibiotantalite8.1.6.2Sb(Ta,Nb)O4
AB2O6
Columbite-(Fe)8.3.2.2FeNb2O6
Tantalite-(Mn)8.3.2.3MnTa2O6
Group 38 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
ABXO4
Lithiophilite38.1.1.2LiMn2+PO4
AXO4
Pucherite38.4.6.1Bi(VO4)
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
A3(XO4)2·xH2O
Vivianite40.3.6.1Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)5(XO4)2Zq
Pseudomalachite41.4.3.1Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Amblygonite41.5.8.1LiAl(PO4)F
A2(XO4)Zq
Triplite41.6.1.2(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [4] coordination
Phenakite51.1.1.1Be2SiO4
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only
Topaz52.3.1.1Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] coordination
Bertrandite56.1.1.1Be4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Beryl61.1.1.1Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
Foitite ?61.3.1.1(□,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Schorl61.3.1.10Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Spodumene65.1.4.1LiAlSi2O6
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Cookeite71.4.1.2(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
Orthoclase76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Al-Si Framework Feldspathoids and related species
Helvine76.2.4.1Be3Mn2+4(SiO4)3S
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Albite
var: Cleavelandite
-Na(AlSi3O8)
Beryl
var: Goshenite
-Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Morganite-Be3Al2(Si6O18)
'Columbite-Tantalite'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'var: Perthite'-
'Lepidolite'-
Spodumene
var: Kunzite
-LiAlSi2O6
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H BertranditeBe4(Si2O7)(OH)2
H Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
H SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
H Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
H VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
LiLithium
Li AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
Li Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Li Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
Li LithiophiliteLiMn2+PO4
Li SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
BeBeryllium
Be BertranditeBe4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Be Beryl (var: Goshenite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Be HelvineBe3Mn42+(SiO4)3S
Be Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Be PhenakiteBe2SiO4
BBoron
B Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
B SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
OOxygen
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
O BertranditeBe4(Si2O7)(OH)2
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
O Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
O Columbite-(Fe)FeNb2O6
O Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
O Beryl (var: Goshenite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
O HelvineBe3Mn42+(SiO4)3S
O Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
O LithiophiliteLiMn2+PO4
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
O PhenakiteBe2SiO4
O PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
O PucheriteBi(VO4)
O QuartzSiO2
O SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
O StibiotantaliteSb(Ta,Nb)O4
O Tantalite-(Mn)MnTa2O6
O TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
O VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
FFluorine
F AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
F TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
F Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Na SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
AlAluminium
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Al Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Al Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Al Beryl (var: Goshenite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Al Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Al SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Al TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
SiSilicon
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si BertranditeBe4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Si Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Si Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Si Beryl (var: Goshenite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Si HelvineBe3Mn42+(SiO4)3S
Si Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Si PhenakiteBe2SiO4
Si QuartzSiO2
Si SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Si TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
PPhosphorus
P AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
P LithiophiliteLiMn2+PO4
P PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
P Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
P VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
SSulfur
S HelvineBe3Mn42+(SiO4)3S
KPotassium
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
CaCalcium
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
VVanadium
V PucheriteBi(VO4)
MnManganese
Mn HelvineBe3Mn42+(SiO4)3S
Mn LithiophiliteLiMn2+PO4
Mn Tantalite-(Mn)MnTa2O6
Mn Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
FeIron
Fe Columbite-(Fe)FeNb2O6
Fe Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Fe SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Fe Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
Fe VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
CuCopper
Cu PseudomalachiteCu5(PO4)2(OH)4
NbNiobium
Nb Columbite-(Fe)FeNb2O6
SbAntimony
Sb StibiotantaliteSb(Ta,Nb)O4
TaTantalum
Ta StibiotantaliteSb(Ta,Nb)O4
Ta Tantalite-(Mn)MnTa2O6
BiBismuth
Bi PucheriteBi(VO4)

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Cretaceous
66 - 145 Ma



ID: 2703103
Gabbro, undivided

Age: Cretaceous (66 - 145 Ma)

Description: Massive, coarse-grained, dark-gray and black biotite-hornblende-hypersthene gabbro.

Reference: Kennedy, M.P., and S.S. Tan. digital prep. by Bovard et al. Geologic Map of the Oceanside 30’ x 60’ Quadrangle, California. California Department of Conservation California Geological Survey. [131]

Cretaceous
66 - 145 Ma



ID: 3186295
Mesozoic intrusive rocks

Age: Cretaceous (66 - 145 Ma)

Lithology: Intrusive igneous rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Cretaceous - Triassic
66 - 251.902 Ma



ID: 2776321
Mesozoic gabbroic rocks, unit 2 (undivided)

Age: Mesozoic (66 - 251.902 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Cuyamaca Gabbro; Elk Creek Gabbro; Gold Park Gabbro-Diorite; San Marcos Gabbro; Summit Gabbro

Description: Gabbro and dark dioritic rocks; chiefly Mesozoic

Comments: Mostly small exposures of gabbro and diorite scattered in western Klamath Mts., Sierra Nevada, Coast Ranges, Mojave Desert, and Peninsular Ranges Original map source: Saucedo, G.J., Bedford, D.R., Raines, G.L., Miller, R.J., and Wentworth, C.M., 2000, GIS Data for the Geologic Map of California, California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology, CD-ROM 2000-07, scale 1:750,000.

Lithology: Major:{diorite,gabbro}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

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Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Dana, E. S. (1892), System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York; Appendix 3 (1915), by Ford, W. E.: 22.
Kunz, G. F. (1905), Gems, jeweler's materials, and ornamental stones of California. California State Mining Bureau bulletin 37: pages 86, 129-132.
Kunz, G. F. (1906), The Production of Precious Stones in 1905. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Division of Mining and Mineral Resources. GPO, Washington: pages 26-27; 40 pp.
Wheeler, H. V. (1917), Field notes of the survey of the mining claims of Marion M. Sickler, known as the El Molino, Fargo, Hiriart, K. C. Naylor, and Vanderberg Lodes; and El Molino Mill Site; in Sec 24-25, T9S, R2W, SBM. USDI, Surveyor General's Office, Mineral Survey No. 5391A-B: 1 plat.
Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L. A. (1951), Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A: 72 p.
Todd, W. R. & Waiwood, R. M. (1996), Mineral Report: Validity Examination of the Katerina Lode; Bureau of Land Management, United States Department of the Interior, Oct. 30; 71 p., maps/plats, photos, legal/technical data.
Fisher, J. (1999), The Katerina Mine, A Morganite And Kunzite bearing Pegmatite In The Pala District, San Diego County, California. Rocks & Minerals, May.
Moore, P. B., (2000), Analyses of Primary Phosphates from Pegmatites in Maine and Other Localities, in V. T. King (editor), Mineralogy of Maine. Mining History, Gems, and Geology, Maine Geological Survey, Augusta, Maine, p. 333-336.
Fisher, Jesse (2011), Mines and Minerals of the Southern California Pegmatite Province. Rocks & Minerals: 86: 14-34.
Mauthner, M. H. F. (2011), The History of Kunzite and the California Connection. Rocks & Minerals 86(2): 112-131.

Localities in this Region
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