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Wheal Pendarves, Killivose, Camborne, Cornwall, England, UKi
Regional Level Types
Wheal PendarvesMine (Inactive)
Killivose- not defined -
CamborneCivil Parish
CornwallCounty
EnglandConstituent Country
UKCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
50° 11' 53'' North , 5° 17' 54'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
UK National Grid Reference:
SW646384
Locality type:
Mine (Inactive) - last checked 2019
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Camborne22,500 (2012)1.7km
Four Lanes1,416 (2017)4.2km
Leedstown267 (2017)5.8km
Redruth42,690 (2017)6.6km
Portreath963 (2017)7.0km


Located 1.5 km to the south of Camborne, Wheal Pendarves was a product of the 1960's resurgence of interest in Cornish Tin. There had been extensive, although largely unproductive, mining here through the nineteenth century, notably West Condurrow, Wheal Nelson and Wheal Tryphena, which had all closed by the 1870's. One of the few productive lodes had been the Tryphena Lode and in the 1960's exploration for its presumed western extension was carried out by Camborne Tin Ltd.

The results of this exploration were sufficiently encouraging for Simms Shaft to be sunk in 1967-68 followed by initial underground development. At that time, Simms was the first new shaft sunk in Cornwall for forty years. Production was negligible at this period and in 1970 one of the major shareholders - Union Corporation - withdrew support for the project. On 1st May 1970 Camborne Mines Ltd was formed to operate the mine.

No mill was erected at Pendarves. Instead, an existing tin streaming mill at Roscroggan (4km north of the mine) was purchased and modified to enable it to treat Pendarves ore, which was transported there by road. Some limited mining was undertaken on a trial basis in 1972 until early 1973 when the company went into receivership.

In June 1973, Pendarves was purchased by Great Western Ores Ltd, a subsidiary of South Crofty Ltd. The Roscroggan Mill was closed and thereafter the ore went to South Crofty mill for processing. Production was built up to around 40,000 tonnes per annum, but mined in very difficult conditions and in 1984 it was announced that Pendarves would go on to care and maintenance pending the results of an extensive drilling program to determine whether the mine could sensibly be developed. Acquisition by Carnon Consolidated caused this decision to be altered. While exploration was still a priority, the mine would be continued in operation, albeit at only modest levels of production.

Pendarves is working in the western extension of the Carn Brea granite ridge, at the point where it narrows and plunges into the killas. The mine workings show three main types of rock: a coarse-grained porphyry; an argillaceous-shale killas and various elvan dykes. Ore has been mined from two principal lodes, trending northeast to south-west. The Tryphena Lode is, in fact, a complex of seven known veins, four of which have been the mainstay of the southern section of the mine. Typically these veins average 1 metre in width and dip at 75 degrees to the south-east. In some areas the granite wall rocks are strongly kaolinised and haematised, causing severe mining problems.

North of Simms Shaft lies the Harriet Lode, which is again a collective name for in this case at least ten veins. At depth, these veins converge to form a single lode 1.5 metres wide and dipping 50 degrees to the south-east. Mining conditions in the Harriet Lode are much better than those of Tryphena Lode, but only a minority of the mine's production has been won from north of the shaft.

Additionally, limited exploration has been undertaken on the Q7, Q7A, Frasers and Killivose Lodes, but the potential of these is largely unproven.

Simms Shaft was originally sunk to a depth of 260 metres, through very weak ground which entailed concrete lining throughout. Somewhat curiously the shaft was rectangular in cross-section, rather than the more typical circular section of modern shafts. This gave access down to 5 level. During 1976, the shaft was sunk by 10 metres to allow the development of 6 level. In 1981 a winze was sunk from 6 to 7 level, lateral development completed under the shaft sump and a raise put up to deepen the shaft to serve 7 level which, at 305 metres is the present depth of working. Expenditure of £90,000 was approved for this development.

The majority of production has come from 5 level and above. By 1978, the Tryphena Lode on 6 level had been found generally poor. When deepened in 1981, this lode proved similarly unpromising on 7 level.

Development and stoping have been largely traditional. The former uses hand-held pneumatic drills and rocker shovels, loading to wagons hauled by battery electric locomotives. Stoping methods have been largely restricted to shrinkage stoping - because of the often weak wall rocks - with ore being fed to wagons via 'Cousin Jack' chutes. In recent years some draw point stopes have been introduced.

Ore is not crushed underground but raised in a counterbalanced skip/cage system for primary crushing on surface and storage prior to being despatched by road.

Pendarves is a wet mine, pumping typically 1-1.5 million gallons per day from 5 level. The combination of kaolinised wall rocks and water means that, especially in Typhena Lode, the broken ore is a sludge, which creates severe handling problems at every stage.

In 1984 Pendarves came close to closure, having virtually run out of developed ore ready for stoping. The future of the mine cannot be predicted with any certainty, but the increased level of exploration and development expenditure which is being undertaken offers the only hope of establishing whether any future is possible.

The above text is taken from a Carnon Consolidated prospectus published just prior to the tin price crash of 1985.

Pendarves was one of the first casualties of this event and was closed in 1985. The site was subsequently cleared of buildings and equipment, leaving only the dumps, that did yield some mineral specimens.

Recently the site was purchased, the dumps cleared and is now (2017) an equestrian centre.

---------------------------------------------------------------------


Specimens obtained from Wheal Pendarves during its final working period are sometimes misleadingly labelled as coming from Wheal Bounty, a mine located within the lease area operated by Pendarves Mine, although Pendarves did not connect to the old Wheal Bounty workings.

Thus, they are more correctly described as coming from Wheal Pendarves.

These specimens closely resemble material derived from the Harriet Lode.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded from this region.


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

23 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Reference: No reference listed
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Lapis 11(2), 26 (1986); Mineralogical Magazine 1982 46 : 402-403
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Reference: Dale Foster Collection
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Reference: No reference listed
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: No reference listed
Churchite-(Y)
Formula: Y(PO4) · 2H2O
Reference: Lapis 11(2), 26 (1986); Mineralogical Magazine 1982 46 : 402-403
Connellite
Formula: Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Reference: Lapis 11(2), 26 (1986); Mineralogical Magazine 1982 46 : 402-403
Copper
Formula: Cu
Reference: P Haas collection; Mineralogical Magazine 1982 46 : 402-403
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: [Golley & Williams, 1995, 21 - "Cornish Mineral Reference Manual"]; Mineralogical Magazine 1982 46 : 402-403
Cuprite var: Chalcotrichite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: [Golley & Williams, 1995, 21 - "Cornish Mineral Reference Manual"]; Mineralogical Magazine 1982 46 : 402-403
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Reference: No reference listed; Lapis 11(2), 26 (1986); Mineralogical Magazine 1982 46 : 402-403
Fluorapatite var: Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)
Reference: No reference listed; Lapis 11(2), 26 (1986); Mineralogical Magazine 1982 46 : 402-403
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: www.mine-explorer.co.uk/mines/Wheal-pendarves_1393/Wheal-pendarves_13252.pdf
Humboldtine
Formula: Fe2+(C2O4) · 2H2O
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: www.mine-explorer.co.uk/mines/Wheal-pendarves_1393/Wheal-pendarves_13252.pdf
Langite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Reference: Jason Evans collection
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine 1982 46 : 402-403
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Lapis 11(2), 26 (1986); Mineralogical Magazine 1982 46 : 402-403
Olivenite
Formula: Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Reference: Lapis 11(2), 26 (1986); Mineralogical Magazine 1982 46 : 402-403
Pharmacosiderite
Formula: KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Reference: Lapis 11(2), 26 (1986); Mineralogical Magazine 1982 46 : 402-403; Dale Foster Collection
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Scorodite
Formula: Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Lapis 11(2), 26 (1986); Mineralogical Magazine 1982 46 : 402-403; Dale Foster Collection
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: Paul De Bondt collection
Woodwardite
Formula: Cu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Group 3 - Halides
Connellite3.DA.25Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Cassiterite4.DB.05SnO2
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
var: Chalcotrichite4.AA.10Cu2O
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Langite7.DD.10Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Woodwardite7.DD.35Cu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Churchite-(Y)8.CJ.50Y(PO4) · 2H2O
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
var: Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)
Olivenite8.BB.30Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Pharmacosiderite8.DK.10KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Scorodite8.CD.10Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Group 10 - Organic Compounds
Humboldtine10.AB.05Fe2+(C2O4) · 2H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Cassiterite4.4.1.5SnO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq·xH2O, where m:p > 6:1
Connellite31.1.1.1Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
(AB)6(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Woodwardite31.2.2.1Cu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
(AB)4(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Langite31.4.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
(AB)5(XO4)2·xH2O
Churchite-(Y)40.4.6.1Y(PO4) · 2H2O
Scorodite40.4.1.3Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A2(XO4)Zq
Olivenite41.6.6.1Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
var: Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite41.8.1.4Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)5(XO4)3Zq·xH2O
Pharmacosiderite42.8.1a.1KFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Group 50 - ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Oxalates
Humboldtine50.1.3.1Fe2+(C2O4) · 2H2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Cuprite
var: Chalcotrichite
-Cu2O
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H HumboldtineFe2+(C2O4) · 2H2O
H WoodwarditeCu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H Churchite-(Y)Y(PO4) · 2H2O
H ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
H ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
H PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
CCarbon
C HumboldtineFe2+(C2O4) · 2H2O
C Fluorapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C SideriteFeCO3
OOxygen
O Cuprite (var: Chalcotrichite)Cu2O
O CupriteCu2O
O HumboldtineFe2+(C2O4) · 2H2O
O Fluorapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)
O CassiteriteSnO2
O QuartzSiO2
O WoodwarditeCu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O HematiteFe2O3
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O BaryteBaSO4
O Churchite-(Y)Y(PO4) · 2H2O
O ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
O ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
O PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O SideriteFeCO3
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
FFluorine
F Fluorapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
AlAluminium
Al WoodwarditeCu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
PPhosphorus
P Fluorapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)
P Churchite-(Y)Y(PO4) · 2H2O
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
SSulfur
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S ChalcociteCu2S
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S WoodwarditeCu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
S BaryteBaSO4
S ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
S LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
S BorniteCu5FeS4
ClChlorine
Cl ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
KPotassium
K PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
CaCalcium
Ca Fluorapatite (var: Carbonate-rich Fluorapatite)Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
FeIron
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe HumboldtineFe2+(C2O4) · 2H2O
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Fe PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
CuCopper
Cu CopperCu
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu Cuprite (var: Chalcotrichite)Cu2O
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu WoodwarditeCu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O
Cu ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
Cu LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
AsArsenic
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
As OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)
As ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
As PharmacosideriteKFe43+(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2O
YYttrium
Y Churchite-(Y)Y(PO4) · 2H2O
SnTin
Sn CassiteriteSnO2
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4

Geochronology

Geologic TimeRocks, Minerals and Events
Phanerozoic
 Paleozoic
  Permian
   Guadalupian
ⓘ Major polymetallic mineralization~270 MaCornwall, England, UK
   Cisuralian
ⓘ Porphyry dikes intruded (latest age)~275 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Greisenization (latest age)~280 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Porphyry dikes intruded (earliest age)~280 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Formation of metallized pegmatites~285 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Greisenization (earliest age)~285 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Emplacement of major plutons~295 MaCornwall, England, UK

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Barstow, R.W. and Cooper, M. (1982) Churchite from Wheal Pendarves, Camborne, Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 46(340), 402-403.
Mining Annual Review (1985) 485.
Lapis (1986) 11(2), 26.

External Links


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