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Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District (Kramer Borate District), Kern Co., California, USA

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Detailed Mineral List:
Albite
Description: Occurs as subhedral to anhedral grains in the tuff beds bordering the main sodium borate beds.
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 146; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 360.
Analcime
Description: Tuffs alter to analcime with the texture of crystal sand in the shale envelope surrounding the borate orebody. Tuffs 50 to 100 feet above the orebody contain crystals of analcime up to 0.5 mm that fill fractures and cavities.
Reference: Smith, George Irving, Hy Almond, & D.L. Sawyer, Jr. (1958), Sassolite from the Kramer borate district, California: American Mineralogist: 43: 1068; Hay, Richard Le Roy (1966) Zeolites and zeolitic reactions in sedimentary rocks: Geological Society of America Special Paper 85, 130 p.: 44; Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 146; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 368.
Localities: Recorded from at least 2 other localities in this region.
Photo: © Volker Betz. Analcime from U.S. Borax open pit, U.S. Borax Mine, Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District, Kern Co., California, USA
Anorthite
Reference: Cal Div of Mines & Geology "Mineral Information Service" V. 22 N. 10 Oct 1969
'Apatite'
Reference: Cal Div of Mines & Geology "Mineral Information Service" V. 22 N. 9 Sept 1969
'Apatite var: Carbonate-rich Apatite'
Description: Constituent of phosphatic material of fossil bones.
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 146; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 315.
Aragonite
Description: Comprises fossil shells in shales underlying the borate deposit.
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 146; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 215.
Arsenic
Colour: Blackish to silvery
Description: Occurs sparingly as small rounded grains or subhedral crystals on fibrous ulexite.
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9): 146; Carnahan, V. (1970), Notes on some minerals from Boron: Bulletin of the Mineralogical Society of Southern California, November: 10; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 213.
Arsenolite
Colour: Colourless to whitish
Description: Occurs as minute grains and octahedral crystals.
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9): 147; Carnahan, V. (1970), Notes on some minerals from Boron: Bulletin of the Mineralogical Society of Southern California, November: 10; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 186.
Augite
Reference: Cal Div of Mines & Geology "Mineral Information Service" V. 22 N. 9 Sept 1969
Baryte
Colour: Bluish; pink (microscopic spikes)
Description: Occurs as tabular crystals to 3 mm long and microscopic spikes on colemanite.
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 147; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 292.
Photo: © . Baryte from U.S. Borax open pit, U.S. Borax Mine, Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District, Kern Co., California, USA
Barytocalcite
Description: Rounded grains.
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 147, 172; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 222.
Berthierite
Habit: Fibrous
Colour: Iridescent purplish
Description: Occurs as fibrous material with colemanite and as spherules up to 2.5 mm in borax; as flakes in kernite and borax.
Reference: Pemberton, H. Earl, Wm. Moller, Jack Schwartz & George Masimer (1960), The minerals of Boron, California, 40 pp. (Published by the Mineral Research Soc. of California, Montebello, CA): 34; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 102; California Division of Mines & Geology (1969), Mineral Information Service: 22(9) (Sept 1969); Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22: 147; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 137.
Localities: Recorded from at least 1 other locality in this region.
'Biotite'
Description: Euhedral to subhedral crystals common.
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 147; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 428.
Localities: Recorded from at least 1 other locality in this region.
Birnessite
Colour: Blackish to brown
Description: Occurs as specks on colemanite.
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9): 168; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 168 (photo 4-5).
Borax
Description: The most abundant mineral in the deposit. Occurs as crystalline masses interbedded with clay-shale.
Reference: Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1927), Kernite, a new sodium borate: American Mineralogist: 12: 24; Eakle, Arthur Starr (1929), Probertite, a new borate: American Mineralogist: 14: 427; Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22: 147; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 137, 259.
Localities: Recorded from at least 5 other localities in this region.
Photo: © . Borax from U.S. Borax open pit, U.S. Borax Mine, Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District, Kern Co., California, USA
Calcite
Colour: Colourless to yellow
Description: Occurs in many forms of crystals in and above the main ore beds; also occurs in vugs as crystals.
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9): 147, 166; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 72, 210.
Localities: Recorded from at least 3 other localities in this region.
Photo: © Russell G. Rizzo. Calcite from U.S. Borax open pit, U.S. Borax Mine, Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District, Kern Co., California, USA
Carnotite
Locality: Vanuray prospect (Amargo Bentonite deposit), West Baker, Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District (Kramer Borate District), Kern Co., California, USA
Chabazite-Na
Localities: U.S. Borax open pit (Boron pit), U.S. Borax Mine (Pacific West Coast Borax; Pacific Coast Borax Co.; Boron Mine; Boron open pit; U.S. Borax and Chemical Corporation Mine; Kramer Mine; Kramer pit; Baker Mine), Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District (Kramer Borate District), Kern Co., California, USA
U.S. Borax open pit (Boron pit), U.S. Borax Mine (Pacific West Coast Borax; Pacific Coast Borax Co.; Boron Mine; Boron open pit; U.S. Borax and Chemical Corporation Mine; Kramer Mine; Kramer pit; Baker Mine), Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District (Kramer Borate District), Kern Co., California, USA
U.S. Borax Mine (Pacific West Coast Borax; Pacific Coast Borax Co.; Boron Mine; Boron open pit; U.S. Borax and Chemical Corporation Mine; Kramer Mine; Kramer pit; Baker Mine), Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District (Kramer Borate District), Kern Co., California, USA
Photo: © Dick Dionne. Chabazite-Na from U.S. Borax open pit, U.S. Borax Mine, Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District, Kern Co., California, USA
'Chert'
Description: Occurs below the orebody.
Reference: Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 512.
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Cal Div of Mines & Geology "Mineral Information Service" V. 22 N. 9 Sept 1969
Localities: Recorded from at least 1 other locality in this region.
'Clays'
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
'Clinoptilolite'
Description: Occurs with dominant phillipsite in tuff beds above the borate orebody.
Reference: Hay, Richard Le Roy (1966) Zeolites and zeolitic reactions in sedimentary rocks: Geological Society of America Special Paper 85, 130 p.: 44; Dibblee, T.W., Jr. (1967a) Areal geology of western Mojave Desert, California. USGS Professional Paper 522: 126-127; Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 147; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 375.
Localities: Recorded from at least 2 other localities in this region.
Clinoptilolite-Na
Locality: U.S. Borax open pit (Boron pit), U.S. Borax Mine (Pacific West Coast Borax; Pacific Coast Borax Co.; Boron Mine; Boron open pit; U.S. Borax and Chemical Corporation Mine; Kramer Mine; Kramer pit; Baker Mine), Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District (Kramer Borate District), Kern Co., California, USA
Photo: © Kelly Starnes. Clinoptilolite-Na from U.S. Borax open pit, U.S. Borax Mine, Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District, Kern Co., California, USA
Colemanite
Colour: Colourless to brown or nearly black
Description: Occurs as: 1. Nodules and geodes in a clay envelope surrounding the Na borate beds. 2. Aa an alteration of ulexite beds. 3. Fine crystal specimens in fracture zones of massive material. Individual crystals from microscopic to 5 cm.
Reference: Yale, Charles G. & Hoyt S. Gale (1913), Borax: Mineral Resources of the United States, 1912, part 2; Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1926a), Borate deposits in the Kramer district, Kern County, California: USGS Bulletin 785-C: 47; Christ, C.L. & R.M. Garrels (1959), Relations among sodium borate hydrates at the Kramer deposit, Boron, California: American Journal of Science: 257: 516; Bowser, C.J. & F.W. Dickson (1961), Chemical zonation of the borates of Kramer, California, In: J.L. Rau (ed.), Second Symposium on Salt: 1: 122-132, Northern Ohio Geological Society; Obert, L. and Long, A.E. (1962) Underground borate mining, Kern County, California. US Bureau of Mines Report of Investigation 6110, 67 pp.: 1-12; Bowser, C.J. (1965a), Geochemistry and petrology of the sodium borates in the non-marine evaporative environment: Unpublished Ph.. dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, 307 pp.: 9; Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1927), Kernite, a new sodium borate: American Mineralogist: 12: 24; Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1930), Borate minerals from the Kramer district, Mohave Desert, California: USGS PP 158-I: 138; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 168 (photo 4-5), 249; Pemberton, H. Earl, Wm. Moller, Jack Schwartz & George Masimer (1960), The minerals of Boron, California, 40 pp. (Published by the Mineral Research Soc. of California, Montebello, CA): 34; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 102; Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 147, 149, 151.
Localities: Recorded from at least 2 other localities in this region.
Photo: © . Colemanite from U.S. Borax open pit, U.S. Borax Mine, Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District, Kern Co., California, USA
Copiapite
Reference: Cal Div of Mines & Geology "Mineral Information Service" V. 22 N. 9 Sept 1969
Localities: Recorded from at least 1 other locality in this region.
Dolomite
Reference: Dibblee, T.W., Jr. (1967a) Areal geology of western Mojave Desert, California. USGS Professional Paper 522: 126-127; Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 152; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 219.
Localities: Recorded from at least 1 other locality in this region.
Epidote
Reference: Cal Div of Mines & Geology "Mineral Information Service" V. 22 N. 9 Sept 1969
Epsomite
Description: Occurs as silky, curling, fibrous crystals.
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 152; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 266.
'Erionite'
Reference: Cal Div of Mines & Geology "Mineral Information Service" V. 22 N. 9 Sept 1969
'Feldspar Group'
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
'Garnet'
Reference: Cal Div of Mines & Geology "Mineral Information Service" V. 22 N. 9 Sept 1969
Garrelsite
Colour: Colourless
Description: A few subhedal grains (0.1 x 0.6 mm) occurred in ulexite in the B-zone above the lower ore.
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 152; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 512.
Gerstleyite (TL)
Type Locality: Baker Mine, U.S. Borax Mine (Pacific West Coast Borax; Pacific Coast Borax Co.; Boron Mine; Boron open pit; U.S. Borax and Chemical Corporation Mine; Kramer Mine; Kramer pit; Baker Mine), Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District (Kramer Borate District), Kern Co., California, USA
Reference: American Mineralogist 41 (1956), 839-843
Localities: Recorded from at least 3 other localities in this region.
Photo: © Rob Lavinsky. Gerstleyite from Baker Mine, U.S. Borax Mine, Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District, Kern Co., California, USA
'Gmelinite'
Localities: U.S. Borax open pit (Boron pit), U.S. Borax Mine (Pacific West Coast Borax; Pacific Coast Borax Co.; Boron Mine; Boron open pit; U.S. Borax and Chemical Corporation Mine; Kramer Mine; Kramer pit; Baker Mine), Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District (Kramer Borate District), Kern Co., California, USA
U.S. Borax Mine (Pacific West Coast Borax; Pacific Coast Borax Co.; Boron Mine; Boron open pit; U.S. Borax and Chemical Corporation Mine; Kramer Mine; Kramer pit; Baker Mine), Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District (Kramer Borate District), Kern Co., California, USA
Photo: © Dick Dionne. Gmelinite from U.S. Borax open pit, U.S. Borax Mine, Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District, Kern Co., California, USA
Gmelinite-Na
Locality: U.S. Borax open pit (Boron pit), U.S. Borax Mine (Pacific West Coast Borax; Pacific Coast Borax Co.; Boron Mine; Boron open pit; U.S. Borax and Chemical Corporation Mine; Kramer Mine; Kramer pit; Baker Mine), Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District (Kramer Borate District), Kern Co., California, USA
Photo: © Kelly Starnes. Gmelinite-Na from U.S. Borax open pit, U.S. Borax Mine, Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District, Kern Co., California, USA
Greigite
Reference: Cal Div of Mines & Geology "Mineral Information Service" V. 22 N. 9 Sept 1969
Localities: Recorded from at least 3 other localities in this region.
Gypsum
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 152; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 286.
Gypsum var: Satin Spar Gypsum
Description: Occurs poorly developed in the open pit.
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 152; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 286.
Gypsum var: Selenite
Colour: Colourless
Description: Occurs as scaly masses and incrustations in clay surrounding the deposit.
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 152; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 286.
Halite
Description: Occurs as efflorescences.
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 152; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 191.
Hectorite
Description: Material has a high Li content.
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 165; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 439.
Hematite
Description: Occurs in claystone and in basalt float.
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9): 152; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 161.
'Heulandite'
Localities: U.S. Borax open pit (Boron pit), U.S. Borax Mine (Pacific West Coast Borax; Pacific Coast Borax Co.; Boron Mine; Boron open pit; U.S. Borax and Chemical Corporation Mine; Kramer Mine; Kramer pit; Baker Mine), Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District (Kramer Borate District), Kern Co., California, USA
U.S. Borax Mine (Pacific West Coast Borax; Pacific Coast Borax Co.; Boron Mine; Boron open pit; U.S. Borax and Chemical Corporation Mine; Kramer Mine; Kramer pit; Baker Mine), Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District (Kramer Borate District), Kern Co., California, USA
Heulandite-Na
Locality: U.S. Borax open pit (Boron pit), U.S. Borax Mine (Pacific West Coast Borax; Pacific Coast Borax Co.; Boron Mine; Boron open pit; U.S. Borax and Chemical Corporation Mine; Kramer Mine; Kramer pit; Baker Mine), Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District (Kramer Borate District), Kern Co., California, USA
Photo: © 3/17 DM. Heulandite-Na from U.S. Borax open pit, U.S. Borax Mine, Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District, Kern Co., California, USA
Hisingerite
Colour: Black to reddish brown
Description: Occurs as a thin glassy coating on joint-crack surfaces of basalt.
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9): 152, 165, 168; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 66, 438; Cal Div of Mines & Geology "Mineral Information Service: 22(9) (Sept 1969).
'Hornblende'
Colour: Greenish
Description: Basaltic; elongate crystals in ulexite.
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 152; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 401.
Howlite
Description: Occurs as sparse cauliflower-like nodules in the clay or siltstone envelope of the Na-borate orebody; at one location, thin platy crystals to 0.15 mm occur in nodules of colemanite.
Reference: Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1946), Geology of the Kramer borate district, Kern County, California: California Division Mines Report 42: 332; Dibblee, T.W., Jr. (1967a) Areal geology of western Mojave Desert, California. USGS Professional Paper 522: 126-127; Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 152; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 510.
Localities: Recorded from at least 1 other locality in this region.
Photo: © . Howlite from U.S. Borax Mine, Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District, Kern Co., California, USA
Hydroboracite
Habit: Fibrous
Description: Occurs sparingly as fibrous, crystalline masses.
Reference: Pemberton, H. Earl, Wm. Moller, Jack Schwartz & George Masimer (1960), The minerals of Boron, California, 40 pp. (Published by the Mineral Research Soc. of California, Montebello, CA): 29; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 221; Cal Div of Mines & Geology "Mineral Information Service" V. 22 N. 9 Sept 1969
Localities: Recorded from at least 2 other localities in this region.
Photo: © O. Dziallas. Hydroboracite from U.S. Borax open pit, U.S. Borax Mine, Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District, Kern Co., California, USA
'Hypersthene'
Description: Occurs as crystals to 1.5 mm in vesicles of basalt float.
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 152; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 385.
Ilmenite
Colour: Blackish
Description: Occurs as grains in the siltstone bed.
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9): 152; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 171.
Inderite
Colour: Colourless to yellowish
Description: Occurs often with, and sometimes intergrown with, kurnakovite; as elongate, glassy prisms from pencil-lead size or smaller (5 cm or 2 inches) or more diameter and greater than 30 cm (12 inches) long (usually broken in situ).
Reference: Frondel, Clifford & V. Morgen (1956), Inderite and gerstleyite from the Kramer borate district, Kern County, California: American Mineralogist: 41: 839-843; Frondel, Clifford, V. Morgan & J.L.T. Waugh (1956), Lesserite, a new borate mineral American Mineralogist: 41: 927-928; Schaller, Waldemar Theodore & Mary Emma Mrose (1960), The naming of the hydrous magnesium borate minerals from Boron, California – a preliminary note: American Mineralogist: 45: 732-734; Rumanova, I.M. and Ashirov, A. (1964) The determination of the crystal structure of inderite. Soviet Physics-Crystallography: 8: 414-428; Bowser, C.J. (1965a), Geochemistry and petrology of the sodium borates in the non-marine evaporative environment: Unpublished Ph.. dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, 307 pp.: 49-50; Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 150-152; Razmanova, .P., Rumanova, I.M., and Belov, N.V. (1970) Crystal structure of kurnakovite Mg2B6O11•15H2O = 2Mg[B3O3(OH)5]•5H2O. Soviet Physics, Doklady: 14: 1139; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 240.
Localities: Recorded from at least 4 other localities in this region.
Photo: © Leon Hupperichs. Inderite from U.S. Borax open pit, U.S. Borax Mine, Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District, Kern Co., California, USA
Inyoite
Description: Rare but found in fine single crystals.
Reference: Pemberton, H. Earl, Wm. Moller, Jack Schwartz & George Masimer (1960), The minerals of Boron, California, 40 pp. (Published by the Mineral Research Society of California, Montebello, CA): 25; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 229; California Division of Mines & Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9) (September 1969).
Localities: Recorded from at least 1 other locality in this region.
Photo: © . Inyoite from U.S. Borax open pit, U.S. Borax Mine, Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District, Kern Co., California, USA
Kaolinite
Reference: Cal Div of Mines & Geology "Mineral Information Service" V. 22 N. 9 Sept 1969
Kernite
Description: Crystals from 2 mm to greater than 1 meter long.
Reference: Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1927), Kernite, a new sodium borate: American Mineralogist: 12: 24; Eakle, Arthur Starr (1929), Probertite, a new borate: American Mineralogist: 14: 427; Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9): 147-148, 153, 169; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 259.
Localities: Recorded from at least 4 other localities in this region.
Photo: © . Kernite from U.S. Borax open pit, U.S. Borax Mine, Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District, Kern Co., California, USA
'K Feldspar'
Locality: West Baker Mine (Suckow Mine; Suchow Mine), West Baker, Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District (Kramer Borate District), Kern Co., California, USA
Kurnakovite
Description: Occurs above the main horizon as irregular masses to several hundred pounds; as crystal clusters, and as single crystals to 30 cm (12 inches) diameter.
Reference: Frondel, Clifford & V. Morgen (1956), Inderite and gerstleyite from the Kramer borate district, Kern County, California: American Mineralogist: 41: 839-843; Frondel, Clifford, V. Morgan & J.L.T. Waugh (1956), Lesserite, a new borate mineral American Mineralogist: 41: 927-928; Schaller, Waldemar Theodore & Mary Emma Mrose (1960), The naming of the hydrous magnesium borate minerals from Boron, California – a preliminary note: American Mineralogist: 45: 732-734; Rumanova, I.M. and Ashirov, A. (1964) The determination of the crystal structure of inderite. Soviet Physics-Crystallography: 8: 414-428; Bowser, C.J. (1965a), Geochemistry and petrology of the sodium borates in the non-marine evaporative environment: Unpublished Ph.. dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, 307 pp.: 49-50; Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 150-152; Razmanova, .P., Rumanova, I.M., and Belov, N.V. (1970) Crystal structure of kurnakovite Mg2B6O11•15H2O = 2Mg[B3O3(OH)5]•5H2O. Soviet Physics, Doklady: 14: 1139; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 240.
Localities: Recorded from at least 4 other localities in this region.
Photo: © . Kurnakovite from U.S. Borax open pit, U.S. Borax Mine, Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District, Kern Co., California, USA
'Labradorite'
Reference: Cal Div of Mines & Geology "Mineral Information Service" V. 22 N. 10 Oct 1969
Lepidocrocite
Colour: Reddish brown
Description: Occurs as a powdery alteration of hypersthene in basalt float in the overburden of the deposit.
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9): 165-166; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 162.
'Limonite'
Reference: Cal Div of Mines & Geology "Mineral Information Service" V. 22 N. 10 Oct 1969
Mackinawite
Description: Occurs as a constituent of the Saddleback basalt.
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9): 165; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 66; California Division of Mines & Geology: Mineral Information Service: 22(10) (Oct 1969).
Magnetite
Reference: Cal Div of Mines & Geology "Mineral Information Service" V. 22 N. 10 Oct 1969
Mazzite-Na (TL)
Type Locality: U.S. Borax open pit (Boron pit), U.S. Borax Mine (Pacific West Coast Borax; Pacific Coast Borax Co.; Boron Mine; Boron open pit; U.S. Borax and Chemical Corporation Mine; Kramer Mine; Kramer pit; Baker Mine), Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District (Kramer Borate District), Kern Co., California, USA
Habit: Acicular
Colour: White
Reference: American Mineralogist (2005): 90: 1186-1191; Tschernich, R. (1992): Zeolites of the World: 64.
Photo: Mazzite-Na from U.S. Borax open pit, U.S. Borax Mine, Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District, Kern Co., California, USA
'Melnikovite'
Description: Occurs as micro-particles of highly magnetic material disseminated throughout the clay-shale portion of the deposit. Occurs in nodules of kurnakovite and colemanite above the main orebody.
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9): 152; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 71;
Metacinnabar
Colour: Black
Description: Occurs as a thin black coating on a specimen of clay.
Reference: Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 115.
Meyerhofferite
Reference: Cal Div of Mines & Geology "Mineral Information Service" V. 22 N. 10 Oct 1969
Localities: Recorded from at least 1 other locality in this region.
'Mica Group'
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Microcline
Reference: Cal Div of Mines & Geology "Mineral Information Service" V. 22 N. 10 Oct 1969
Mirabilite
Description: Occurs as furry growths in old underground workings; also in the borate beds. Single acicular crystals to 30 cm (12 inches) long.
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 165, 169; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 280.
Localities: Recorded from at least 1 other locality in this region.
'Monazite'
Reference: Cal Div of Mines & Geology "Mineral Information Service" V. 22 N. 10 Oct 1969
Montmorillonite
Description: Occurs as a filling in amygdules of a vesicular basalt underlying the deposit at the bottom of the pit.
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9): 166; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 69, 243.
Localities: Recorded from at least 1 other locality in this region.
Mordenite
Locality: U.S. Borax open pit (Boron pit), U.S. Borax Mine (Pacific West Coast Borax; Pacific Coast Borax Co.; Boron Mine; Boron open pit; U.S. Borax and Chemical Corporation Mine; Kramer Mine; Kramer pit; Baker Mine), Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District (Kramer Borate District), Kern Co., California, USA
Photo: © Dick Dionne. Mordenite from U.S. Borax open pit, U.S. Borax Mine, Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District, Kern Co., California, USA
Muscovite
Reference: Cal Div of Mines & Geology "Mineral Information Service" V. 22 N. 10 Oct 1969
Muscovite var: Illite
Description: The second most abundant clay at the deposit.
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 152; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 427.
Natrojarosite
Reference: Cal Div of Mines & Geology "Mineral Information Service" V. 22 N. 10 Oct 1969
Localities: Recorded from at least 1 other locality in this region.
Natrolite
Reference: Cal Div of Mines & Geology "Mineral Information Service" V. 22 N. 10 Oct 1969
Photo: © Kelly Starnes. Natrolite from Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District, Kern Co., California, USA
'Olivine'
Reference: Cal Div of Mines & Geology "Mineral Information Service" V. 22 N. 10 Oct 1969
Opal
Colour: Brownish to gray, white
Description: Occurs as masses up to 3 cm; some dense, white material, apparently pseudomorphic after ulexite.
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 165, 169; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 355.
Localities: Recorded from at least 1 other locality in this region.
Orpiment
Localities: U.S. Borax Mine (Pacific West Coast Borax; Pacific Coast Borax Co.; Boron Mine; Boron open pit; U.S. Borax and Chemical Corporation Mine; Kramer Mine; Kramer pit; Baker Mine), Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District (Kramer Borate District), Kern Co., California, USA
U.S. Borax open pit (Boron pit), U.S. Borax Mine (Pacific West Coast Borax; Pacific Coast Borax Co.; Boron Mine; Boron open pit; U.S. Borax and Chemical Corporation Mine; Kramer Mine; Kramer pit; Baker Mine), Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District (Kramer Borate District), Kern Co., California, USA
Photo: © JSS. Orpiment from U.S. Borax open pit, U.S. Borax Mine, Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District, Kern Co., California, USA
Pararealgar
Locality: U.S. Borax Mine (Pacific West Coast Borax; Pacific Coast Borax Co.; Boron Mine; Boron open pit; U.S. Borax and Chemical Corporation Mine; Kramer Mine; Kramer pit; Baker Mine), Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District (Kramer Borate District), Kern Co., California, USA
Photo: © 2009, JGW. Pararealgar from U.S. Borax open pit, U.S. Borax Mine, Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District, Kern Co., California, USA
'Phillipsite'
Colour: Cream-coloured
Description: Tuffs 50 to 100 feet above the borate orebody largely alter to phillipsite; an almost monominerallic 10 cm thick layer of cream-coloured micro-crystalline phillipsite exists in altered tuff on top of the colemanite facies in the open pit.
Reference: Hay, Richard Le Roy (1964), Phillipsite of saline lakes and soils American Mineralogist: 49: 1367; Hay, Richard Le Roy (1966) Zeolites and zeolitic reactions in sedimentary rocks: Geological Society of America Special Paper 85, 130 p.: 44; Dibblee, T.W., Jr. (1967a) Areal geology of western Mojave Desert, California. USGS Professional Paper 522: 126-127; Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 147, 166; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 375, 382.
Localities: Recorded from at least 2 other localities in this region.
Phillipsite-Na
Locality: U.S. Borax open pit (Boron pit), U.S. Borax Mine (Pacific West Coast Borax; Pacific Coast Borax Co.; Boron Mine; Boron open pit; U.S. Borax and Chemical Corporation Mine; Kramer Mine; Kramer pit; Baker Mine), Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District (Kramer Borate District), Kern Co., California, USA
Photo: © Kelly Starnes. Phillipsite-Na from U.S. Borax open pit, U.S. Borax Mine, Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District, Kern Co., California, USA
Phlogopite
Reference: Cal Div of Mines & Geology "Mineral Information Service" V. 22 N. 10 Oct 1969
Probertite (TL)
Type Locality: Baker Mine, U.S. Borax Mine (Pacific West Coast Borax; Pacific Coast Borax Co.; Boron Mine; Boron open pit; U.S. Borax and Chemical Corporation Mine; Kramer Mine; Kramer pit; Baker Mine), Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District (Kramer Borate District), Kern Co., California, USA
Reference: Amer.Min.(1928) 13, 452-453; Nickel & Nichols (1991) Mineral Reference Maual; Frondel C, Morgan V (1956) Inderite and gerstleyite from the Kramer borate district, Kern County, California. American Mineralogist 41, 839-843
Localities: Recorded from at least 3 other localities in this region.
Photo: © Peter Haas. Probertite from U.S. Borax open pit, U.S. Borax Mine, Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District, Kern Co., California, USA
Pseudobrookite
Habit: Tabular to bladed
Colour: Dark reddish brown
Description: Occurs as crystals to 1 mm long in vesicles of red basalt float.
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9): 165-166; Carnahan, V. (1970), Notes on some minerals from Boron: Bulletin of the Mineralogical Society of Southern California, November: 10; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 174.
Pyrite
Description: Occurs as minute cubes in joint cracks in a dense black basalt underlying the deposit. Also occurs as minute brassy crystals in nodules and geodes of calcite.
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9): 166; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 72; California Division of Mines & Geology: Mineral Information Service: 22(10) (Oct 1969).
Pyrrhotite
Colour: Brassy; brown
Description: Occurs as minute hexagonal plates in montmorillonite filling of amygdules in basalt underlying the deposit. Also occurs as a brown coating on seams of borax.
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9): 166; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 69; California Division of Mines & Geology: Mineral Information Service: 22(10) (Oct 1969).
Localities: Recorded from at least 2 other localities in this region.
Quartz
Reference: Cal Div of Mines & Geology "Mineral Information Service" V. 22 N. 10 Oct 1969
Realgar
Description: Small amounts occur with borax and kernite; abundant chiefly in the borax of the upper ore.
Reference: Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1930), Borate minerals from the Kramer district, Mohave Desert, California: USGS PP 158-I: 137-170; […Mineralogical Magazine: 22: 622 (1931)]: 139; Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9): 165-166; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 132.
Localities: Recorded from at least 4 other localities in this region.
Photo: © 2009, JGW. Realgar from U.S. Borax open pit, U.S. Borax Mine, Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District, Kern Co., California, USA
Rhodochrosite
Colour: Rose-pink
Description: Occurs as platy rosettes to 3 mm diameter.
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 165-166; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 213.
Localities: Recorded from at least 2 other localities in this region.
Photo: © Dick Dionne. Rhodochrosite from U.S. Borax open pit, U.S. Borax Mine, Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District, Kern Co., California, USA
Rutile
Reference: Cal Div of Mines & Geology "Mineral Information Service" V. 22 N. 10 Oct 1969
Saponite
Localities: U.S. Borax open pit (Boron pit), U.S. Borax Mine (Pacific West Coast Borax; Pacific Coast Borax Co.; Boron Mine; Boron open pit; U.S. Borax and Chemical Corporation Mine; Kramer Mine; Kramer pit; Baker Mine), Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District (Kramer Borate District), Kern Co., California, USA
U.S. Borax Mine (Pacific West Coast Borax; Pacific Coast Borax Co.; Boron Mine; Boron open pit; U.S. Borax and Chemical Corporation Mine; Kramer Mine; Kramer pit; Baker Mine), Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District (Kramer Borate District), Kern Co., California, USA
Saponite var: Ferroan Saponite
Localities: U.S. Borax open pit (Boron pit), U.S. Borax Mine (Pacific West Coast Borax; Pacific Coast Borax Co.; Boron Mine; Boron open pit; U.S. Borax and Chemical Corporation Mine; Kramer Mine; Kramer pit; Baker Mine), Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District (Kramer Borate District), Kern Co., California, USA
U.S. Borax Mine (Pacific West Coast Borax; Pacific Coast Borax Co.; Boron Mine; Boron open pit; U.S. Borax and Chemical Corporation Mine; Kramer Mine; Kramer pit; Baker Mine), Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District (Kramer Borate District), Kern Co., California, USA
Sassolite
Reference: Cal Div of Mines & Geology "Mineral Information Service" V. 22 N. 10 Oct 1969
Localities: Recorded from at least 4 other localities in this region.
Searlesite
Colour: Beige to dark gray
Description: Occurs throughout the deposit as compact material; as discrete glassy, tabular crystals in vugs of altered tuff and as nearly pure material associated with chert below the orebody.
Reference: Smith, George Irving, Hy Almond, & D.L. Sawyer, Jr. (1958), Sassolite from the Kramer borate district, California: American Mineralogist: 43: 1070; Pemberton, H. Earl, Wm. Moller, Jack Schwartz & George Masimer (1960), The minerals of Boron, California, 40 pp. (Published by the Mineral Research Society of California, Montebello, CA): 31; Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 166; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 512.
Localities: Recorded from at least 4 other localities in this region.
Photo: © JBS 2006. Searlesite from U.S. Borax open pit, U.S. Borax Mine, Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District, Kern Co., California, USA
Sideronatrite
Colour: Pale yellow
Description: Occurs as efflorescent clusters of needle-like crystals to 1.5 mm.
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 168; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 278-279.
'Smectite-claystone'
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Localities: Recorded from at least 2 other localities in this region.
Smythite
Colour: Silvery-white to brassy-black, black
Description: Occurs as scales of rosettes of highly magnetic material on hisingerite in joint cracks of a dense black basalt underlying a portion of the deposit; also as shining black hexagonal platelets in vesicles of a vuggy basalt. Also occurs infrequently as inclusions in kernite and as disseminated grains or coatings on shear surfaces in claystone of the lower shale member.
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9): 168; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 66; Cal Div of Mines & Geology "Mineral Information Service: 22(10) (Oct 1969).
Localities: Recorded from at least 1 other locality in this region.
Photo: © Kelly Starnes. Smythite from U.S. Borax Mine, Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District, Kern Co., California, USA
Stibnite
Habit: Acicular
Colour: Black
Description: Needle-like crystals and clusters of shiny material occur throughout the deposit; specifically, it occurs as minute spherulites in kernite and borax.
Reference: Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1930), Borate minerals from the Kramer district, Mohave Desert, California: USGS PP 158-I: 137-170; […Mineralogical Magazine: 22: 622 (1931)]; Dickson, F.W. and W.J. Raab (1965) Origin of stibnite associated with borax at Kramer, California. Geological Society of America Program: 44-45; Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22: 147, 168; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 127, 137.
Localities: Recorded from at least 1 other locality in this region.
Photo: © Kelly Starnes. Stibnite from Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District, Kern Co., California, USA
'Stilbite'
Locality: U.S. Borax open pit (Boron pit), U.S. Borax Mine (Pacific West Coast Borax; Pacific Coast Borax Co.; Boron Mine; Boron open pit; U.S. Borax and Chemical Corporation Mine; Kramer Mine; Kramer pit; Baker Mine), Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District (Kramer Borate District), Kern Co., California, USA
'Strontian Aragonite'
Description: Comprises fossil shells in shales underlying the borate deposit.
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 146; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 215.
Strontianite
Colour: Yellowish tan and greenish gray to blackish
Description: Occurs as masses of fibers to 2.5 cm (1 inch).
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 169; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 218.
Sulphur
Colour: Yellow
Description: Occurs as minute crystals in the main orebody.
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9): 169; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 52.
'Thénardite'
Reference: Cal Div of Mines & Geology "Mineral Information Service" V. 22 N. 10 Oct 1969
Localities: Recorded from at least 1 other locality in this region.
Tincalconite
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Localities: Recorded from at least 5 other localities in this region.
Photo: © . Tincalconite from U.S. Borax open pit, U.S. Borax Mine, Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District, Kern Co., California, USA
Titanite
Reference: Cal Div of Mines & Geology "Mineral Information Service" V. 22 N. 10 Oct 1969
Todorokite
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9): 168; Carnahan, V. (1970), Notes on some minerals from Boron: Bulletin of the Mineralogical Society of Southern California, November: 10.
'Tourmaline'
Reference: Cal Div of Mines & Geology "Mineral Information Service" V. 22 N. 10 Oct 1969
Tridymite
Reference: Cal Div of Mines & Geology "Mineral Information Service" V. 22 N. 10 Oct 1969
Tunellite (TL)
Type Locality: U.S. Borax Mine (Pacific West Coast Borax; Pacific Coast Borax Co.; Boron Mine; Boron open pit; U.S. Borax and Chemical Corporation Mine; Kramer Mine; Kramer pit; Baker Mine), Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District (Kramer Borate District), Kern Co., California, USA
Reference: U.S.Geol.Surv.,Prof.Pap.(1961) 424-C, 294-297
Localities: Recorded from at least 2 other localities in this region.
Photo: © O. Dziallas. Tunellite from U.S. Borax open pit, U.S. Borax Mine, Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District, Kern Co., California, USA
Ulexite
Description: Fibrous or acicular masses with silky luster; as mushroom and as "cottonballs" of soft, matted fibers/nodules.
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9): 146; Carnahan, V. (1970), Notes on some minerals from Boron: Bulletin of the Mineralogical Society of Southern California, November: 10; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 51, 213, 256.
Localities: Recorded from at least 4 other localities in this region.
Photo: © John H. Betts. Ulexite from U.S. Borax open pit, U.S. Borax Mine, Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District, Kern Co., California, USA
Veatchite
Locality: U.S. Borax Mine (Pacific West Coast Borax; Pacific Coast Borax Co.; Boron Mine; Boron open pit; U.S. Borax and Chemical Corporation Mine; Kramer Mine; Kramer pit; Baker Mine), Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District (Kramer Borate District), Kern Co., California, USA
Wardsmithite
Description: Occurs on montmorillonite as clusters of minute crystals at the bottom of the pit.
Reference: Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 243.
Witherite
Colour: White
Description: Rounded pellets.
Reference: Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 147, 172; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 222.
Zircon
Reference: Cal Div of Mines & Geology "Mineral Information Service" V. 22 N. 10 Oct 1969

References

Yale, Charles G. & Hoyt S. Gale (1913), Borax: Mineral Resources of the United States, 1912, part 2: 839-846.

Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1926a), Borate deposits in the Kramer district, Kern County, California: USGS Bulletin 785-C: 45-61; […(abstract): Geol. Zentralbl., Band 37: 185 (1928)]: 45-61.

Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1927), Kernite, a new sodium borate: American Mineralogist: 12: 24-25.

Eakle, Arthur Starr (1929), Probertite, a new borate: American Mineralogist: 14: 427-430.

Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1930), Borate minerals from the Kramer district, Mohave Desert, California: USGS PP 158-I: 137-170; […Mineralogical Magazine: 22: 622 (1931)]: 137-170.

Murdoch, Joseph (1945), Probertite from Los Angeles County, California: American Mineralogist: 30: 719-721.

Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1946), Geology of the Kramer borate district, Kern County, California: California Division Mines Report 42: 332, 362.

Frondel, Clifford & V. Morgen (1956), Inderite and gerstleyite from the Kramer borate district, Kern County, California: American Mineralogist: 41: 839-843.

Frondel, Clifford, V. Morgan & J.L.T. Waugh (1956), Lesserite, a new borate mineral American Mineralogist: 41: 927-928.

Smith, George Irving, Hy Almond, & D.L. Sawyer, Jr. (1958), Sassolite from the Kramer borate district, California: American Mineralogist: 43: 1068-1078.

Christ, C.L. & R.M. Garrels (1959), Relations among sodium borate hydrates at the Kramer deposit, Boron, California: American Journal of Science: 257: 516-528.

Pemberton, H. Earl, Wm. Moller, Jack Schwartz & George Masimer (1960), The minerals of Boron, California, 40 pp. (Published by the Mineral Research Society of California, Montebello, CA): 25, 31.

Schaller, Waldemar Theodore & Mary Emma Mrose (1960), The naming of the hydrous magnesium borate minerals from Boron, California – a preliminary note: American Mineralogist: 45: 732-734.

Barnard, R.M. & R.B. Kistler (1961), Stratigraphic and structural evolution of the Kramer sodium borate ore body, Boron, California, in: Second Symposium on Salt, J.L. Rau (editor): Northern Ohio Geol. Sc.: 133-150.

Bowser, C.J. & F.W. Dickson (1961), Chemical zonation of the borates of Kramer, California, In: J.L. Rau (ed.), Second Symposium on Salt: 1: 122-132, Northern Ohio Geological Society.

Obert, L. and Long, A.E. (1962) Underground borate mining, Kern County, California. US Bureau of Mines Report of Investigation 6110, 67 pp.: 1-12.

Troxel, Bennie Wyatt & P.K. Morton (1962), Mines and mineral resources of Kern County, California: California Division Mines & Geology County Report 1, 370 pp.: 63.

Ver Planck, Wm. E., Jr. (1962), Kramer Borate District, California Division of Mines and Geology; County Report 1: 39-40.

Hay, Richard Le Roy (1964), Phillipsite of saline lakes and soils American Mineralogist: 49: 1367.

Rumanova, I.M. and Ashirov, A. (1964) The determination of the crystal structure of inderite. Soviet Physics-Crystallography: 8: 414-428.

Bowser, C.J. (1965a), Geochemistry and petrology of the sodium borates in the non-marine evaporative environment: Unpublished Ph.. dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, 307 pp.: 49-50, 147-148.

Dickson, F.W. and W.J. Raab (1965) Origin of stibnite associated with borax at Kramer, California. Geological Society of America Program: 44-45.

Pecora, W.T. and Staff (1965) Mineral Resources. Geological Survey Research, 1965. USGS Professional Paper 525-A, 376 pp.: 9.

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