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Kramer Borate deposit, Boron, Kramer District (Kramer Borate District), Kern Co., California, USA

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List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification
Group 1 - Elements
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Gerstleyite2.HE.05Na2(Sb,As)8S13 · 2H2O
Smythite2.CC.10(Fe,Ni)3+xS4 (x=0-0.3)
Group 3 - Halides
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Birnessite4.FL.45(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Opal4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
Todorokite4.DK.10(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Group 6 - Borates
Borax6.DA.10Na2(B4O5)(OH)4 · 8H2O
Colemanite6.CB.10Ca[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O
Hydroboracite6.CB.15CaMg[B3O4(OH)3]2 · 3H2O
Inderite6.CA.15MgB3O3(OH)5 · 5H2O
Inyoite6.CA.35Ca(H4B3O7)(OH) · 4H2O
Kernite6.DB.05Na2[B4O6(OH)2] · 3H2O
Kurnakovite6.CA.20MgB3O3(OH)5 · 5H2O
Meyerhofferite6.CA.30Ca2(H3B3O7)2 · 4H2O
Probertite6.EB.15NaCaB5O7(OH)4 · 3H2O
Tincalconite6.DA.15Na2(B4O7) · 5H2O
Tunellite6.FC.05SrB6O9(OH)2 · 3H2O
Ulexite6.EA.25NaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
Wardsmithite6.H0.25Ca5Mg[B4O7]6 · 30H2O
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Copiapite7.DB.35Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Epsomite7.CB.40MgSO4 · 7H2O
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
var: Satin Spar Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
var: Selenite7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Mirabilite7.CD.10Na2SO4 · 10H2O
Sideronatrite7.DF.20Na2Fe(SO4)2(OH) · 3H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Analcime9.GB.05Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Hisingerite9.ED.10Fe3+2(Si2O5)(OH)4 · 2H2O
Montmorillonite9.EC.40(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
var: Illite9.EC.15K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Natrolite9.GA.05Na2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Unclassified Minerals
'var: Carbonate-rich Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3X
'Chlorite Group'-
'Feldspar Group'-
Mica Group-
Strontian Aragonite-(Ca,Sr)CO3


Yale, Charles G. & Hoyt S. Gale (1913), Borax: Mineral Resources of the United States, 1912, part 2: 839-846.

Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1926a), Borate deposits in the Kramer district, Kern County, California: USGS Bulletin 785-C: 45-61; […(abstract): Geol. Zentralbl., Band 37: 185 (1928)]: 45-61.

Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1927), Kernite, a new sodium borate: American Mineralogist: 12: 24-25.

Eakle, Arthur Starr (1929), Probertite, a new borate: American Mineralogist: 14: 427-430.

Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1930), Borate minerals from the Kramer district, Mohave Desert, California: USGS PP 158-I: 137-170; […Mineralogical Magazine: 22: 622 (1931)]: 137-170.

Murdoch, Joseph (1945), Probertite from Los Angeles County, California: American Mineralogist: 30: 719-721.

Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1946), Geology of the Kramer borate district, Kern County, California: California Division Mines Report 42: 332, 362.

Frondel, Clifford & V. Morgen (1956), Inderite and gerstleyite from the Kramer borate district, Kern County, California: American Mineralogist: 41: 839-843.

Frondel, Clifford, V. Morgan & J.L.T. Waugh (1956), Lesserite, a new borate mineral American Mineralogist: 41: 927-928.

Smith, George Irving, Hy Almond, & D.L. Sawyer, Jr. (1958), Sassolite from the Kramer borate district, California: American Mineralogist: 43: 1068-1078.

Christ, C.L. & R.M. Garrels (1959), Relations among sodium borate hydrates at the Kramer deposit, Boron, California: American Journal of Science: 257: 516-528.

Pemberton, H. Earl, Wm. Moller, Jack Schwartz & George Masimer (1960), The minerals of Boron, California, 40 pp. (Published by the Mineral Research Society of California, Montebello, CA): 25, 31.

Schaller, Waldemar Theodore & Mary Emma Mrose (1960), The naming of the hydrous magnesium borate minerals from Boron, California – a preliminary note: American Mineralogist: 45: 732-734.

Barnard, R.M. & R.B. Kistler (1961), Stratigraphic and structural evolution of the Kramer sodium borate ore body, Boron, California, in: Second Symposium on Salt, J.L. Rau (editor): Northern Ohio Geol. Sc.: 133-150.

Bowser, C.J. & F.W. Dickson (1961), Chemical zonation of the borates of Kramer, California, In: J.L. Rau (ed.), Second Symposium on Salt: 1: 122-132, Northern Ohio Geological Society.

Obert, L. and Long, A.E. (1962) Underground borate mining, Kern County, California. US Bureau of Mines Report of Investigation 6110, 67 pp.: 1-12.

Troxel, Bennie Wyatt & P.K. Morton (1962), Mines and mineral resources of Kern County, California: California Division Mines & Geology County Report 1, 370 pp.: 63.

Ver Planck, Wm. E., Jr. (1962), Kramer Borate District, California Division of Mines and Geology; County Report 1: 39-40.

Hay, Richard Le Roy (1964), Phillipsite of saline lakes and soils American Mineralogist: 49: 1367.

Rumanova, I.M. and Ashirov, A. (1964) The determination of the crystal structure of inderite. Soviet Physics-Crystallography: 8: 414-428.

Bowser, C.J. (1965a), Geochemistry and petrology of the sodium borates in the non-marine evaporative environment: Unpublished Ph.. dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, 307 pp.: 49-50, 147-148.

Dickson, F.W. and W.J. Raab (1965) Origin of stibnite associated with borax at Kramer, California. Geological Society of America Program: 44-45.

Pecora, W.T. and Staff (1965) Mineral Resources. Geological Survey Research, 1965. USGS Professional Paper 525-A, 376 pp.: 9.

Hay, Richard Le Roy (1966) Zeolites and zeolitic reactions in sedimentary rocks: Geological Society of America Special Paper 85, 130 p.: 44.

Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 154, 229, 235, 236-237, 295, 319.

Dibblee, T.W., Jr. (1967a) Areal geology of western Mojave Desert, California. USGS Professional Paper 522: 126-127.

Smith, W.C. (1968) Borax solution at Kramer, California. Economic Geology: 63(2): 877-883.

Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9): 143-153, 165-172.

Carnahan, V. (1970), Notes on some minerals from Boron: Bulletin of the Mineralogical Society of Southern California, November: 10.

Razmanova, .P., Rumanova, I.M., and Belov, N.V. (1970) Crystal structure of kurnakovite Mg2B6O11•15H2O = 2Mg[B3O3(OH)5]•5H2O. Soviet Physics, Doklady: 14: 1139-1142.

Kistler, R.B., and Smith, W.C. (1975), Boron and Borates, in: Lefond, S.J., editor, Industrial Minerals and Rocks (non-metallics other than fuels): New York, A.I.M.E.: 473-496.

Puffer, J.H. (1975) The Kramer borate mineral assemblage. Mineralogical Record: 6: 84-91.

U.S. Bureau of Mines Minerals Yearbook, 1978-1979: volume 1: 120.

Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 51, 52, 66, 69, 71, 72, 115, 127, 132, 137, 161, 162, 168 (photo 4-5), 171, 174, 186, 191, 210, 213, 215, 219, 222, 216, 240, 243, 249, 256, 259, 266, 278-279, 280, 286, 292, 315, 355, 360, 368, 375, 382, 385, 401, 427, 428, 438, 439, 510, 512.

Smith, George Irving (1985) Borate deposits in the United States: Dissimilar in form, similar in geologic setting, in Barker, J.M., and LeFond, S.J., 1985, Borates: Economic Geology and Production; Proceedings of a symposium held on October 24, 1984, at the fall meeting of SME-AIME in Denver, Colorado: New York, Society of Mining Engineers of the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc: 38-51.

California Division of Mines and Geology (1990), Mines and mineral producers active in California (1988-89), California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology, Special Publication 103.

O'Driscoll, Mike (1990), “Minerals in the US Southwest - breaking rocks in the hot sun” Industrial Minerals, no. 272: 56, 59.

Tschernich, R. (1992): Zeolites of the World: 64.

Roskill Information Services Ltd. (1993), “The Economics of Boron 1993, 7th ed.” London, Roskill Information Services Ltd., 156 p.

American Mineralogist (2005): 90: 1186-1191.

USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10080426 & 10284982.

Currier, Rock (2010), personal communication with Mindat/org.

U.S. Bureau of Mines, Minerals Availability System (MAS) file #0060291052.

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