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Minerals with Inclusions

Posted by Rolf Luetcke  
Rolf Luetcke May 12, 2019 12:18AM

I come across a lot of inclusions in many of the minerals in our collection and thought it would be fun if I started a thread for folks who have minerals with inclusions they would like to share.
The photo here we found near us in St. David, Arizona in a wall with colorless gypsum. This one had iron inclusions, mostly hematite from silvery, metallic, to red-brown to black.
Hope others will enjoy adding some.
Rolf Luetcke May 12, 2019 12:22AM

These are some iron inclusions in tubular cavities inside quartz a friend collected in the Bancroft Ontario, Canada area. Some actually still have hematite in the tubues, these two have become hollow and probably have iron oxides lining the tubes.
Richard Gibson May 12, 2019 03:49AM
Actinolite in quartz, 5.2 cm tall, all I know for locality is "Madagascar."

Bruce Cairncross May 12, 2019 09:08AM
Nice thread Rolf. Here area a couple from southern Africa.

Hematite included quartz from Goboboseb, Namibia. The field of view is 1.5 cm.

Pyrite included in quartz from Bovengeluk, Griquatown district, South Africa. Field of view is 9 mm.
Keith Compton May 12, 2019 09:43AM
Those tubular cavities in Quartz are amazing ... I want one !!
Nice photo
Frank K. Mazdab May 12, 2019 10:23AM
Hi Bruce,

neat inclusions you have there. I'm curious... the metallic ones... are you sure they're pyrite? Because they seem like dead ringers for the pseudo-tetrahedral morphology of chalcopyrite. From Goldschmidt's Atlas of Crystal Forms (even the striations seem oriented correctly):

Bruce Cairncross May 12, 2019 12:02PM
Oops, sorry you're right Frank, it's chalcopyrite. A research paper was published on this locality and the authors identified over 10 different included species, but I should have looked more closely at mine.
Debbie Woolf May 12, 2019 12:11PM

1mm fluid inclusion in quartz from Goboboseb.
Frank K. Mazdab May 12, 2019 12:53PM
No worries, Bruce... a few weeks ago I "oops" on the symmetry of a linarite twin, and I even started pondering if my crystallography memory from days of old was slipping away. And maybe it is... lol. But still, in recognizing the pseudo-tetrahedral chalcopyrite symmetry in your inclusions (and they are pretty spectacular), that was perhaps the confidence booster I needed to get my crystal mojo back... LOL. And it's actually pretty cool that the big inclusion in your photo is oriented almost exactly as the illustration... it's almost as if Victor drew his diagram from your specimen!

Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 05/12/2019 01:02PM by Frank K. Mazdab.
Harold Moritz May 12, 2019 01:22PM

Circular cut-out of very thin sheet of muscovite showing interlayered inclusions of brown goethite, red hematite and dark unspecified Mn-oxide/hydroxides. Some say these include magnetite but they are not attracted to a magnet. The inclusions vary throughout the mica book and their combined overlapping makes a book of this material look opaque and dusky. Books also show patches of bright iridescence from thin-film interference caused by tiny gaps between the muscovite sheets due to the inclusions.
Strickland Quarry, Strickland pegmatite, Collins Hill, Portland, Middlesex Co., Connecticut, USA
Gallery of many at:
Rolf Luetcke May 12, 2019 03:10PM
Thanks, thought that people would enjoy adding things here.
Wish I had a bunch of those but we only were given a couple by a good friend who collected them.

Here is a clear calcite crystals with chalcophanite inclusions.
Rolf Luetcke May 12, 2019 03:20PM

One of my favorites is the copper in gypsum from the Mission Mine in Arizona
Keith Wood May 12, 2019 03:24PM

Quartz crystal with unidentified white, feathery inclusions. This crystal is from within a large granodiorite stock. Skarn around the stock containing wollastonite has prompted people to suggest these are wollastonite inclusions, but the location is quite central in a lobe of the stock. Wollastonite seems quite unlikely. Any guesses would be welcome.
Keith Wood May 12, 2019 03:28PM

Stibnite crystals in quartz. A good example from one of the great locations for this combination.
Richard Gibson May 12, 2019 03:32PM
Presumed smythite (might be pyrrhotite) included in barite from southern Indiana USA.

Bob Harman May 12, 2019 03:47PM
A 2cm perfectly doubly terminated BARYTE crystal with MARCASITE and SMYTHITE inclusions self collected at the Harrodsburg road cuts. A grouping of DOLOMITE crystals is adjacent to the baryte.

The Harrodsburg road cuts here in Monroe County Indiana is the type locality for smythite. Smythite is the only mineral first identified and named from Indiana.


Richard Gibson May 12, 2019 04:01PM
A little spray of hutchinsonite, in (definitely not on) barite on orpiment, from Palomo Mine, Huancavelica Dept., Peru. The hutchinsonite group is not quite a millimeter wide.

Harold Moritz May 12, 2019 04:05PM
Keith, not sure what you have in there, maybe they are just fractures? I've had the same wonder over these abundant inclusions in essentially all of the large pocket quartz crystals from the Strickland pegmatite, for example:

They are either hollow or partially to completely filled with what appears to be tiny secondary albite crystals, which are abundant lining the pockets. What would form long bladed crystals late in the paragenesis in a pegmatite? Zeolites come to mind and one day while looking in The Collector's Guide to Zeolites I came across bikitaite. The crystals are dead ringers and it is a pegmatite zeolite.
It makes sense, this is a Li rich pegmatite and Li is very mobile (much spodumene and lithiophilite there is altered). Very rare though, but then it may have dissolved away in many pegs, only here its presence was preserved inside quartz (and rarely as albite epimorphs with hollow interiors). Replace Li with Na, as is common in many peg alterations, and you are left with the chemistry of albite and water. Don't know if I can ever prove this though.

Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 05/12/2019 04:06PM by Harold Moritz.
Keith Wood May 12, 2019 04:33PM
Bikitaite is a good idea for the origin of those. That's some good detective work, even if unconfirmed.

Mine are definitely crystalline inclusions. My photo isn't great, but I can tell you they are isolated sprays, fully 3D, entirely enclosed in the quartz. I just can't think of a white mineral with that habit that matches the environment.

The paragenesis of the site is quite interesting. Vugs were initially lined with typical skinny quartz crystals with 3:1 to 4:1 aspect ratios. Later, individual larger crystals overgrew those with stubby styles and 1.2:1 to 2:1 aspect ratios. About 1% of these have pale amethyst coloring throughout. Other stubby crystals have thin overgrowths of pale amethyst. So the growth of the amethyst was a later stage. I get the idea of an extended period of growth of the stubby crystals. At some point these feathery crystals grew on about 5% of the stubby crystals and then was overgrown by more colorless quartz and, perhaps if one could find the example, by an amethyst layer.

This picture captures the early paragenesis of skinny to stubby quartz:
Harold Moritz May 12, 2019 04:46PM
Keith, the quartz paragenesis you describe is much like that at Jackson's Crossroads, GA or Hopkinton, RI - the late stage overgrowths are commonly stubby and amethystine, but those are not in the cores of intrusives, although the local conditions may have been similar. I would think relatively low temperature hydrothermal minerals like zeolites, calcite, aragonite, gypsum/anhydrite, etc.
Knut Eldjarn May 12, 2019 05:09PM
could Bavenite be a possibility for your bladed xls included in quartz?
Rolf Luetcke May 12, 2019 05:21PM

Polished piece of quartz with rutile inclusions.
Rolf Luetcke May 12, 2019 05:24PM

This is one from Mexico, a smoky quartz with tourmaline inclusions that turned out to be dravite after they were analyzed.
Rolf Luetcke May 12, 2019 05:27PM

Milpillas is so well known for the azurite and malachite but some early material I purchased was also full of plancheite. Some material was cutable and inside one quartz section was a nice ball of acicular plancheite.
Alix Julien May 12, 2019 07:22PM
Hello everyone

Some small inclusions for you :)
I hope the photos are not too bad.

I start with one of the most popular inclusions of the general public:
(sorry there was one posted while i was writing so that's second photo Rutile inclusions in quartz of the post. ;)

Rutile (& Hematite) in Quartz - Loc.: Novo Horizonte, Bahia, Brazil (probably)

Two photo of acicular Rutile in Topaz, the last of which has a broken crystal of Rutile in 2 and included in 2 different crystals of Topaze!

Edited 3 time(s). Last edit at 05/12/2019 07:33PM by Alix Julien.
Alix Julien May 12, 2019 07:27PM
And to finish a purplish blue Fluorite crystal zoned fuschia and transparent with a multitude of inclusions. The metal needles of an ill-identified mineral are mainly discerned: sold under the name of Bismuthinite, named as Stibine or Boulangerite and Jolyon took a picture where it was named Argentotétraédrite (https://www.mindat.org/ photo-942577.html) ...
But there are also lamellar crystals (Calcites or Siderite - tset Hcl to do) included in the Fluorite not visible (difficult to discern/see) on the photo.

Fluorite , Quartz (... see text) - Yindu Ag-Pb-Zn deposit, Hexigten Banner (Keshiketeng Co.), Ulanhad League (Chifeng Prefecture), Inner Mongolia, China

See you soon


Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 05/14/2019 03:00AM by Alix Julien.
Rolf Luetcke May 12, 2019 08:02PM
I am happy to see others are having fun adding their favorites to the thread. Thanks for sharing your specimens.
Here is one we got in a flat one time a number of years ago. A guy stopped in our store selling a flat of amethyst. I told him I had no interest in amethyst, especially since it was not "clean" looking material but was full of inclusions. People like the nice amethyst without a number of other things in it. He just wanted to get rid of the box and said I could have the whole box for $15. Well, couldn't resist that price for a whole box of minerals.
When I took the box to my microscope I was amazed at what I saw inside the crystals and the flat took on a whole different meaning for me.
Kept several and sold the rest to micromount collectors.

Alix Julien May 12, 2019 08:12PM
Really great!! what a dream!
Your inclusions have a vegetal aspect and even they can make think mushrooms!


Knut Eldjarn May 12, 2019 09:23PM
Two pictures as contributions to the thread. The first is a specimen from a road-tunnell i Western Norway with crystals of julgoldite as inclusions in a clear crystal of calcite growing on a first generation crystal of calcite.

The second is inclusions of boulangerite which is quite common in fluorite from the Yaoganxian mine in China. The unusual feature in this case is a perfect ring of boulangerite formed in one of the fluorite crystals.
Rolf Luetcke May 12, 2019 09:52PM
Thank you for adding to the thread and for your nice comments.
Love those boulangerite rings. I think a few minerals do those rings.

This one is a cuprite over copper in calcite from Bisbee.
Jessica Guichard (2) May 12, 2019 10:14PM
I got this specimen for cheap on ebay, i think it's atacamite in selenite?

Harold Moritz May 12, 2019 10:15PM
Great stuff, I can't even remember all the pix I have that might fit this thread, but Rolf's reminded me of these goethite inclusions in calcite, which look like plastic bottle brushes...
The mineral world is just full of crazy stuff!

Knut, bavenite is a possibility for the Strickland quartz inclusions, it does occur locally, but for reasons too off topic won't get into now. Eventually I will write a mindat article about them.
Rolf Luetcke May 12, 2019 10:38PM
Those are fantastic, love those kinds of inclusions.
Nice one in gypsum.
A friend collects gold from over the world and my wife Mary always thought that somewhere in the world would be gypsum with gold included inside. I had never seen one and neither had our gold collecting friend.
Next day I handed Mary a clear selenite with a gold inclusion in it. She knew right away I had made it but we ended up sending it to our friend who collects gold anyway. Still looking for the real thing.
Keith Wood May 12, 2019 11:44PM
Harold. Thanks for your comments. The paragenesis also matches the Reel mine and Alexis occurrences in NC. I don't think it is a rare sequence. However i am not sure of the temperature ranges of these systems, or to what extent they overlap with the zeolites.

I've puzzled over the zeolite idea a few times, but when i think about zeo localities i generally think of druzy quartz or even chalcedony. However even Upper New Street quarry has stubby amethyst crystals on occasion. i have to allow that you are likely correct.
Keith Wood May 12, 2019 11:46PM
Rolf: What do you think those inclusions in amethyst are?
Rolf Luetcke May 12, 2019 11:58PM
The inclusions in the amethyst are goethite.
Here is another one from Bisbee, a malachite in calcite.

Bruce Cairncross May 13, 2019 09:54AM
Hi Rolf,

Here a few more from my collection.

Does a bug count?? Insect in polished amber, 1.7 cm.

This is a close-up of a specimen I obtained from Ross Lillie during the 1980s. Chalcopyrite included in fluorite from the Denton Mine, Illinois. Field of view is 4 cm.

Another ex-Ross Lillie specimen of hydrocarbon-included fluorite from the Minerva No. 1 mine, Illinois. Field of view is 4 cm.

Bruce Cairncross May 13, 2019 10:01AM
Here a few more from South Africa:

This is a 138 carat diamond mined from the Vaal River alluvial gravels in the Barkly West district, South Africa. it contains unidentified black inclusions. I was fortunate to photograph this diamond before it went on auction.

The Messina mine is well-known for its ajoite/shattuckite/papagoite inclusions in quartz. Much less common are the inclusion of the secondary copper minerals in calcite. Here is one (field of view is 2.9 cm) of one of these species included in scalenohedral calcite.

Finally an ettringite crystal included in gypsum from N'Chwaning II mine, Kalahari manganese field, RSA, 6.8 cm.

Andrea Oppicelli May 13, 2019 10:43AM
Cristobalite in obsidian from Lipari -Sicily-Italy .

Frank K. Mazdab May 13, 2019 11:53AM
Here's kind of a fun one, with inclusions within inclusions. It's a thin section of an agpaitic nepheline syenite from the Eveslogchorr Mountain area of the Khibiny Massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia. Image is in plane polarized light (PPL); horizontal field of view is approximately 2 mm.

Shown are abundant large peachy-pink anhedral masses of weakly-zoned eudialyte to ferrokentbrooksite richly included with mostly-euhedral colorless nepheline crystals, some of which themselves contain tiny inclusions of other unidentified mineral(s). Also, abundant aenigmatite in this thin section (not shown in this view, but visible in the linked full thin section image) is also heavily included (with nepheline and alkali feldspar).

For those who'd like to see the entire thin section, here's the whole sample in both PPL and under XP:

Debbie Woolf May 13, 2019 12:58PM
Bruce, you beat me to it on the ettringite :-)

Instead here's hollandite included in quartz from Madagascar fov 4mm.

Bruce Cairncross May 13, 2019 01:09PM
Nice hollandite Debbie, sorry about the ettringite :-)
Kevin Conroy May 13, 2019 01:22PM
Another bug, partially included in selenite from Jet, Oklahoma, USA. The bug's legs are trapped in one of the sand and gravel included crystals. When I found this specimen I almost picked the beetle off thinking that it was just on the selenite, not part of the specimen.

Rolf Luetcke May 13, 2019 01:25PM
Hi all,
Thank you guys-gals for adding favorites and great fun for me to see all the other cool photos.
Yes, the insect in amber certainly fits. I also have some of those chalcopyrite included fluorites and have not posted any.
Very nice hollandite!!
Looks like an ant head in the gypsum.
Thanks all
Kevin Conroy May 13, 2019 01:27PM
Jet, Oklahoma is famous for the clay/sand included selenite crystals found there.

Rolf Luetcke May 13, 2019 01:33PM

A couple of fluorites from China with jamesonite inclusions.
Rolf Luetcke May 13, 2019 01:37PM

Here is a favorite with Tri State fluorite with a negative crystal. The first one shows the hollow crystal, second photo shows that a slight change of angle and the same negative crystal looks solid but it is the same inclusion, just a different light angle.
Richard Gibson May 13, 2019 03:21PM
Since negative crystals seem to count, here's an inclusion of a double Japan-law twin of quartz in topaz. With and without annotations. I think it's a negative crystal rather an an actual inclusion of quartz. Although the label says Henry Mountains, it might really be Thomas Mountains.

Richard Gibson May 13, 2019 03:48PM
Quartz with solid-liquid-gas inclusions of hydrocarbons, Baluchistan, Pakistan. Larger crystal is 15 mm high.

Eric He May 13, 2019 03:57PM
Amethyst scepter with Epidote? inclusion.
Purple Lollipop Pocket, King County, WA, USA.
Self collected Sept 2018.

Rolf Luetcke May 13, 2019 06:32PM
Great photos everyone, thanks for adding them.
Here is an unusual inclusion from the Rowley Mine in Arizona, a mimetite in baryte.

Tony Charlton May 14, 2019 02:42AM

Rutile in quartz. El Dorado county, California.

Tourmaline, rutile and fuchsite in quartz. Found in Merced river gravel near Knights Crossing, California.
Tony Charlton May 14, 2019 02:56AM

Hematite in quartz,
El Dorado county, California

Quartz and hematite in quartz.
El Dorado county, California

Pyrite on sagenite in quartz.
Unlisted location, California.

Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 05/14/2019 03:04AM by Tony Charlton.
Rolf Luetcke May 14, 2019 01:48PM

Thanks all for adding your inclusions, love seeing all the varieties.

This one is a gift from a friend of garnet in muscovite from a subway tunnel that was dug in Baltimore Maryland.
Rolf Luetcke May 14, 2019 02:40PM

Another muscovite with inclusions, this time linarite in muscovite from the Mascot Mine in New Hampshire.
Alix Julien May 14, 2019 07:43PM
it makes all these inclusions dream! it seems almost magical ;)

Here are some small inclusions of Galena (sorry but I do not have the material to make micro-photos. Software problem) straight from Bulgaria.

Calcite on(/ Epimorphosis of Calcite) Quartz with Galena - Krushev dol mine, Madan ore field, Smolyan Province, Bulgaria

See you soon

Mark Heintzelman May 14, 2019 09:03PM
Posted this to Mindat facebook some time ago, but figured it was worth adding here as well. A tiny crystal, but has a nicely placed group of inclusions. Dumortierite crystals in quartz from the Vaca Morta quarry, Serra da Vereda, Boquira, Bahia, Brazil 18 x 8 x 6 mm

Rolf Luetcke May 14, 2019 09:39PM
Room for all here on this thread and still nice pieces.
Wonderful piece and photo, have always enjoyed seeing those. So far have not gotten one for our collection, too expensive at the last show I saw them.
Thanks all.
Rolf Luetcke May 14, 2019 09:45PM

Here is one from the Johnson Mine in Arizona and it is a molybdenite, encased inside clear chalcedony. So, in a sense, an inclusion inside the chalcedony but at the same time an overgrowth of chalcedony over the molybdenite. Some crystals in the specimen were free standing and uncoated but some were encased in the chalcedony. Kind of an odd find for me.
Harjo Neutkens May 14, 2019 09:50PM
Rolf, I told you it would be a good topic ;-)

Here are some included things I collected.

Hematite inclusions in quartz from Bierghes, Belgium

Marcasite inclusions in calcite from Ave-et-Auffe, Belgium

Rutile inclusions in albite from Bertrix, Belgium

Rutile inclusions in quartz from Marvie, Belgium

Dolomite and chlorite inclusions in quartz from Bierghes, Belgium

Marcasite inclusions in baryte from Doische, Belgium

Byssolite inclusions in apatite from the Knappenwand, Austria

Ilmenorutile inclusions in topaz from the Schneckenstein, Germany

Quartz and a universe of other inclusions in fluorite from Foisches, France

Edited 2 time(s). Last edit at 05/14/2019 10:23PM by Harjo Neutkens.
Rolf Luetcke May 14, 2019 10:51PM
Yes, you were correct, it seems it has been enjoyed by many and thanks for posting so many wonderful photos, the last fluorite with a world inside.
So glad people like adding things from their collections.
Very nice to see your photos.
Tom Tucker May 15, 2019 01:11AM
Rolf, nice pictures. I was going to PM you about the "tri-state fluorite a few page back. I don't know what "tri-state" that piece comes from, but it's highly unlikely from MO-KS-OK. I think there's been a recent discussion about that situation. I would PM you but after ten years of functioning just fine, I'm now prohibited from using it. Tom
Bruce Cairncross May 15, 2019 07:45AM
Here are a couple more from the Messina copper mine in South Africa.

Quartz included by blue ajoite, green epidote and orange iron-rich albite, 6.2 cm.

This is one of my favourite Messina specimens, albeit that it had to have some of the surfaces polished to reveal the included red hematite, fibrous white kaoline, pale blue ajoite and dark blue papagoite(?)/ shattuckite(?), 5.2 cm.

Keith Compton May 15, 2019 08:29AM

That's one confused Quartz xl

Frank K. Mazdab May 15, 2019 09:32AM
It's very patriotic for those of us with flags of red (OK, orange), white and blue... lol.
Alix Julien May 15, 2019 11:12AM
Lol, Frank! I did not understand the joke at first ... Excellent! It's the same, in more the colors are really intense!

Without laughing, this Quartz has inclusions that form a phantom and I find that this phantom distorts the perception of the shape of quartz (as if it doubled the edges [/ridge]. That's wonderful, i love that! Best specimen Bruce!

Congratulations to all for your photos. Harjo, your photos are impressive! I can not wait to reach this level in photography ;)

See you soon


Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 05/15/2019 11:13AM by Alix Julien.
Rolf Luetcke May 15, 2019 01:44PM
That is one "Killer" piece, anyone would be proud of that piece in their collection.
Thanks for sharing.
Rolf Luetcke May 15, 2019 09:06PM

A couple of the Illinois fluorites with chalcopyrite inclusions from a box of multi colored pieces I was given with no information and only a few had inclusions.
Tony Charlton May 16, 2019 02:18AM

Rutile, pyrite and sagenite in quartz.

Pyrite on sagenite in quartz.

Dolomite/ankerite on sagenite with unidentified cluster in quartz.
Tony Charlton May 16, 2019 02:24AM

Dolomite/ankerite, sagenite and pyrite in quartz.

Dolomite/ankerite, sagenite , pyrite and others in quartz.

Reticulated rutile in quartz.
Tony Charlton May 16, 2019 02:40AM

Dolomite/ankerite, sagenite in quartz.

Close up of dolomite/ankerite.

Some more of the tiny crystals in quartz.

Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 05/16/2019 02:41AM by Tony Charlton.
Doug Schonewald May 16, 2019 04:37AM
Goethite piercing quartz

Pyrite in quartz

Goethite piercing quartz with a hematite ball on the exposed needles

Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 05/16/2019 04:44AM by Douglas Schonewald.
Rolf Luetcke May 16, 2019 01:41PM
Tony and Douglas,
Great inclusions and thanks for adding those, nice material.
Debbie Woolf May 16, 2019 03:31PM
Really enjoying all the photos there interesting inclusions.

I am showing my ettringite (3mm) in gypsum as it has inclusions on the termination maybe gaudefroyite?

Kelly Nash May 16, 2019 03:49PM
Monazite-(CE) crystals on a rutile needle, included in a quartz crystal, FOV = 5 mm., Adams Hiddenite & Rutile Mine, Alexander County, North Carolina.

Stephen Rose May 16, 2019 07:18PM
Barite with realgar inclusions from the Boulder Hill mine in Lyon County, Nevada. A miniature size specimen.

Rolf Luetcke May 16, 2019 07:55PM
Great photos all.
Here is one from the Southwest Mine in Bisbee with malachite and other things inside calcite.

Rolf Luetcke May 16, 2019 07:56PM

This one is a little harder to see but it is small cubes of murdochite on needle malachite and included in colorless calcite.
Jeff Weissman May 16, 2019 08:31PM
Here is a translucent white rhombohedral calcite crystal in calcite

Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 05/16/2019 08:41PM by Jeff Weissman.
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