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Chiavennite

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The town of Chiavenna in the valley taken from Savogno.

Chiavenna, Valchiavenna, Sondrio Province, Lombardy, Italy
Formula:
CaMnBe2Si5O13(OH)2 · 2H2O
from Grice et al. (2016): Ca1-2(Mn,Fe)Si5Be2O13(OH)2.2H2O
Colour:
Pale orange-yellow;
Lustre:
Vitreous, Pearly
Hardness:
3
Specific Gravity:
2.64
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Member of:
Name:
Named by Mirella Bondi, William L. Griffin, Vittorio Mattioli, and Annibale Mottana in 1983 for the type locality of Chiavenna, Italy.
Isostructural with:
Closely related to Ferrochiavennite, which is its Fe analogue. See also the related tvedalite and another chemically close mineral, harstigite. Re-investigations of Chiavennite from the TL indicate that at room temperature chiavennite is monoclinic with spacegroup P21/c; the mineral becomes orthorhombic (Pbcn) upon dehydration due to destruction of water(extraframework)-oxygen(cavity walls) hydrogen bonds (Cametti & Armbruster 2015).

The structure is described as an interrupted framework with four-connected SiO4 and three-connected BeO4 tetrahedra, the latter closely associated with H atoms. There are 9-, 6-, 5- and 4-fold rings in it. Calcium may exist in a single site, or in two sites, of which the second one is partially occupied.



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Classification of ChiavenniteHide

Approved
9.GF.25

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
G : Tektosilicates with zeolitic H2O; zeolite family
F : Other Rare Zeolites
70.5.1.1

70 : INOSILICATES Column or Tube Structures
5 : Column or Tube Structures with chains linked by Be
14.3.18

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
3 : Silicates of Be

Physical Properties of ChiavenniteHide

Vitreous, Pearly
Colour:
Pale orange-yellow;
Streak:
White; pale ocher
Hardness:
Cleavage:
Perfect
Good to perfect cleavages along {IOO}, {OlO}, and {001}
Density:
2.64 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.657 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of ChiavenniteHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.596 nβ = 1.600 nγ = 1.618
2V:
Measured: 50° , Calculated: 52°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.022
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
r < v weak
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
X colorless, to pale yellow, Z yellow-orange

Chemical Properties of ChiavenniteHide

Formula:
CaMnBe2Si5O13(OH)2 · 2H2O

from Grice et al. (2016): Ca1-2(Mn,Fe)Si5Be2O13(OH)2.2H2O
IMA Formula:
CaMn2+(BeOH)2Si5O13 · 2H2O
Common Impurities:
Al,Fe,Mg,Ca,Na,K,F,C

Crystallography of ChiavenniteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/b
Setting:
P21/c
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.7466(3) Å, b = 4.8972(3) Å, c = 31.3160(16) Å
β = 90.128(4)°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.786 : 1 : 6.395
Unit Cell V:
1341.39 ų
Morphology:
Crystals from the TL are showing a flat pseudohexagonal habit. From Larvik Plutonic Complex (Langesundsfjorden area), Norway: Spherulitic aggregates concisting of spear-shaped crystals, flattened on {010}, terminated by the orthorhombic pyramid {161}.
Twinning:
common, on {100}
Comment:
previously reported to be orthorhombic; unit cell parameters for the orthorhombic dehydrated phase, i.e., at 425oC, of the Pbcn cell, transformed in (non-standard) Pnca setting: a=8.6795(15), b=4.9017(10), c=31.513(6)

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
15.77 (100bb)
4.15 (30)
3.93 (30b)
3.82 (30)
3.28 (75)
2.903 (100)
1.944 (30)

Type Occurrence of ChiavenniteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
As euhedral orange grains and as crusts coating beryl
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Alpine pegmatites (25-27 m.y.)
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of ChiavenniteHide

Other Language Names for ChiavenniteHide

German:Chiavennit
Simplified Chinese:水硅锰钙铍石
Spanish:Chiavennita

Relationship of Chiavennite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
AlflarseniteNaCa2Be3Si4O13(OH) · 2H2OMon. 2 : P21
AmiciteK2Na2Al4Si4O16 · 5H2OMon. 2
Ammonioleucite(NH4,K)(AlSi2O6)Tet.
AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2OTric.
Barrerite(Na,K,Ca0.5)2[Al2Si7O18] · 7H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
Bellbergite(K,Ba,Sr)2Sr2Ca2(Ca,Na)4[Al3Si3O12]6 · 30H2OHex.
BikitaiteLiAlSi2O6 · H2OTric. 1 : P1
BoggsiteCa8Na3(Si,Al)96O192 · 70H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Imma
Brewsterite-Ba(Ba,Sr)[Al2Si6O16] · 5H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
Brewsterite-Sr(Sr,Ba,Ca)[Al2Si6O16] · 5H2O
Chabazite-Levyne SubgroupA subgroup of the Zeolite Group.
ClinoptiloliteNote on the distinguishing differences between clinoptilolite and heulandite (hhttp://rruff.
CowlesiteCaAl2Si3O10 · 6H2OOrth.
Dachiardite-Ca(Ca,Na2,K2)5Al10Si38O96 · 25H2OMon.
Dachiardite-KK4(Si20Al4O48)·13H2OMon.
Dachiardite-Na(Na2,Ca,K2)5Al10Si38O96 · 25H2OMon.
DirenzoiteNaK6MgCa2(Al13Si47O120) · 36H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmn
EdingtoniteBa[Al2Si3O10] · 4H2O
EpistilbiteCaAl2Si6O16 · 5H2OMon.
ErioniteThis name now refers to a group of related minerals.
Faujasite SubgroupA subgroup of the Zeolite Group.
FerrieriteZeolite Group.
FerrochiavenniteCa1-2Fe[(Si,Al,Be)5Be2O13(OH)2] · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
Flörkeite(K3Ca2Na)[Al8Si8O32] · 12H2OTric. 1 : P1
Garronite-CaNa2Ca5Al12Si20O64 · 27H2OTet. 4 2m : I4m2
GaultiteNa4Zn2Si7O18 · 5H2OOrth. mm2 : Fdd2
Gismondine-BaBa2Al4Si4O16 · 4-6H2O
Gismondine-CaCaAl2Si2O8 · 4H2O
GmeliniteIn 1997, gmelinite was split into Gmelinite-Ca, Gmelinite-Na and Gmelinite-K.
GobbinsiteNa5(Si11Al5)O32 · 11H2OOrth.
GoosecreekiteCa[Al2Si6O16] · 5H2OMon.
GottardiiteNa3Mg3Ca5Al19Si117O272 · 93H2OOrth.
Harmotome(Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
HeulanditeNote on the distinguishing differences between heulandite and clinoptilolite (http://rruff.
HsianghualiteCa3Li2(Be3Si3O12)F2
KirchhoffiteCs(BSi2O6)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
LovdariteK2Na6Be4Si14O36 · 9H2OOrth. mm2
MaricopaitePb7Ca2(Si,Al)48O100 · 32H2OOrth.
Mazzite-Mg(Mg,K,Ca)5(Si26Al10)O72 · 28H2OHex.
Mazzite-NaNa8[Al4Si14O36]2 · 30H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
Merlinoite(K,Na)5(Ca,Ba)2Al9Si23O64 · 23H2OOrth.
Montesommaite(K,Na)9Al9Si23O64 · 10H2OOrth.
Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)Al2Si10O24 · 7H2OOrth.
MutinaiteNa3Ca4Si85Al11O192 · 60H2OOrth.
NabesiteNa2BeSi4O10 · 4H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
Natrolite SubgroupA subgroup of the Zeolite Group.
OffretiteKCaMg(Si13Al5)O36 · 15H2OHex. 6 m2 : P6m2
PahasapaiteLi8(Ca,Li,K)10.5Be24(PO4)24 · 38H2OIso. 2 3 : I2 3
ParthéiteCa2(Si4Al4) O15 (OH)2•4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
Paulingite-Ca(Ca,K,Na,Ba,◻)10 (Si, Al)42O84•34H2OIso.
Paulingite-K(K2,Ca,Na2,Ba)5[Al10Si35O90] · 45H2OIso.
Paulingite-Na(Na2,K2,Ca,Ba)5[Al10Si35O90] · 45H2OIso.
PerlialiteK9Na(Ca,Sr)[Al2Si4O12]6 · 15H2OHex.
PhillipsiteZeolite Group.
Pollucite(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
RoggianiteCa2Be(OH)2Al2Si4O13 · 2.5H2OTet.
StelleriteCa4(Si28Al8)O72 · 28H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Fmmm
Stilbite-CaNaCa4[Al9Si27O72] · nH2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
Stilbite-Na(Na,Ca,K)6-7[Al8Si28O72] · nH2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
Terranovaite(Na,Ca)8(Si68Al12)O160 · 29H2OOrth.
Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
Thomsonite-SrNa(Sr,Ca)2[Al5Si5O20] · 7H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
Tschernichite(Ca,Na2)[Al2Si4O12] · 4-8H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/mmm
TschörtneriteCa4(Ca,Sr,K,Ba)3Cu3[(OH)2|Al3Si3O12]4 · nH2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
WairakiteCa(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2OMon. 2/m
WeinebeneiteCaBe3(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
Wenkite(Ba,K)4(Ca,Na)6[(SO4)3|(Si,Al)20O39(OH)2] · 0.5H2OHex.
WillhendersoniteKCa[Al3Si3O12] · 5H2OTric.
YugawaraliteCaAl2Si6O16 · 4H2OMon.

Common AssociatesHide

AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
EudidymiteNa2Be2Si6O15 · H2O
HelvineBe3Mn2+4(SiO4)3S
NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Analcime20 photos of Chiavennite associated with Analcime on mindat.org.
Natrolite13 photos of Chiavennite associated with Natrolite on mindat.org.
Aegirine7 photos of Chiavennite associated with Aegirine on mindat.org.
Calcite4 photos of Chiavennite associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Peterandresenite4 photos of Chiavennite associated with Peterandresenite on mindat.org.
Tvedalite3 photos of Chiavennite associated with Tvedalite on mindat.org.
Eudidymite3 photos of Chiavennite associated with Eudidymite on mindat.org.
Leucophanite3 photos of Chiavennite associated with Leucophanite on mindat.org.
Behoite2 photos of Chiavennite associated with Behoite on mindat.org.
Wickmanite2 photos of Chiavennite associated with Wickmanite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.GF.05Terranovaite(Na,Ca)8(Si68Al12)O160 · 29H2OOrth.
9.GF.10GottardiiteNa3Mg3Ca5Al19Si117O272 · 93H2OOrth.
9.GF.15LovdariteK2Na6Be4Si14O36 · 9H2OOrth. mm2
9.GF.20GaultiteNa4Zn2Si7O18 · 5H2OOrth. mm2 : Fdd2
9.GF.30Tschernichite(Ca,Na2)[Al2Si4O12] · 4-8H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/mmm
9.GF.35MutinaiteNa3Ca4Si85Al11O192 · 60H2OOrth.
9.GF.40TschörtneriteCa4(Ca,Sr,K,Ba)3Cu3[(OH)2|Al3Si3O12]4 · nH2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
9.GF.50Thornasite(Na,K)12Th3[Si8O19]4 · 18H2OTrig. 3m : R3m
9.GF.55DirenzoiteNaK6MgCa2(Al13Si47O120) · 36H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmn

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

14.3.1PhenakiteBe2SiO4Trig. 3 : R3
14.3.2BertranditeBe4(Si2O7)(OH)2Orth. mm2 : Cmc21
14.3.3BerylliteBe3(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2OOrth.
14.3.4LiberiteLi2BeSiO4Mon. m : Pm
14.3.5ChkaloviteNa2BeSi2O6Orth. mm2 : Fdd2
14.3.6EudidymiteNa2Be2Si6O15 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
14.3.7EpididymiteNa2Be2Si6O15 · H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
14.3.8GugiaiteCa2Be(Si2O7)Tet.
14.3.9Jeffreyite(Ca,Na)2(Be,Al)(Si2O7,HSi2O7)Orth.
14.3.10Semenovite-(Ce)Na8Ca2FeBe6Ce2Si14O40(OH)4F4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
14.3.11BaryliteBe2Ba(Si2O7)Orth.
14.3.12Hingganite-(Ce)(Ce,REE)2(□,Fe2+)Be2[SiO4]2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
14.3.13Hingganite-(Yb)(Yb,Y,REE)2□Be2[SiO4]2(OH)2
14.3.14Hingganite-(Y)(Y,REE,Ca)2(□,Fe2+)Be2[SiO4]2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
14.3.15Minasgeraisite-(Y)CaBe2Y2Si2O10Mon. 2/m : P21/b
14.3.16SørenseniteNa4SnBe2Si6O16(OH)4Mon. 2/m : B2/b
14.3.17TrimeriteCaMn2+2Be3(SiO4)3Mon. 2/m : P21/m
14.3.19Tvedalite(Ca,Mn)4Be3Si6O17(OH)4 · 3H2OOrth.
14.3.20HarstigiteCa6(Mn,Mg)Be4Si6(O,OH)24Orth.
14.3.21SverigeiteNaMnMgSnBe2(SiO4)3(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Imma
14.3.22Joesmithite{Pb}{Ca2}{Mg3Fe3+2}(Be2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon.
14.3.23Gadolinite-(Y)Y2Fe2+Be2Si2O10Mon. 2/m : P21/b
14.3.24Gadolinite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Nd,Y)2Fe2+Be2Si2O10Mon. 2/m
14.3.25Calciogadolinite-(Y)(YCa)2Fe3+Be2[SiO4]2O2

Other InformationHide

Thermal Behaviour:
continuous water loss up to ca. 452oC not associated with topological modification; at 250oC more than a single water molecule is lost, in association with LKCa lowering from 8 to 7
Notes:
Insoluble in water, and in concentrated HCl, HNO3 and H2SO4.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for ChiavenniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Bondi, M., Griffin, W. L., Mattioli, V., Mottana, A. (1983) Chiavennite, CaMnBe2Si5O13(OH)2·2H2O, a new mineral from Chiavenna (Italy). American Mineralogist: 68: 623-627.
Raade, G., Åmli, R., Mladeck, M.H., Din, V.K., Larsen A.O., Åsheim, A. (1983) Chiavennite from syenite pegmatites in the Oslo Region, Norway. American Mineralalogist: 68: 628-633.
Tazzoli, V., Domeneghetti, M.C., Mazzi, F., Cannillo, E. (1995) The crystal structure of chiavennite. European Journal of Mineralogy: 7: 1339-1344.
Coombs, D.S., Alberti, A., Armbruster, T., Artioli, G., Colella, C., Galli, E., Grice, J.D., Liebau, F., Mandarino, J.A., Minato, H., Nickel, E.H., Passaglia, E., Peacor, D.R., Quartieri, S., Rinaldi, R., Ross, M., Sheppard, R.A., Tillmanns, E., Vezzalini, G., (1997) Recommended nomenclature for zeolite minerals: report of the Subcommittee on Zeolites of the International Mineralogical Association, Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names. Canadian Mineralogist: 35: 1571-1606.
Larsen, A.O. (2001) Historien om chiavennite. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift: 18: 10-12.
Pezzotta, F., Guastoni, A., Forner, H., Demartin, F., Kristiansen, R. (2005) Découverte exceptionnelle de chiavennite associée à pezzottaite dans la pegmatite de Sakavalana, Mandrosonoro, Madagascar. Le Règne Minéral: 61: 25-28.
Cametti, G., Armbuster, T. (2015) Chiavennite revisited: a high-temperature in situ single-crystal X-ray diffraction study. European Journal of Mineralogy: 27: 659-667.
Grice, J.D., Friis, H., Kristiansen, R. (2016): New Data For Chiavennite and Ferrochiavennite. Canadian Mineralogist, 54, 21-32; http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=13321 (2017)

Internet Links for ChiavenniteHide

Localities for ChiavenniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Italy (TL)
 
  • Lombardy
    • Sondrio Province
      • Valchiavenna
        • Chiavenna
Amer.Min.(1983) 68, 623-627
        • Prata Camportaccio
Pezzotta F., Guastoni A., Forner H., Demartin F., Kristiansen R. (2004) : Exceptional chiavennite associated with pezzottaite from the Sakavalana Pegmatite, Ambatovita, Madagascar. Web site of Mineralogical Society of America. www.minsocam.org/msa/Pegmatites.html
Madagascar
 
  • Fianarantsoa Province
    • Amoron'i Mania Region
      • Ambatofinandrahana District
        • Mandrosonoro Commune
          • Ambatovita
Pezzotta F., Guastoni A., Forner H., Demartin F., Kristiansen R. (2004) : Exceptional chiavennite associated with pezzottaite from the Sakavalana Pegmatite, Ambatovita, Madagascar. Web site of Mineralogical Society of America. www.minsocam.org/msa/Pegmatites.html; Pezzotta, F., Guastoni, A., Forner, H., Demartin, F., Kristiansen, R. (2005): Découverte exceptionnelle de chiavennite associée à pezzottaite dans la pegmatite de Sakavalana, Mandrosonoro, Madagascar. Le Règne Minéral, 62, 25-28.
Mexico
 
  • San Luis Potosí
    • Mun. de Rioverde
Planer-Friedrich, B. (2000). Hydrogeological and hydrochemical investigations in the Rio Verde Basin, Mexico. Freiberg Online Geoscience, 3, 1-145.
Norway
 
  • Telemark
    • Porsgrunn
      • Langangen
        • Kokkersvold E18 roadcuts
Raade, G., Åmli, R., Mladeck, H., Din. V. K., Larsen, A.O. & Åsheim, A. (1983): Chiavennite from syenite pegmatites in the Oslo Region, Norway. American Mineralogist. 68: 628-633
        • Rønningen (Skredderrønningen)
Burvald, Ingulv (1993): To forekomster av nefelin-syenitt-pegmatitt i Telemark. STEIN 20 (3), 176-179; Larsen, A. O. (1988): Helvite group minerals from syenite pegmatites in the Oslo Region, Norway. Contribution to the mineralogy of Norway no 68. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 68: 119-124
      • Mørje
        • Sagåsen
Engvoldsen,T.,Andersen, F.,Berge, S.A. & Burvald, I. (1991): Pegmatittmineraler fra Larvik ringkompleks. STEIN 18(1),15-71
Larsen, A.O., Åsheim, A. and Gault, R. A. (2005): Minerals of the eudialyte group from the Sagåsen larvikite quarry, Porsgrunn, Norway. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter 30: 58-62
  • Vestfold
    • Larvik
      • Brunlanes
Raade, G.; Åmli, R.; Mladeck, M.H.; Din, V.K.; Larsen, A.O. & Åsheim, A.(1983): Chiavennite from syenite pegmatites in the Oslo Region, Norway. American Mineralogist 68; 628-633
      • Hedrum
        • Lågendalen
Andersen, F. (1993): Hedrum pukkverk i Lågendalen. STEIN 20 (4), 236-238
      • Langesundsfjorden
        • Vesle Arøya
Kristiansen, R. (1999): Berylliummineraler i Norge. STEIN 26 (2),8-23; Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 p; Larsen, A.O., Kolitsch, U., Gault, R.A. & Giester, G. (2010): Eirikite a new mineral species of the leifite group from the Langesundsfjord district, Norway. European Journal of Mineralogy. 22, 875–880
      • Malerød
Andresen, P. (2011): Mineralene fra Midtfjellet larvikittbrudd, Malerød, Larvik. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift. 46: 41-47
      • Tjølling
        • Klåstad
Bjørn K. Stensvold collection; Larsen, K.E. & Stensvold, B.K.(2015): Berylliummineraler og andre sjeldne mineraler i syenittpegmatitter i Skallist larvikittbrudd, Tjølling, Larvik, Vestfold. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2015, 47-56
      • Tvedalen
Engvoldsen,T.,Andersen, F.,Berge, S.A. & Burvald, I. (1991): Pegmatittmineraler fra Larvik ringkompleks. STEIN 18(1),15-71
Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 p
Engvoldsen,T.,Andersen, F.,Berge, S.A. & Burvald, I. (1991): Pegmatittmineraler fra Larvik ringkompleks. STEIN 18(1),15-71/ Raade, G.; Åmli, R.; Mladeck, M.H.; Din, V.K.; Larsen, A.O. & Åsheim, A.(1983): Chiavennite from syenite pegmatites in the Oslo Region, Norway. American Mineralogist 68; 628-633
Peter Andresen collection, 2016.
Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 p
Nordrum, F. S. (2004): Nyfunn av mineraler i Norge 2003-2004. STEIN 31 (2), 36-44
Engvoldsen,T.,Andersen, F.,Berge, S.A. & Burvald, I. (1991): Pegmatittmineraler fra Larvik ringkompleks. STEIN 18(1),15-71; Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 p
Collection of Peter Andresen./ Nordrum, F.S. (2008): Nyfunn av mineraler i Norge 2007-2008. STEIN 35 (2), 8-20
Collection of OT Ljøstad.
Larsen, A. O.; Åsheim, A.; Raade, G. & Taftø, J. (1992): Tvedalite, (Ca,Mn)4Be3Si6O17(OH)4• 3H2O, a new mineral from syenite pegmatite in the Oslo Region, Norway, American Mineralogist 77, 438-443
Sweden
 
  • Södermanland
    • Haninge
      • Utö
Langhof, J., Holtstam, D. & Gustafsson, L., 2000: Chiavennite and zoned genthelvite-helvite as late-stage minerals of the Proterozoic LCT pegmatites at Utö, Stockholm, Sweden. GFF, Vol. 122 (Pt. 2, June), pp. 207-212. Stockholm. ISSN 1103-5897
Nysten, P. (1996): Paragenetic setting and crystal chemistry of milarites from Proterozoic granitic pegmatites in Sweden. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte 1996, 564-576.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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