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Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
(x < 1)
Green, bluish green, blue, blackish blue to black, or brown and rarely yellow
Vitreous, Waxy, Earthy
2½ - 3½
Specific Gravity:
1.93 - 2.4
Crystal System:
The name was first used by Theophrastus in 315 B.C. and comes from the Greek chrysos, meaning "gold," and kolla, meaning "glue," in allusion to the name of the material used to solder gold. André-Jean-François-Marie Brochant de Villiers revived the name in 1808.
A mineral of secondary origin, commonly associated with other secondary copper minerals, it is typically found as glassy botryoidal or rounded masses or bubbly crusts, and as jackstraw mats of tiny acicular crystals or tufts of fibrous crystals. Copper-bearing allophane can look similar.

Visit for gemological information about Chrysocolla.

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Classification of ChrysocollaHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
E : Phyllosilicates
D : Phyllosilicates with kaolinite layers composed of tetrahedral and octahedral nets
Dana 7th ed.:

74 : PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
3 : Modulated Layers with joined strips

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
2 : Silicates of Cu

Physical Properties of ChrysocollaHide

Vitreous, Waxy, Earthy
Translucent, Opaque
Green, bluish green, blue, blackish blue to black, or brown and rarely yellow
Light green
2½ - 3½ on Mohs scale
Hardness Data:
None Observed
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
1.93 - 2.4 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Optical Data of ChrysocollaHide

Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.575 - 1.585 nβ = 1.597 nγ = 1.598 - 1.635
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.023 - 0.050
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:

Chemical Properties of ChrysocollaHide

Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O

(x < 1)
IMA Formula:
(Cu2-xAlx)H2-xSi2O5(OH)4 · nH2O

Crystallography of ChrysocollaHide

Crystal System:
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.7 Å, b = 8.9 Å, c = 6.7 Å
a:b:c = 0.64 : 1 : 0.753
Unit Cell V:
339.89 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Most often found as cryptocrystalline to amorphous botryoidal aggregates and crusts. Crystals reported as fine acicular to fibrous, very rare.
None reported.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
17.9 (80)
7.9 (60)
4.45 (20)
4.07 (60)
2.90 (80)
2.56 (70)
1.602 (40)
1.486 (100)
Broad, low peaks. Weaker lines often diffuse. The pattern is fairly characteristic.

Synonyms of ChrysocollaHide

Other Language Names for ChrysocollaHide

Varieties of ChrysocollaHide

Aluminian ChrysocollaAn aluminian variety of Chrysocolla.
Aluminian Ferrian ChrysocollaA aluminian ferrian variety of Chrysocolla.
Cornuite (of Rogers)Described as "Amorphous equivalent of chrysocolla."
CyanochalcitePhosphorus rich
PilariteAl-bearing variety of chrysocolla.
TraversoiteAl-bearing variety of chrysocolla.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Malachite793 photos of Chrysocolla associated with Malachite on
Quartz458 photos of Chrysocolla associated with Quartz on
Cuprite233 photos of Chrysocolla associated with Cuprite on
Azurite210 photos of Chrysocolla associated with Azurite on
Calcite131 photos of Chrysocolla associated with Calcite on
Dioptase125 photos of Chrysocolla associated with Dioptase on
Wulfenite100 photos of Chrysocolla associated with Wulfenite on
Tenorite95 photos of Chrysocolla associated with Tenorite on
Atacamite83 photos of Chrysocolla associated with Atacamite on
Copper81 photos of Chrysocolla associated with Copper on

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.ED.ClinochrysotileMon. 2/m
9.ED.05DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bb
9.ED.05KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Tric. 1 : P1
9.ED.05NacriteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bb
9.ED.05Odinite(Fe,Mg,Al,Fe,Ti,Mn)2.4((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bm
9.ED.10HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bb
9.ED.10HisingeriteFe3+2(Si2O5)(OH)4 · 2H2OMon.
9.ED.10Halloysite-7ÅAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bb
9.ED.15AmesiteMg2Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4Tric. 1 : P1
9.ED.15AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bm
9.ED.15Berthierine(Fe2+,Fe3+,Al)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4Mon. m : Bm
9.ED.15CronstedtiteFe2+2Fe3+((Si,Fe3+)2O5)(OH)4Trig. 3m : P3 1m
9.ED.15GuidottiiteMn2Fe3+(Fe3+SiO5)(OH)4Hex. 6 : P63
9.ED.20Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2OAmor.
9.ED.20Neotocite(Mn,Fe,Mg)SiO3 · H2OAmor.
9.ED.25BismutoferriteFe3+2Bi(SiO4)2(OH)Mon. m : Bm
9.ED.25ChapmaniteFe3+2Sb3+(Si2O5)O3(OH)Mon. m : Bm

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

14.2.1DioptaseCuSiO3 · H2OTrig. 3 : R3
14.2.2ShattuckiteCu5(Si2O6)2(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
14.2.3PlancheiteCu8(Si8O22)(OH)4 · H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
14.2.4GilaliteCu5Si6O17 · 7H2OMon.
14.2.7ReinhardbraunsiteCa5(SiO4)2(OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
14.2.8CuprorivaiteCaCuSi4O10Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/ncc
14.2.9KinoiteCa2Cu2(H2O)2[Si3O10]Mon. 2/m : P21/m
14.2.10StringhamiteCaCu(SiO4) · H2OMon.
14.2.11ApachiteCu9Si10O29 · 11H2OMon.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
A very minor ore of copper.

References for ChrysocollaHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Sun, M.-S. (1963) The nature of chrysocolla from the Inspiration Mine, Arizona. American Mineralogist: 48: 649-658.
Chukhrov, F.V., Zvyagin, B.B., Gorshkov A.I., Ermilova, L.P., Rudnitskaya, E.S. (1968) Chrysocolla. Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Geol.: 6: 29{44 (in Russian).
Fleischer, M. (1969) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 54: 993-994.
Van Oosterwyck-Gastuche, M.-C. (1970) La structure de la chrysocolle. Compt. Rendus Acad. Sci. Paris: 271: 1837-1840 (in French).
Gaines, R.V., Skinner, C.W.H., Foord, E.E., Mason, B. Rosenzweig, A. (1997) Dana's New Mineralogy: The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, 8th. edition: 1561.
Farges, F., Benzerara, K., Brown, Jr., G.E. (2006) Chrysocolla Redefined as Spertiniite, SLAC-PUB-12232, Contributed to 13th International Conference On X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS13), July 9-14, 2006, Stanford, California (
Frost, R.L., Xi, Y. ‎(2013) Is chrysocolla (Cu,Al)2H2Si2O5(OH)4·nH2O related to spertiniite Cu(OH)2? -a vibrational spectroscopic study. (
Hariu, T., Arima, H., Sugiyama, K. (2013) The structure of hydrated copper-silicate gels, an analogue compound for natural chrysocolla. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences: 108: 111-115 (

Internet Links for ChrysocollaHide

Localities for ChrysocollaHide

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Locality ListShow

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