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About Churchite-(Y)Hide

Arthur H. Church
Y(PO4) · 2H2O
Colorless, white, gray, yellow; colourless in transmitted light.
Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous, Greasy, Silky, Pearly
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Named in 1865 by Charles H. Greville Williams in honor of Arthur Herbert Church [June 2, 1834 London, England, UK – May 31, 1915 Shelsley, Kew Gardens, England, UK]. Church was the first to examine absorption spectra of gemstones for identification purposes. He was a chemist and mineralogist. He wrote five books and was an authority on a variety of fields including paint chemistry, porcelain, and organic/agricultural chemistry. He named several mineral species.

The original chemical analysis of churchite (1865) indicated 51.87 wt.% of Ce2O3 with some didymium (from Cornwall). Unfortunately, the real chemical composition of the material was primarily Y-dominant, with minor amounts of La, Nd, and Er. The phosphate mineral weinschenkite (now a synonym of churchite) was described by Heinrich Laubmann in 1923 from Bavaria. Dana's 7th edition, volume II (1951) "System of Mineralogy" covered the species as two entries, both as "Weinschenkite" and as "Churchite," with the formula of the former being Y-dominant and the latter being Ce-dominant. Claringbull and Hey (1953) re-examined churchite and found that it was Y-dominant and contained little cerium. Because the name weinschenkite had been used twice, Claringbull and Hey (1953) maintained churchite as weinschenkite, earlier, had been given to a hornblende-like amphibole in 1922 by G. Murgoci. Following the guidelines of the Levinson nomenclature (Levinson, 1966), Michael Fleischer (1987, Glossary of Mineral Species) added -(Y) to churchite.
Isostructural with:

Classification of Churchite-(Y)Hide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

C : Phosphates without additional anions, with H2O
J : With only large cations

4 : (AB)5(XO4)2·xH2O

19 : Phosphates
9 : Phosphates of rare earths and Sc

Physical Properties of Churchite-(Y)Hide

Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous, Greasy, Silky, Pearly
Lustre pearly on cleavage.
Colorless, white, gray, yellow; colourless in transmitted light.
On {101}, perfect.
3.14 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.2 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Churchite-(Y)Hide

Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.605 - 1.623 nβ = 1.608 - 1.631 nγ = 1.645 - 1.657
Measured: 10° , Calculated: 60°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.040
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Optical Extinction:
c^[001] ~ 30°-35°

Chemical Properties of Churchite-(Y)Hide

Y(PO4) · 2H2O

Crystallography of Churchite-(Y)Hide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.578 Å, b = 15.006 Å, c = 6.275 Å
β = 117.83°
a:b:c = 0.372 : 1 : 0.418
Unit Cell V:
464.49 ų
Crystals acicular to lath-shaped (gypsum-like), elongated [001] and flattened {010}; form crusts and spherulites with a radial-fibrous structure.
Space group I2/a. Ivashkevich et al. (2013) give C2/c (different setting) and a = 6.15326(3), b = 14.99687(8), c = 5.57848(3) Å, β = 115.4319(4)°, V = 464.896(4) Å3.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
7.51 (79)
4.69 (24)
4.19 (100)
3.74 (60)
3.01 (71)
2.83 (45)
2.61 (31)
2.17 (18)
1.8606 (19)
1.7773 (17)
RRUFF, see also ICDD 8-167

Type Occurrence of Churchite-(Y)Hide

Synonyms of Churchite-(Y)Hide

Other Language Names for Churchite-(Y)Hide

Simplified Chinese:针磷钇铒矿
Traditional Chinese:針磷釔鉺礦

Relationship of Churchite-(Y) to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
BrushiteCa(HPO4) · 2H2OMon. m : Bb
GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2OMon. 2/m
PharmacoliteCa(HAsO4) · 2H2OMon. m

Common AssociatesHide

BerauniteFe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
CacoxeniteFe3+24AlO6(PO4)17(OH)12 · 75H2O
DufréniteCa0.5Fe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O
WavelliteAl3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Microcline5 photos of Churchite-(Y) associated with Microcline on mindat.org.
Cacoxenite3 photos of Churchite-(Y) associated with Cacoxenite on mindat.org.
Plumbogummite Group3 photos of Churchite-(Y) associated with Plumbogummite Group on mindat.org.
Plumbomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)3 photos of Churchite-(Y) associated with Plumbomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977) on mindat.org.
Cleavelandite3 photos of Churchite-(Y) associated with Cleavelandite on mindat.org.
Unnamed (Fe-Al Phosphate)2 photos of Churchite-(Y) associated with Unnamed (Fe-Al Phosphate) on mindat.org.
Tsepinite-Na2 photos of Churchite-(Y) associated with Tsepinite-Na on mindat.org.
Kenoplumbopyrochlore2 photos of Churchite-(Y) associated with Kenoplumbopyrochlore on mindat.org.
Metatorbernite2 photos of Churchite-(Y) associated with Metatorbernite on mindat.org.
Amazonite2 photos of Churchite-(Y) associated with Amazonite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

8.CJ.CaesiumpharmacosideriteCsFe4[(AsO4)3(OH)4]·4H2OIso. 4 3m : P4 3m
8.CJ.JeankempiteCa5(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 7H2OTric. 1 : P1
8.CJ.05StercoriteNa(NH4)HPO4 · 4H2OTric.
8.CJ.10Mundrabillaite(NH4)2Ca(HPO4)2 · H2OMon. m : Pm
8.CJ.10Swaknoite(NH4)2Ca(HPO4)2 · H2OOrth.
8.CJ.15NabaphiteNaBaPO4 · 9H2OIso.
8.CJ.15NastrophiteNa(Sr,Ba)PO4 · 9H2O
8.CJ.20HaidingeriteCaHAsO4 · H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
8.CJ.25VladimiriteCa4(AsO4)2(AsO3OH) · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
8.CJ.30FerrarisiteCa5(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 9H2OTric. 1 : P1
8.CJ.35Machatschkiite(Ca,Na)6(AsO4)(HAsO4)3(PO4,SO4) · 15H2OHex.
8.CJ.40PhaunouxiteCa3(AsO4)2 · 11H2OTric.
8.CJ.40RauenthaliteCa3(AsO4)2 · 10H2OTric. 1 : P1
8.CJ.45Brockite(Ca,Th,Ce)PO4 · H2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2
8.CJ.45Grayite(Th,Pb,Ca)(PO4) · H2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2
8.CJ.45Rhabdophane-(Ce)Ce(PO4) · H2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2
8.CJ.45Rhabdophane-(La)La(PO4) · H2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2
8.CJ.45Rhabdophane-(Nd)Nd(PO4) · H2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2
8.CJ.45Tristramite(Ca,U,Fe)(PO4,SO4) · 2H2OHex.
8.CJ.45Smirnovskite(Th,Ca)PO4 · nH2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2
8.CJ.50ArdealiteCa2(HPO4)(SO4) · 4H2OMon. m : Bb
8.CJ.50BrushiteCa(HPO4) · 2H2OMon. m : Bb
8.CJ.50PharmacoliteCa(HAsO4) · 2H2OMon. m
8.CJ.50Churchite-(Nd)Nd(PO4) · 2H2OMon.
8.CJ.55McneariteNaCa5(AsO4)(HAsO4)4 · 4H2OTric.
8.CJ.60DorfmaniteNa2HPO4 · 2H2OOrth.
8.CJ.65SincositeCa(VO)2(PO4)2 · 5H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/nnm
8.CJ.65BariosincositeBa(VO)2(PO4)2 · 4H2OTet.
8.CJ.70CatalanoiteNa2(HPO4) · 8H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Ibca
8.CJ.75GuériniteCa5(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 9H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
8.CJ.85NingyoiteCaU(PO4)2 · 1-2H2OOrth.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

19.9.1Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
19.9.3Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
19.9.6Rhabdophane-(Ce)Ce(PO4) · H2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2
19.9.7Rhabdophane-(La)La(PO4) · H2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2
19.9.8Rhabdophane-(Nd)Nd(PO4) · H2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2
19.9.9Vitusite-(Ce)Na3(Ce,La,Nd)(PO4)2Orth. mm2 : Pca21
19.9.13KolbeckiteScPO4 · 2H2OMon. 2/m

Fluorescence of Churchite-(Y)Hide

Not fluorescent in UV

Other InformationHide

Thermal Behaviour:
Thermoluminescent upon gentle heating.
Soluble in hot acids, insoluble in alkalies.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Churchite-(Y)Hide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Church, Arthur Herbert (1865) Preliminary note on a new British mineral containing cerium, The Chemical News and Journal of Industrial Science, London, 12, 121-121.
Williams, Charles H. Greville (1865) On the presence of didymium in churchite, Chemical News and Journal of Industrial Science, London: 12: 183.
Laubmann, Heinrich (1923) Geognost. Jahreshefte, Geol. Landes. München: 35: 193 (as Weinschenkite).
Larsen, Esper Signius and Berman, Harry (1934) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, Second edition, USGS Bulletin 848: 111.
Heinrich (1935) Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 142: 1.
Strunz, Hugo (1942) Naturwiss.: 30: 64 (as Weinschenkite).
Milton, Murata, and Knechtel (1944) American Mineralogist: 29: 92 (as Weinschenkite).
Palache, Charles, Berman, Harry, & Frondel, Clifford (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 771-773 (as Weinschenkite), 773 (as Churchite).
Milton, D. J. and Bastron, H. (1971) Churchite and Florencite (Nd) from Sausalito, California, The Mineralogical Record, 2, 166-168.
Mineralogical Magazine (1987): 51: 468.
Kohlmann, M., Sowa, H., Reithmayer, K., Schulz, H., Krüger, R. R., Abriel, W. (1994): Structure of a Y1-x(Gd,Dy,Er)xPO4·2H2O microcrystal using synchrotron radiation. Acta Crystallographica, C50, 1651-1652.
Hikichi, Y. (1996): Preparation and some properties of rare earth orthophosphates. Kidorui, 29, 61-78. (in Japanese).
Assaaoudi, H.; Ennaciri, A.; Rulmont, A. (2001): Vibrational spectra of hydrated rare earth orthophosphates. Vibrational Spectroscopy 25, 81-90.
Ivashkevich, Ludmila S.; Lyakhov, Alexander S.; Selevich, Anatoly F. (2013): Preparation and structure of the yttrium phosphate dihydrate YPO4·2H2O. Phosphorus Research Bulletin 28, 45-50.

Internet Links for Churchite-(Y)Hide

Localities for Churchite-(Y)Hide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Córdoba
    • Punilla Department
      • Tanti
Dr. Nestor Hillar P. collection
  • New South Wales
    • Yancowinna Co.
      • Broken Hill district
Birch BH Book
  • South Australia
    • Eyre Peninsula
      • Middleback Range
        • Iron Knob
Australian Jour.Min. v.6, no. 1
  • Western Australia
    • Laverton Shire
      • Mount Weld Station
Trans. Inst. Mining Metall.(Sect. B:Applied Earth Sci.) 104, 203-208(1995)
    • Meekatharra Shire
      • Peak Hill Goldfield
        • Doolgunna Station
Murray Thompson ; Murray Thompson, DeGrussa mine
  • Styria
    • Fischbacher Alpen
      • Fischbach
Bernhard, F. & Taucher, J. (1999)
      • Rettenegg
Bernhard, F. & Leikauf, B. (2007)
  • Cochabamba
    • Ayopaya Province
Schultz, F., et al. (2004) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 148, 391-408
Schultz, F., et al. (2004) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 148, 391-408.
  • Minas Gerais
    • Jaguaraçu
[Mineralogical Record - Vol 25 No.3]
  • Guangxi
    • Baise
      • Jingxi Co.
Wang, Q.F., Deng, J., Liu, X.F., Zhang, Q.Z., Sun, S.L., Jiang, C.Z., Zhou, F. (2010): Discovery of the REE minerals and its geological significance in the Quyang bauxite deposit, West Guangxi, China. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 39, 701-712.
  • Jiangxi
    • Shangrao
      • Yanshan Co. (Qianshan Co.)
Rengui Wu and Dagan Yu (2000): Uranium Geology 16(4), 204-211
Czech Republic
  • Hradec Králové Region
    • Krkonoše Mtn (Riesengebirge)
      • Špindlerův Mlýn (Spindlermühle)
Plášil J., Sejkora J., Škoda R., Goliáš V. 2006: Supergene Y, REE minerals from the Medvědín deposit, the Krkonoše (Giant) Mts., Czech Repulic. Mineralogia Polonica, vol. 28, 181-183; Journal of Geosciences 54:15-56
  • Karlovy Vary Region
    • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
      • Jáchymov District (St Joachimsthal)
        • Jáchymov (St Joachimsthal)
Lapis 2002(7/8), 62
  • Liberec Region
    • Harrachov (Harrachsdorf)
Sejkora, j., Veselovský, F., Šrein, V.: The supergene mineralization of uranium occurence Rýžoviště near Harrachov (Krkonoše Mts., Czech republic). Acta Mus. Nat. Prague, Ser. B, Hist. nat., 1994, 50, p. 55-91.
    • Jilemnice (Starkenbach)
Škoda, R., Rus, P.: Revize dufrenitu z Poniklé. Minerál, 2010, roč. 18, č. 2, s. 119-123.
Scharm, B.: Přehled minerálů nalezených v oblasti uranových koncentrací v severočeské křídě. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1995, roč. 3, s. 169-172.
  • Olomouc Region
    • Javorník (Jauernig)
Pauliš, P., Toegel, V., Civiš, S.: Churchit-(Y) z uranového ložiska Zálesí v Rychlebských horách (Česká republika). Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 2011, 19, 1, 32-34.
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Allier
      • Ébreuil
        • Échassières
Queneau Patrice collection
Le Règne Minéral, (33), 5-25.
  • Nouvelle-Aquitaine
    • Deux-Sèvres
      • Le Temple
Le Cahier des micromonteurs, 2002, N°75, pp 8-25
  • Occitanie
    • Aveyron
      • Najac
Ref: Boisson J.M., Leconte J., Analyses 2014 - MNHN-Micromonteurs. La revue des Micromonteurs n°23 - 2015
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
      • St Blasien
        • Menzenschwand
Kolitsch & Brandstätter, unpubl. results (2010)
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Franconia
      • Wunsiedel in Fichtelgebirge
        • Weißenstadt
          • Großschloppen
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Auerbach
        • Nitzlbuch (Nitzelbuch)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 772; Lapis 1983(3), 9-18; Dana 7:II:772,803,960; Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", Stuttgart (2001), 224
      • Pleystein
DILL, H.G., MELCHER, F., GERDES, A. and WEBER, B. (2008): The origin and zoning of hypogene and supergene Fe-Mn-Mg-Sc-U-REE-Zn phosphate mineralization from the newly discovered Trutzhofmühle aplite (Hagendorf pegmatite province, Germany). Canadian Mineralogist 46, 1131-1157.; Dill, H. G., Melcher, F., Gerdes, A., & Weber, B. (2008). The origin and zoning of hypogene and supergene Fe–Mn–Mg–Sc–U–REE phosphate mineralization from the newly discovered Trutzhofmühle aplite, Hagendorf pegmatite province, Germany. The Canadian Mineralogist, 46(5), 1131-1157.
Andreas Gerstenberg collection
      • Waidhaus
H.G. Dill, A. Gerdes, B. Weber, Age and mineralogy of supergene uranium minerals — Tools to unravel geomorphological and palaeohydrological processes in granitic terrains (Bohemian Massif, SE Germany), Geomorphology 117 (2010) 44–65; Dill, H.G. (2009) The Hagendorf-Pleystein phosphate pegmatites (NE Bavaria, Germany) - A mineralogical, chronological and sedimentological overview. Estudos Geológicos: 19(2): 117-120.
  • Hesse
    • Odenwald
      • Lautertal (Odenwald)
        • Reichenbach
          • Borstein
Collected by Klaus Petitjean.
S. Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
Collection of Steffen Michalski, ex-collection and collected by Klaus PETITJEAN
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Altenkirchen
      • Betzdorf-Gebhardshain
        • Kausen
Wittern: "Mineralfundstellen in Deutschland", 2001
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirge District
      • Schneeberg
        • Neustädtel
          • Weißer Hirsch Mine (Shaft 3)
    • Görlitz
      • Niesky
        • Horscha
Witzke, T. & Giesler, T. (2007): Der Schieferabbau Pansberg bei Horscha in der Lausitz, Sachsen. Lapis 32 (7-8), 68-73; 86.
      • Rengersdorf
T. Witzke & T. Giesler (1997): Neufunde aus Sachsen (VI): Churchit-(Y), Cyrilovit, Faustit, Kidwellit, Meurigit und Nickelhexahydrit aus der Lausitz.- Lapis 22, 9, 36-38
      • Thiemendorf
Witzke, T. & Giesler, T. (2013): Eine Seltenerd- und Niob-Tantal-Mineralisation aus dem Königshainer Granit in der Lausitz, Sachsen.- Mineralien-Welt 24(1), 36-45
    • Vogtland
      • Oelsnitz
Gröbner, J. and Kolitsch, U. (2007): The minerals of the uranium prospect at Tirpersdorf, Vogtland. Lapis 32, 37-42; 58. (in German)
  • Liguria
    • Savona Province
      • Maremola Valley
        • Magliolo
Balestra, C., Ciriotti, M.E., Bracco, R. (2011): Su alcune novità mineralogiche liguri caratterizzate dal SIUK dell'AMI. MICRO, 2011, 46-53.
  • Sardinia
    • Cagliari metropolitan city (Metropolitan City of Cagliari)
      • Capoterra
Olmi F., Sabelli C., Senesi F., Stara P., 2002. La mineralizzazione uranifera di Arcu su Linnarbu. Riv. Miner. Ital., 3: 148-169.
      • Sarroch
- Orlandi, P., Gelosa, M., Bonacina, E., Caboni, F., Mamberti, M., Tanca, G., A. et Vinci, A. (2013) : Sardignaite, gelosaite et tancaite-(Ce) : trois nouveaux minéraux de Su Seinargiu, Sarroch, Sardaigne, Italie. Le Règne Minéral, 112, 39-52.; Orlandi P., Gelosa M., Bonacina E., Caboni F., Mamberti M., Tanca G.A., Vinci A. (2015): Sette nuove specie mineralogiche della Sardegna. I minerali della mineralizzazione a molibdeno e bismuto di Su Seinargiu (CA). Riv. Mineral. Ital., 39, 2, 84-115.
  • Kyoto
    • Kyotango city
      • Ohro (Ōro; Ouro; Ooro)
Yamada, S. (2004) Nihonsan-koubutsu Gojuon-hairetsu Sanchi-ichiranhyou (111 pp.)
  • Itasy
    • Soavinandriana District
      • Mahavelona Commune
Behier, J. (1960): Travaux mineralogiques. In Rapport Annuel du Service Geologique pour 1960. Republique Madagascar, Tananarive. 181-199
  • Southern Region
    • Zomba
Gunnar Färber
  • Zambezia Province
    • Alto Ligonha District
Dias, M. Bettencourt and Wilson, W. E., 2000, Mineralogical Record, 31:459-497.
  • Karas Region
    • Lüderitz District
      • Rosh Pinah
Hinder, G. (2015): Sensationeller Neufund von Churchit-(Y) aus der Skorpion Zink Mine in Namibia. Mineralien-Welt, 26 (3), 28-29.
  • Aust-Agder
    • Iveland
      • Landås
Bjørlykke, H.(1966): Årsrapport for Geologisk avdeling. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse, Årbok 1965) 242: 182; Neumann Neumann (1985) : Norges mineraler. Norges geologiske undersøkelse Skrifter 68, pp. 125-126
  • Guarda
    • Sabugal
      • Bendada
Vignola, P., Rizzi, A., Varvello, S. (2018) La churchite-(Y) di Bendada, Portogallo. Micro, 16, 2-2018, 91-95.
  • Hunedoara
    • Hunedoara
      • Boșorod
Onac, B.P., Ettinger, K., Kearns, J., Balasz, I.I. (2005): A modern, guano-related occurrence of foggite, CaAl(PO4)(OH)2·H2O and churchite-(Y), YPO4·2H2O in Cioclovina Cave, Romania. Mineralogy and Petrology, 85, 291-302.; European Journal of Mineralogy; April 2009; v. 21; no. 2; p. 507-514
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
    • Plast
      • Kochkar' District
        • Svetlyi
Igor Savin's data
  • Krasnoyarsk Krai
Seltmann, R., Soloviev, S., Shatov, V., Pirajno, F., Naumov, E., & Cherkasov, S. (2010). Metallogeny of Siberia: tectonic, geologic and metallogenic settings of selected significant deposits*. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 57(6), 655-706; Chebotarev, D. A., Doroshkevich, A. G., & Sharygin, V. V. (2017). Evolution and Formation Conditions for Pyrochlore-supergroup Minerals of Chuktukon Carbonatite Massif, Chadobets Upland (Krasnoyarsk Territory, Russia). In Magmatism of the Earth and related strategic metal deposits (pp. 47-50).
  • Murmansk Oblast
    • Keivy Mountains
      • Western Keivy Massif
Voloshin A.V., Pakhomovskii Ya.A. [Волошин А. В., Пахомовский Я. А.] (1986): Minerals and evolution of mineral formation in amazonite pegmatites of the Kola Peninsula [Минералы и эволюция минералообразования в амазонитовых пегматитах Кольского полуострова]. Nauka, Leningrad, 168 pp. (in Russian).
    • Lovozero Massif
      • Seidozero Lake
        • Lepkhe-Nel'm Mt (Lepkhe-Nelm; Nepkha)
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data (2011)
  • Sakha Republic (Yakutia)
    • Aldan Shield
      • Aldan
Shcheka, S. A., Ignat’ev, A. V., Nechaev, V. P., & Zvereva, V. P. (2006). First diamonds from placers in Primorie. Petrology, 14(3), 299-317.
  • Ljubljana
    • Katarina Mt.
A. Rečnik, N. Daneu, J. Zavašnik, T. Dolenec - Dvojčki pirita želeni križ s Katarine nad Ljubljano; Nahajališča Mineralov v Sloveniji, IJS 2007
South Africa
  • Mpumalanga
    • Nkangala District
      • Mkobola
Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa, 57 pg
  • Northern Cape
    • Namakwa District (Namaqualand)
USGS Open File report 02-189
  • Andalusia
    • Córdoba
      • Hornachuelos
        • Sierra Albarrana
          • El Cabril
Menor, C. y González del Tánago, J. (2010). Churchita-Y y Uranocircita de mina “Diéresis” (Sierra Albarrana, Córdoba). Acopios, 1, 69-72.
      • Villanueva de Córdoba
Schnorrer, G. & Kronz, A. (2005): Cobaltneustädtelit, Metatorbernit, Churchit und Plumbogummit, vier von der ehemaligen Grube Espuela de San Miguel bei Villanueva de Cordoba, Prov. Cordoba in Spanien. Der Aufschluss, 56, 177-182. (in German)
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • Camborne
        • Killivose
Lapis 11(2), 26 (1986); Mineralogical Magazine 1982 46 : 402-403
      • Lanivet
Kingsbury, A.W.G. (1956) The rediscovery of churchite in Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 31, n° 234, 282.; Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications.
No reference listed
      • St Hilary
Manchester University Museum; Steve Rust photo & collection photo ID: 198168
  • Alabama
    • Cherokee Co.
Min.Rec.:20(5):361.; Barwood, H. & Hajek, B. (1978): Notes of Some New Occurences in Alabama. Mineralogical Record. 9: 388-391
Mineralogy of Alabama Geol Surv Ala. Bull 120
Rocks & Min 70:5 pp 320-333
    • Tallapoosa Co.
Rocks & Min 70:5 pp 320-333
  • Arkansas
    • Hot Spring Co.
  • California
    • Marin Co.
      • Sausalito
; Milton, D.J. and Bastron, H. (1971). "Churchite and Florencite (Nd) from Sausalito, California." Mineralogical Record: 2(4): 166-168.
  • Georgia
    • Burke Co.
      • Girard District
Jason Smith & M.E. Ciriotti (2005) [m.ciriotti@tin.it]
Leonard S.Wiener and Sigrid Ballew,1995, Updated by Kenny Gay,2006, A Listing Of North Carolina Minerals,Geologic Note No.4
    • Mitchell Co.
      • Spruce Pine District
        • Spruce Pine
          • Greasy Creek Township
Genth,F.A,1891,The Minerals of North Carolina, pg 75 and pg 107
  • Texas
    • Llano Co.
      • Llano
Self-collected by David Aldridge, March, 2006.
  • Virginia
    • Albemarle Co.
      • North Garden
Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    • Amherst Co.
      • Roseland
Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    • Rockbridge Co.
      • Lyndhurst-Vesuvius District
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 772; Rocks & Minerals: 64: 44-45.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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