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Clinochlore

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Formula:
Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Often contains considerable Fe2+, grading into chamosite.
Colour:
Green, yellowish green, olive green, blackish green, bluish green, white, pink
Lustre:
Greasy, Pearly, Dull
Hardness:
2 - 2½
Specific Gravity:
2.6 - 3.02
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Member of:
Name:
Named in 1851 by William Phipps Blake from the Greek κλινειν "klinein", "to incline", in allusion to the inclined optic axes and the Greek χλωρο "chloros," for "green," its typical color. Clinochlore was originally named chlorite in 1789 by Abraham Gottlob Werner from the Greek χλωρο "chloros," for "green," its typical color. There are many named synonyms or varieties of clinochlore. Many names that have been attributed to minerals now called clinochlore, as well as chamosite, include: baltimorite, berlauite, chlorite, chlorophaeite, chromchlorit, corundophilite, daphnite, delessite, diabantite, euralite, faecherstein, grengesite, grochauite, helminthe, kaemmererite, kotschubeite, leuchtenbergite, lophoite, ogkoite, pattersonite, pennine, penninite, prochlorite, pyknochlorite, rhodochrome, rhodophyllite, ripidolite, rumpfite, seraphinite, sheridanite, specksten, talgsten, and many others.
One of the most common members of the chlorite group. It forms a solid solution series with its slightly less common Fe2+-analogue chamosite. Because iron-bearing clinochlore may be oxidized, its appearance and optical properties may vary widely. Minor chromium substitution for Al may make clinochlore look pink to pale purple. Alteration of chlorites may proceed to vermiculite-like or mixed layered structures. Stacking disorder is common.

Sudoite is a chemically similar member of the chlorite group.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Clinochlore.


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Classification of ClinochloreHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
9.EC.55

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
E : Phyllosilicates
C : Phyllosilicates with mica sheets, composed of tetrahedral and octahedral nets
Dana 7th ed.:
71.4.1.4
71.4.1.4

71 : PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
4 : Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
16.19.17

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
19 : Aluminosilicates of Fe and Mg

Physical Properties of ClinochloreHide

Greasy, Pearly, Dull
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Green, yellowish green, olive green, blackish green, bluish green, white, pink
Comment:
End-member clinochlore may be white to colorless. Ferrous and ferric iron substitutions may darken the color of clinochlore , commonly to medium or dark green. Extensive substitutions may change the colors through golden brown or dark greens. Chromian clinochlores may be pink.
Streak:
Greenish white to white
Hardness:
2 - 2½ on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Flexible
Cleavage:
Perfect
{001} Perfect
Density:
2.6 - 3.02 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.628 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of ClinochloreHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.571 - 1.588 nβ = 1.571 - 1.589 nγ = 1.576 - 1.599
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.005 - 0.011
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
r < v
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
X= light yellow-green to light blue-green
Y=Z= light greenish yellow to light blue-green

Chemical Properties of ClinochloreHide

Formula:
Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8

Often contains considerable Fe2+, grading into chamosite.
Common Impurities:
Cr,Ca

Crystallography of ClinochloreHide

Polytype:
Formula:
Crystal System:
Class (H-M)
Space Group:
Space Group Setting:
Cell Parameters:
Ratio:
Unit Cell Volume (calc):
Z:
Clinochlore-1MIaClinochlore-1MIbClinochlore-1MIIbClinochlore-2MIIbClinochlore-IaClinochlore-IIb
      
      
      
      
      






      
      
      

Crystallographic forms of ClinochloreHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Clinochlore no.72 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
14.1 (80)
7.14 (80)
4.76 (80)
3.57 (100)
2.540 (100)
2.008 (100)
1.539 (100)
Comments:
Synthetic (IIb structure); berthierine plus clinochlore are easily mistaken for chamosite.

Type Occurrence of ClinochloreHide

Synonyms of ClinochloreHide

Other Language Names for ClinochloreHide

Varieties of ClinochloreHide

Chromian ClinochloreLilac to purple variety of Clinochlore containing chromium. Also known as Kämmererite.
ColerainiteAn obsolete synonym for a fine grained white sheridanite ( now a variety if clinochlore), a chlorite.
DiabantiteA ferroan clinochlore.
LeuchtenbergiteA (nearly) iron-free variety of clinochlore (which usual contains some Fe replacing Mg). Very common in the magnesite/serpentine deposits of Austria and Norway.
Nickeloan ClinochloreA nickel-bearing variety of clinochlore.
PennineA pseudo-trigonal variety of Clinochlore.
PyknochloriteAn iron-rich variety of clinochlore.
RipidoliteOriginally a ferroan variety of Clinochlore described from Akhmatovskaya Kop (Achmatovsk Mine), Nazyamskiye Mt, Zlatoust, Ilmen Mts, Chelyabinsk Oblast', Urals Region, Russia. Ripidolite has been historically used as a name for intermediate and undetermi...
SeraphiniteA dense fine-grained variety of clinochlore which is used for carving and as a decorative stone.
SheridaniteAn aluminium-rich clinochlore (compare also sudoite).
Originally described from Sheridan Co., Wyoming, USA.
Weissite (of Trolle-Wachtmeister)Described as an unusual white variety of chlorite

Relationship of Clinochlore to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
Baileychlore(Zn,Fe2+,Al,Mg)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8Tric.
BorocookeiteLi1+3xAl4-x(BSi3O10)(OH)8
Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8Mon.
Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Mon. 2/m
DonbassiteAl4.33(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Mon. 2 : B2
FranklinfurnaceiteCa2Fe3+Mn2+3Mn3+(Zn2Si2O10)(OH)8Mon. 2 : B2
GlagoleviteNa(Mg,Al)6(AlSi3O10)(OH,O)8Tric. 1 : P1
Gonyerite(Mn2+,Mg)5Fe3+(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH)8
Nimite(Ni,Mg,Al)6((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)8Mon.
Orthochamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Fe3+)5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH,O)8
PennantiteMn2+5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Tric.
SudoiteMg2Al3(Si3Al)O10)(OH)8Mon.
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Hessonite203 photos of Clinochlore associated with Hessonite on mindat.org.
Diopside158 photos of Clinochlore associated with Diopside on mindat.org.
Quartz144 photos of Clinochlore associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Grossular126 photos of Clinochlore associated with Grossular on mindat.org.
Titanite116 photos of Clinochlore associated with Titanite on mindat.org.
Vesuvianite116 photos of Clinochlore associated with Vesuvianite on mindat.org.
Epidote88 photos of Clinochlore associated with Epidote on mindat.org.
Magnetite72 photos of Clinochlore associated with Magnetite on mindat.org.
Calcite64 photos of Clinochlore associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Andradite52 photos of Clinochlore associated with Andradite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.EC.05MinnesotaiteFe2+3Si4O10(OH)2Tric. 1 : P1
9.EC.05TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2Tric. 1 : P1
9.EC.05WillemseiteNi3Si4O10(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.10FerripyrophylliteFe3+Si2O5(OH)Mon.
9.EC.10PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2Tric. 1
9.EC.15BoromuscoviteKAl2(BSi3O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.15CeladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)Fe3+(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.15Chernykhite(Ba,Na)(V3+,Al,Mg)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.15Montdorite(K,Na)2(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)5(Si4O10)2(OH,F)4
9.EC.15MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.15NanpingiteCsAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2Mon.
9.EC.15ParagoniteNaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.15RoscoeliteK(V3+,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.15Tobelite(NH4,K)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.15AluminoceladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)Al(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.15ChromphylliteK(Cr,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.15FerroaluminoceladoniteK(Fe2+,Mg)(Al,Fe3+)(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.15FerroceladoniteK(Fe2+,Mg)(Fe3+,Al)(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.15ChromceladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)(Cr,Al)(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.15TainioliteKLiMg2(Si4O10)F2Mon.
9.EC.15Ganterite(Ba,Na,K)(Al,Mg)2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.20AnniteKFe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20EphesiteLiNaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2Tric.
9.EC.20HendricksiteK(Zn,Mg,Mn2+)3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20Masutomilite(K,Rb)(Li,Mn3+,Al)3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2Mon.
9.EC.20NorrishiteKLiMn3+2(Si4O10)O2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20PolylithioniteKLi2Al(Si4O10)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.20PreiswerkiteNaMg2Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.20SiderophylliteKFe2+2Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.20TetraferriphlogopiteKMg3(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH,F)2
9.EC.20FluorotetraferriphlogopiteKMg3(Fe3+Si3O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20Wonesite(Na,K)(Mg,Fe,Al)6((Al,Si)4O10)2(OH,F)4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20EastoniteKMg2Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.20TetraferrianniteKFe2+3((Fe3+,Al)Si3O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.20TrilithioniteK(Li1.5Al1.5)(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.20FluoranniteKFe2+3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2Mon.
9.EC.20ShirokshiniteKNaMg2(Si4O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20ShirozuliteK(Mn2+,Mg)3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20SokolovaiteCsLi2Al(Si4O10)F2Mon.
9.EC.20AspidoliteNaMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20FluorophlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20UM2004-49-SiO:AlCsFHKLi(Cs,K)(Al,Li)2.6((Si,Al)4O10)(F,OH)2
9.EC.20Suhailite(NH4)Fe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20YangzhumingiteKMg2.5(Si4O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20OrloviteKLi2Ti(Si4O10)OFMon. 2 : B2
9.EC.20OxyphlogopiteK(Mg,Ti,Fe)3[(Si,Al)4O10](O,F)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.25Brammallite(Na,H3O)(Al,Mg,Fe)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.30MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.35Anandite(Ba,K)(Fe2+,Mg)3((Si,Al,Fe)4O10)(S,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.35BityiteLiCaAl2(AlBeSi2O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.35ClintoniteCa(Mg,Al)3(Al3SiO10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.35Kinoshitalite(Ba,K)(Mg,Mn2+,Al)3(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.35Ferrokinoshitalite(Ba,K)(Fe2+,Mg)3(Al2Si2O10)(OH,F)2Mon.
9.EC.35Oxykinoshitalite(Ba,K)(Mg,Ti,Fe3+,Fe2+)3((Si,Al)4O10)(O,OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.35FluorokinoshitaliteBaMg3(Al2Si2O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.40Beidellite(Na,Ca0.5)0.3Al2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.40Kurumsakite(Zn,Ni,Cu)8Al8V5+2Si5O35 · 27H2O (?)
9.EC.40Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.40NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.40VolkonskoiteCa0.3(Cr,Mg,Fe)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
9.EC.40Yakhontovite(Ca,Na)0.5(Cu,Fe,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · 3H2OMon.
9.EC.45HectoriteNa0.3(Mg,Li)3(Si4O10)(F,OH)2Mon.
9.EC.45SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.45SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
9.EC.45SpadaiteMgSiO2(OH)2 · H2O (?)
9.EC.45Stevensite(Ca,Na)xMg3-x(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.45SwineforditeLi(Al,Li,Mg)4((Si,Al)4O10)2(OH,F)4 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.45ZincsiliteZn3(Si4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
9.EC.45FerrosaponiteCa0.3(Fe2+,Mg,Fe3+)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
9.EC.50VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2OMon. 2/m
9.EC.55Baileychlore(Zn,Fe2+,Al,Mg)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8Tric.
9.EC.55Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8Mon.
9.EC.55Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Mon. 2/m
9.EC.55FranklinfurnaceiteCa2Fe3+Mn2+3Mn3+(Zn2Si2O10)(OH)8Mon. 2 : B2
9.EC.55Gonyerite(Mn2+,Mg)5Fe3+(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55Nimite(Ni,Mg,Al)6((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)8Mon.
9.EC.55Orthochamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Fe3+)5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH,O)8
9.EC.55PennantiteMn2+5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Tric.
9.EC.55SudoiteMg2Al3(Si3Al)O10)(OH)8Mon.
9.EC.55DonbassiteAl4.33(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Mon. 2 : B2
9.EC.55GlagoleviteNa(Mg,Al)6(AlSi3O10)(OH,O)8Tric. 1 : P1
9.EC.55BorocookeiteLi1+3xAl4-x(BSi3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.60AliettiteCa0.2Mg6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 4H2OMon.
9.EC.60Corrensite(Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2OOrth.
9.EC.60DozyiteMg7Al2(Al2Si4O15)(OH)12Mon.
9.EC.60HydrobiotiteK(Mg,Fe2+)6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.60Karpinskite(Ni,Mg)2Si2O5(OH)2 (?)
9.EC.60KulkeiteMg8Al(AlSi7O20)(OH)10Mon.
9.EC.60LunijianlaiteLi0.7Al6.2(AlSi7O20)(OH,O)10Mon.
9.EC.60Rectorite(Na,Ca)Al4((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 2H2OMon.
9.EC.60Saliotite(Li,Na)Al3(AlSi3O10)(OH)5Mon.
9.EC.60TosuditeNa0.5(Al,Mg)6((Si,Al)8O18)(OH)12 · 5H2OMon. 2 : B2
9.EC.60BrinrobertsiteNa0.3Al4(Si4O10)2(OH)4 · 3.5 H2OMon.
9.EC.65Macaulayite(Fe,Al)24Si4O43(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.70BurckhardtitePb2(Fe3+Te6+)[AlSi3O8]O6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1m
9.EC.75Ferrisurite(Pb,Ca)2.4Fe3+2(Si4O10)(CO3)1.7(OH)3 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.75Surite(Pb,Ca)3(Al,Fe2+,Mg)2((Si,Al)4O10)(CO3)2(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.75Niksergievite(Ba,Ca)2Al3(AlSi3O10)(CO3)(OH)6 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.80KegelitePb8Al4(Si8O20)(SO4)2(CO3)4(OH)8Mon.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

71.4.1.1DonbassiteAl4.33(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Mon. 2 : B2
71.4.1.2Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Mon. 2/m
71.4.1.3SudoiteMg2Al3(Si3Al)O10)(OH)8Mon.
71.4.1.5Nimite(Ni,Mg,Al)6((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)8Mon.
71.4.1.6Baileychlore(Zn,Fe2+,Al,Mg)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8Tric.
71.4.1.7Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8Mon.
71.4.1.8PennantiteMn2+5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Tric.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

16.19.1IndialiteMg2Al3(AlSi5O18)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
16.19.2Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cccm
16.19.3Sekaninaite(Fe,Mg)2Al3(AlSi5O18)Orth.
16.19.4Ferro-gedrite☐{Fe2+2}{Fe2+3Al2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Orth.
16.19.5StauroliteFe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)Mon. 2/m : B2/m
16.19.6Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
16.19.7AmesiteMg2Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4Tric. 1 : P1
16.19.8Corundophilite(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8
16.19.9YoderiteMg(Al,Fe3+)3(SiO4)2O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
16.19.10Delessite(Mg,Fe,Fe,Al)(Si,Al)4O10(O,OH)8
16.19.11Ferrocarpholite(Fe2+,Mg)Al2(Si2O6)(OH)4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Ccca
16.19.12Magnesiocarpholite(Mg,Fe2+)Al2(Si2O6)(OH)4Orth.
16.19.13Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8Mon.
16.19.14Orthochamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Fe3+)5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH,O)8
16.19.15Berthierine(Fe2+,Fe3+,Al)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4Mon. m : Bm
16.19.16Odinite(Fe,Mg,Al,Fe,Ti,Mn)2.4((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bm
16.19.18Gedrite☐{Mg2}{Mg3Al2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Orth.
16.19.19Magnesiogedrite☐{Mg2}{Mg3Al2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
16.19.20Diabantite(Mg,Fe,Al)6((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)8
16.19.21SudoiteMg2Al3(Si3Al)O10)(OH)8Mon.
16.19.22VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2OMon. 2/m
16.19.23Corrensite(Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2OOrth.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for ClinochloreHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Welch, M.D., Kleppe, A.K., Jephcoat, A.P. (2004) Novel high-pressure behavior in chlorite: A synchrotron XRD study of clinochlore to 27 GPa. American Mineralogist: 89: 1337-1340.

Internet Links for ClinochloreHide

Localities for ClinochloreHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListShow