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Clinochrysotile

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About ClinochrysotileHide

Colour:
Pale green to white, also yellow to brown, light gray.
Lustre:
Resinous, Greasy, Silky
Hardness:
2½ - 3
Specific Gravity:
2.53 - 2.55
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
Named in 1843 by Franz von Kobell from the Greek chrysos - "gold" and tilos - "fiber." Re-named clinochrysotile by Eric James William Whittaker in 1951. This is by far the most common chrysotile structure and the most common commercial asbestos mineral. Chrysotile was reinstated as the species name of the chrysotile polytypes in 2006.
A polytype of Chrysotile

Clinochrysotile represents the monoclinic or triclinic polymorphs of chrysotile.
Whereas chrysotile (asbestos) has been known since ancient times from many localities, specimens from the Bell mine, one of the oldest mines in the Thetford Mines area (in operation since 1877), have been the subjects of most of the early structural studies, from which the chrysotile nomenclature was defined. These investigations identified monoclinic (Warren & Bragg 1930), and triclinic (Padurow 1950, Whittaker 1956a) polymorphs from the Bell mine, which should be considered the type locality. Clinochrysotile is no longer a valid species (Burke 2006).


Classification of ClinochrysotileHide

Notes:
Redefined by the IMA, Renamed by the IMA
Approval History:
Renamed by IMA: 2006
9.ED.

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
E : Phyllosilicates
D : Phyllosilicates with kaolinite layers composed of tetrahedral and octahedral nets
71.1.2d.1

71 : PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
1 : Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
14.4.5

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
4 : Silicates of Mg

Physical Properties of ClinochrysotileHide

Resinous, Greasy, Silky
Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
Pale green to white, also yellow to brown, light gray.
Streak:
White
Hardness:
2½ - 3 on Mohs scale
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Flexible
Parting:
Cylinders of chrysotile separate as fine flexible threads or fibers.
Fracture:
Fibrous
Comment:
Somewhat brittle
Density:
2.53 - 2.55 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.63 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of ClinochrysotileHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.545 - 1.569 nβ = 1.546 - 1.569 nγ = 1.553 - 1.571
2V:
Measured: 20° to 60°
Birefringence:
0.001-0.008
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.008
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
relatively weak
Optical Extinction:
Inclined
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic
Comments:
May be weakly pleochroic

Crystallography of ClinochrysotileHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.3 Å, b = 9.19 Å, c = 14.63 Å
β = 93°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.577 : 1 : 1.592
Unit Cell V:
711.61 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Fibrous, although fine-grained clinochrysotile may be dense and homogeneous in appearance.
Comment:
Settings include Cc and C2/m. Falini et al. (2004) give a = 5.340, b = 9.241, c = 14.689 Å, β = 93.66° (space group Cc).

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
7.1 Å(90)
4.60 Å(20)
4.40 Å(20)
4.07 Å(10)
3.55 Å(60)
2.65 Å(30)
2.39 Å(100)
2.001 Å(30)
Comments:
21-1262 [Cc space group]

Synonyms of ClinochrysotileHide

Other Language Names for ClinochrysotileHide

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
4 photos of Clinochrysotile associated with CalciteCaCO3
4 photos of Clinochrysotile associated with ZinciteZnO
4 photos of Clinochrysotile associated with FrankliniteZn2+Fe3+2O4
4 photos of Clinochrysotile associated with WillemiteZn2SiO4
2 photos of Clinochrysotile associated with DemantoidCa3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
1 photo of Clinochrysotile associated with RoweiteCa2Mn2+2B4O7(OH)6
1 photo of Clinochrysotile associated with MagnetiteFe2+Fe3+2O4
1 photo of Clinochrysotile associated with PicroliteD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
1 photo of Clinochrysotile associated with ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.ED.05DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bb
9.ED.05KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Tric. 1 : P1
9.ED.05NacriteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bb
9.ED.05Odinite(Fe,Mg,Al,Fe,Ti,Mn)2.4((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bm
9.ED.10HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bb
9.ED.10HisingeriteFe3+2(Si2O5)(OH)4 · 2H2OMon.
9.ED.10Halloysite-7ÅAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bb
9.ED.15AmesiteMg2Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4Tric. 1 : P1
9.ED.15AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bm
9.ED.15Berthierine(Fe2+,Fe3+,Al)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4Mon. m : Bm
9.ED.15Brindleyite(Ni,Al)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4Mon.
9.ED.15CaryopiliteMn2+3Si2O5(OH)4Mon.
9.ED.15ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon.
9.ED.15CronstedtiteFe2+2Fe3+((Si,Fe3+)2O5)(OH)4Trig. 3m : P3 1m
9.ED.15Fraipontite(Zn,Al)3((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4Mon.
9.ED.15Greenalite(Fe2+,Fe3+)2-3Si2O5(OH)4Mon.
9.ED.15KellyiteMn2+2Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4Hex. 6 : P63
9.ED.15LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4Trig. 3m : P3 1m
9.ED.15ManandoniteLi2Al4(Si2AlB)O10(OH)8Orth.
9.ED.15Népouite(Ni,Mg)3(Si2O5)(OH)4Orth.
9.ED.15PecoraiteNi3(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon.
9.ED.15GuidottiiteMn2Fe3+(Fe3+SiO5)(OH)4Hex. 6 : P63
9.ED.20Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2OAmor.
9.ED.20ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O, x < 1Orth.
9.ED.20ImogoliteAl2SiO3(OH)4
9.ED.20Neotocite(Mn,Fe,Mg)SiO3 · H2OAmor.
9.ED.25BismutoferriteFe3+2Bi(SiO4)2(OH)Mon. m : Bm
9.ED.25ChapmaniteFe3+2Sb3+(Si2O5)O3(OH)Mon. m : Bm

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

71.1.2d.4PecoraiteNi3(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

14.4.1ForsteriteMg2SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
14.4.2EnstatiteMg2Si2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
14.4.3ClinoenstatiteMgSiO3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
14.4.4ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon.
14.4.6OrthochrysotileOrth.
14.4.7ParachrysotileOrth.
14.4.8LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4Trig. 3m : P3 1m
14.4.9TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2Tric. 1 : P1
14.4.10SpadaiteMgSiO2(OH)2 · H2O (?)
14.4.11SepioliteMg4(Si6O15)(OH)2 · 6H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnna
14.4.12LoughliniteNa2Mg3Si6O16 · 8H2OOrth.
14.4.13EifeliteKNa3Mg4Si12O30Hex.
14.4.14Stevensite(Ca,Na)xMg3-x(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon.
14.4.15AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bm
14.4.16 Magnesio-anthophyllite◻{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2

Fluorescence of ClinochrysotileHide

Not fluorescent

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
Safe when in large chunks or fragments. Fine particles which can be airborne should be avoided. Low-level frequent dust exposure may cause lung cancer.

References for ClinochrysotileHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Warren, B.E. and Bragg, W.L. (1930) The structure of chrysotile, H4Mg3Si2O9. Zeitschrift für Krystallographie: 76: 201-210.
Padurow, N.N. (1950) Über die Strukturzelle von Chrysotilasbest. Acta Crystallographica: 3: 204-208.
Whittaker, E.J.W. (1956) The structure of chrysotile. II. Clinochrysotile. Acta Crystallographica: 9: 855-862.
Whittaker, E.J.W. and Zussman, J. (1956) The characterization of serpentine minerals by X-ray diffraction. Mineralogical Magazine: 31: 107-126.
Wicks, F.J. and Whittaker, E.J.W. (1975) A reappraisal of the structures of the serpentine minerals. Canadian Mineralogist: 13(3): 227-243.
Falini, G., Foresti, E., Gazzano, M., Gualtieri, A. F., Leoni, M., Lesci, I. G., Roveri, N. (2004): Tubular-shaped stoichiometric chrysotile nanocrystals. Chemistry - A European Journal 10, 3043-3049.
Burke, E.A.J. (2006) A mass discreditation of GQN minerals. The Canadian Mineralogist: 44(6): 1557-1560.

Internet Links for ClinochrysotileHide

Localities for ClinochrysotileHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • Tasmania
    • West Coast municipality
      • Zeehan district
        • North Dundas
Patterson, D.J., 1979, Renison mine, Tasmania. Unpub. PhD thesis, Uni. Tas.
          • Serpentine Hill
R Bottrill unpub data
  • Victoria
    • Bass Coast Shire
      • Phillip Island
        • Kitty Miller Bay
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Spittal an der Drau District
      • Großkirchheim
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
    • Völkermarkt District
      • Eisenkappel-Vellach
        • Ebriach
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
  • Salzburg
    • St. Johann im Pongau District
      • Grossarl
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
      • Hüttschlag
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
  • Styria
    • Graz-Umgebung District
      • Frohnleiten
        • Kirchdorf
Kolitsch, U. et al. (2008)
    • Leoben District
      • Sankt Stefan ob Leoben
Schantl (1975)
Canada
 
  • Manitoba
    • Thompson Nickel Belt
      • Ospwagan Lake & Paint Lake area
Canadian Mineraloglst Vol. 14, pp. 307-313 (1976)
  • Ontario
    • Cochrane District
      • Timmins area
        • Porcupine mining district
          • Deloro Township
Van King
  • Québec
    • Chaudière-Appalaches
      • Les Appalaches RCM
        • Thetford Mines
          • Black Lake
Taner, M. F. and Laurent, R., 1984, Iron-rich Amesite from the Lake Asbestos Mine, Black Lake, Quebec, Canadian Mineralogist, v. 22, p. 437-442
Eswatini
 
  • Hhohho Region
    • Bulembu (Havelock)
Van King; Canadian Mineralogist (1979) 17:679-691
France
 
  • New Caledonia
    • Southern Province
      • Mont Dore
Cédrick Gineste
  • Occitanie
    • Tarn-et-Garonne
      • Montauban
        • Orgueil
David J. Barber (1985). Phyllosilicates and other layer-structured materials in stony meteorites. Clay Minerals 20, 415-454 (1985).
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Hautes-Alpes
      • Chateau-Ville-Vieille
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Freiburg Region
      • Ortenaukreis
        • Seelbach
          • Seelbach
            • Schuttertal
Walenta, K. (1992) Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes und ihre Fundstellan. Christian Weise Verlag, München, 336 pages [in German].
      • Waldshut
        • Todtmoos
Walenta, K. (1992) Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes und ihre Fundstellan. Christian Weise Verlag, München, 336 pages [in German].
  • Saxony
    • Zwickau district
      • Callenberg
XRD analysis (T. Witzke)
Hungary
 
  • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County
    • Edelény District
Koch: Minerals of Hungary
Italy
 
  • Aosta Valley
    • Nus
      • Saint-Barthélemy
• Barresi, A.A., Kolitsch, U., Ciriotti, M.E., Ambrino, P., Bracco, R., Bonacina, E. (2005): La miniera di manganese di Varenche (Aosta, Italia nord-occidentale): ardennite, arseniopleite, manganberzeliite, pirofanite, sarkinite, thortveitite, nuovo As-Sc-analogo della metavariscite e altre specie. Micro (località), 2/2005, 81-122.
  • Liguria
    • Genoa
[MinRec 32:360]
Redazionale (2005): Sistematica ligure: resoconto 2005. Notiziario di Mineralogia del Ferrania Club, 19 , 3-5.
        • Reppia
          • Monte Copello
Redazione (2005): Sistematica ligure: resoconto 2005. Notiziario di Mineralogia Ferrania Club, 19, 3-5.
  • Lombardy
    • Sondrio Province
      • Lanzada
        • Vallone del Cengiaccio (Cengiaccio; Cengiàsc; Cengiasco)
Van King
  • Trentino-Alto Adige
    • Trento Province (Trentino)
      • Predazzo
Collection of NHM, Vienna
Japan
 
  • Hokkaidō Prefecture
    • Hidaka Subprefecture
      • Saru District
        • Biratori
H. Okada (1964) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 15, #1, 23-38.
  • Kumamoto Prefecture
    • Yatsushiro City
Satomi Enju, Seiichiro Uehara (2018) Polygonal serpentine and chrysotile in serpentine veins from Shimodake serpentinite body, Izumi, Yatsushiro, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. in abstracts of the 22nd IMA Meeting Melbourne
  • Yamaguchi Prefecture
    • Iwakuni City
      • Nishiki-cho
Motoiki Saito (1973) Some serpentine minerals occurring in Yamaguchi prefecture, Japan. Journal of Science of the Hiroshima University, series C, 7, 21-36.
        • Mitake
Motoiki Saito (1973) Some serpentine minerals occurring in Yamaguchi prefecture, Japan. Journal of Science of the Hiroshima University, series C, 7, 21-36.
Namibia
 
  • Erongo Region
    • Karibib Constituency
      • Okongava Ost Farm 72
- Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2007): Namibia. Mineralien und Fundstellen. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag, Haltern, 411 pp. (in English)
  • ǁKaras Region
    • Karasburg East
      • Warmbad
Lapis 25(2), 39-41 (2000)
    • Karasburg West
Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2008): Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern, 386 pp. (in English)
Norway
 
  • Rogaland
    • Bjerkreim
Andresen, Peter (1990): Fra Steinrøysa. STEIN 17 (4),36
  • Trøndelag
    • Oppdal
Witsø, T. (1995): Mineraler i Oppdal med beskrivelse. Driva Kro og Steinsenter. Unpublished paper. http://vinstradalen.no/pdf/Mineraler.pdf
Witsø, T. (1995): Mineraler i Oppdal med beskrivelse. Driva Kro og steinsenter. Unpublished paper
      • Vinstradalen
        • Risberget
Witsø, T. (2005): Mineraler i Vinstradalen, Oppdal. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter 30: 72-73
  • Vestfold og Telemark
    • Bamble
Neumann, H. (ed)(1960): Mineral occurences in southern Norway. Guide to excursions no. A.15 and no. C.12. International Geological Congress XXI Session Norden 1960, Oslo. 18p
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesian Voivodeship
    • Ząbkowice Śląskie County
      • Gmina Złoty Stok
Rev. Min. 19 (1988), 91; HB2/1 (1995); Canadian Mineralogist 44 (2006), 1557
Russia
 
  • Murmansk Oblast
Slovakia
 
  • Banská Bystrica Region
Ďuďa R.,Kotuľak P., Káňa R., 1993: Bergbau und Mineralien von Banská Štiavnica (Schemnitz), Slowakei. Emser Hefte, 14, 3, 1-70, Haltern
  • Košice Region
    • Rožňava District
      • Dobšiná
Pauliš P., Ďuďa R., 2002:Nejznámejší mineralogická nalezište Slovenska. Kuttna, Kutná Hora, 136p
South Africa
 
  • Limpopo
    • Sekhukhune District
McCall, M. J. (2016). Mineralogical and geochemical variations in the UG2 reef at Booysendal and Zondereinde mines, with implications for beneficiation of PGM (Doctoral dissertation, Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University).
    • Waterberg District
McCall, M. J. (2016). Mineralogical and geochemical variations in the UG2 reef at Booysendal and Zondereinde mines, with implications for beneficiation of PGM (Doctoral dissertation, Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University).
  • Mpumalanga
    • Ehlanzeni District
Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
  • Northern Cape
    • Kalahari manganese field
      • Hotazel
Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Sweden
 
  • Värmland County
    • Filipstad
      • Långban Ore District
Nysten, P., Holtstam, D. and Jonsson, E. (1999) The Långban minerals. In Långban - The mines,their minerals, geology and explorers (D. Holtstam and J. Langhof, eds.), Swedish Museum of Natural History and Raster Förlag, Stockholm & Chr. Weise Verlag, Munich, pp. 89-183.
      • Persberg ore district
Sandström, F., Lorin, T. & Strand, U. (2009): Geologi och mineralogi i Gåsgruvefältet, Filipstad. Litofilen. 26 (2): 16-38
Östra Värmlands Mineral Society,Långban,Sweden
        • Pajsberg
Nysten, P. (2004): Harstigen ett mineralogisk eldorado i Bergslagen. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 28: 5-13
Switzerland
 
  • Grisons
    • Albula Region
      • Surses
        • Marmorera lake
Volker Dietrich (1972) Die sulfidischen Vererzungen in den Oberhalbsteiner Serpentiniten. Beitrage zur Geologie der Schweiz. Geotechnische Serie 49.
    • Prättigau/Davos Region
      • Davos
        • Wolfgang
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz. Wepf (Basel), p. 114-115.
  • Valais
    • Visp
      • Zermatt
        • Findel glacier (Findeln glacier; Findelen glacier) area
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 87
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Cochise County
      • Bisbee
        • Queen Hill
          • Copper Queen Mine (Halero Mine)
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 177.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 381.
    • Gila Co.
Van King
Van King
        • Salt River
          • Mule Hoof Bend (Oxbow Bend)
Van King
    • Graham Co.
      • Aravaipa Mining District
        • Aravaipa
          • Landsman Camp (Landsman group)
Grant, Raymond W., Bideaux, R.A., and Williams, S.A. (2006) Minerals Added to the Arizona List 1995-2005: 4.
  • California
    • Fresno Co.
      • New Idria Mining District
        • Condon Peak
Rice, S.J. (1966) Asbestos: uses and economic importance. California Division of Mines and Geology Bulletin 191: 86-92; Page, N.J. and Coleman, R.G. (1967) Serpentine mineral analyses and physical properties. USGS Professional Paper 575-B: 103-107; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 64, 422.
        • Wright Mountain
Page, N.J. and Coleman, R.G. (1967) Serpentine mineral analyses and physical properties. USGS Professional Paper 575-B: 104; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 143, 422.
Montoya, J.W. & Gretta S. Baur (1963), Nickeliferous serpentines, chlorites, and related minerals found in two lateritic ores: American Mineralogist: 48: 1227, 1228.
    • Inyo Co.
      • Darwin Hills
MinRec 15:5
    • San Francisco Co.
Schlocker, J. (1974) Geology of the San Francisco North quadrangle. USGS Professional Paper 782, 109 pp.: 58; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 424.
  • Maine
    • Aroostook Co.
      • Mapleton
Boucot, Arthur J., Field, Michael T., Fletcher, Raymond, Forbes, William H., Naylor, Richard S., and Pavlides, Louis (1964) Reconnaissance Bedrock Geology of the Presque Isle Quadrangle, Maine, Quadrangle Mapping Series 2, Department of Economic Development, Augusta, Maine, pp 123 + plate.
      • TD R2 WELS
Pavlides, Louis and Milton, Charles, 1962, Geology and Manganese Deposits of the Maple and Hovey Mountains Area, Aroostook County, Maine, U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 362, pp. 116 + plates.
    • Franklin Co.
King & Foord, 1994. Mineralogy of Maine, Vo. 1.
http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/downloads/asbestos_sites.xls.
    • Hancock County
      • Deer Isle
King & Foord, 1994. Mineralogy of Maine, V. 1.
  • Michigan
    • Baraga Co.
      • Alberta
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson; Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
  • Nevada
    • Lyon Co.
      • Singatse Range
        • Yerington Mining District
          • Ludwig
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Nye Co.
      • Gabbs Mining District
        • Gabbs
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • White Pine Co.
      • Currant Mining District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Jersey
    • Morris Co.
      • Montville Township
Weber, J. and Greer, R., 1965, Dehydration of Serpentine, American Mineralogist, v 50,p 450-464.
Van King
    • Sussex County
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Franklin
Aristarain, et al: Am. Min.:59:66-70 (1974); Foshag, W.F.: Am. Min.:11:38-39 (1926); Dunn(1995):Pt4:485.
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
Francis, C.A.: The Picking Table:31(2):4-6 (1990); Dunn(1995):Pt4:485.
Peter Chin
  • New York
John H. Betts (2009) "The minerals of New York City", Rocks & Minerals, 84, 204-240.
  • Pennsylvania
    • Lebanon Co.
      • Cornwall Borough (Cornwall)
Weber, J. and Greer, R., 1965, Dehydration of Serpentine, American Mineralogist, v 50,p 450-464.
  • Rhode Island
    • Providence Co.
      • Johnston
Michael W. Kieron coll.; Rocks & Minerals (1986) 61:264-275
      • Lincoln
        • Lime Rock
No reference listed
  • Vermont
    • Orleans & Lamoille Cos.
      • Lowell & Eden
Chidester, A.H., Albee, A.L., and Cady, W.M., (1978). Petrology, structure and genesis of the asbestos-bearing ultramafic rocks of the Belvidere Mountain area in Vermont: U.S. Geologic Survey Professional Paper 1016
    • Windham Co.
      • Newfane
Rocks & Min. Vol. 71, (1996)
Zimbabwe
 
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 76.
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 76.
  • Matabeleland South
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 76.
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 76.
    • Mweza Range (Wedja)
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 76.
  • Midlands
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 76.
    • Zvishavane District
      • Zvishavane (Shabani; Shabanie; Shavani)
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 76.
 
Mineral and/or Locality  
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