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Coesite

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Formula:
SiO2
Colour:
Colourless
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
7½ - 8
Specific Gravity:
2.92 (Calculated)
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
For Loring Coes Jr. (1915-1978), American chemist who first synthesized it.
A high-pressure modification of SiO2.


Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of CoesiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
4.DA.35

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
A : With small cations: Silica family
75.1.4.1

75 : TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
1 : Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
7.8.2

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
8 : Oxides of Si

Physical Properties of CoesiteHide

Vitreous
Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
Colourless
Hardness:
7½ - 8 on Mohs scale
Cleavage:
Poor/Indistinct
Suspected on {010}{012}
Fracture:
Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
2.92 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of CoesiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.593 - 1.599 nγ = 1.597 - 1.604
2V:
Measured: 54° to 64°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.004 - 0.005
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
r < v weak
Comments:
On synthetic material

Chemical Properties of CoesiteHide

Formula:
SiO2
Common Impurities:
Al,Fe,Na

Crystallography of CoesiteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
B2/b
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.143(2) Å, b = 12.383(3) Å, c = 7.143(2) Å
β = 120°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.577 : 1 : 0.577
Unit Cell V:
547.16 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
16
Morphology:
Irregular to rectangular grains.

Type Occurrence of CoesiteHide

Other Language Names for CoesiteHide

German:Coesit
Russian:Коэсит
Simplified Chinese:柯石英
Spanish:Coesita
Traditional Chinese:柯石英

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Stishovite3 photos of Coesite associated with Stishovite on mindat.org.
Magadiite3 photos of Coesite associated with Magadiite on mindat.org.
Kenyaite3 photos of Coesite associated with Kenyaite on mindat.org.
Quartz2 photos of Coesite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Garnet2 photos of Coesite associated with Garnet on mindat.org.
Omphacite1 photo of Coesite associated with Omphacite on mindat.org.
Kyanite1 photo of Coesite associated with Kyanite on mindat.org.
Zoisite1 photo of Coesite associated with Zoisite on mindat.org.
Ellenbergerite1 photo of Coesite associated with Ellenbergerite on mindat.org.
Pyrope1 photo of Coesite associated with Pyrope on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.DA.Carbon Dioxide IceCO2
4.DA.05QuartzSiO2Trig. 3 2 : P31 2 1
4.DA.10OpalSiO2 · nH2O
4.DA.10TridymiteSiO2Tric. 1
4.DA.15CristobaliteSiO2Tet. 4 2 2 : P41 21 2
4.DA.20MogániteSiO2Mon.
4.DA.25Melanophlogite46SiO2 · 6(N2,CO2) · 2(CH4,N2)Tet.
4.DA.30LechatelieriteSiO2
4.DA.40StishoviteSiO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.DA.45KeatiteSiO2
4.DA.50SeifertiteSiO2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.8.1QuartzSiO2Trig. 3 2 : P31 2 1
7.8.3TridymiteSiO2Tric. 1
7.8.4StishoviteSiO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
7.8.5CristobaliteSiO2Tet. 4 2 2 : P41 21 2
7.8.6LechatelieriteSiO2
7.8.7Silhydrite3SiO2 · H2OOrth.
7.8.8OpalSiO2 · nH2O
7.8.9MogániteSiO2Mon.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for CoesiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Chao, E.C.T., Shoemaker, E.M., Madsen, M.M. (1960) First natural occurrence of coesite. Science: 132: 220-222.
Fleischer, M. (1960) New mineral names - coesite. American Mineralogist: 45: 1313.
Sclar, C.B., Carrison, L.C., Schwartz, C.M. (1962) Optical crystallography of coesite. American Mineralogist: 47: 1292-1302.
Fahey, J.J. (1964) Recovery of coesite and stishovite from Coconino Sandstone of Meteor Crater, AZ. American Mineralogist: 49: 1643-1647.
Bohn, E., Stöber, W. (1966) Coesit und Stishovit als isolierte natürliche Mineralien. Neues Jahrbuch der Mineralogie: 89-96.
Holm, J.L., Kleppa, O.J., Westrum, E.F. (1967) Thermodynamics of polymorphic transformations in silica. Thermal properties from 5 to 1070°K and pressure-temperature stability fields for coesite and stishovite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 31: 2289-2307.
Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 145: 108-123.
Bohlen, S.R., Boettcher, A.L. (1982) The quartz-coesite transformation: a precise determination and the effects of other components. Journal of Geophysical Research: 87(B8): 7073-7078.
Zhang, J., Li, B., Utsumi, W., Liebermann, R.C. (1996) In situ X-ray observations of the coesite-stishovite transition: reversed phase boundary and kinetics. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 23: 1-10.
Mosenfelder, J.L., Bohlen, S.R. (1997) Kinetics of the coesite to quartz transformation. Earth and Planetary Science Letters: 153: 133-147.
Gibbs, G.V., Boisen, M.B.,Jr., Rosso, M., Teter, D.M., Bukowinski, M.T. (2000) Model structures and electron density distribution for the silica polymorph coesite at pressure: An assessment of OO bonded interactions. Journal of Physical Chemistry: B: 104: 10534-10542.
Mosenfelder, J.L. (2000) Pressure dependence of hydroxyl solubility in coesite. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 27(9): 610-617.
Pabst, W., Gregorová, E. (2013) Elastic properties of silica polymorphs - a review. Ceramics - Silikáty: 57: 167-184.

Internet Links for CoesiteHide

Localities for CoesiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Algeria
 
  • Sahara Desert
Shohei Kaneko, Eiji Ohtani, Masaaki Miyahara, Takeshi Sakai, Masahiro Kayama, Hirotsugu Nishido, Yasuo Oishi, Naohisa Hirao (2011) Dynamic event recorded in a lunar meteorite NWA 4734. Japan Geooscience Union Meeting Makuhari, Chiba Japan.; Wang, Y., & Hsu, W. (2016). Shock-Induced Metamorphism in the Lunar Meteorite Northwest Africa 4734. LPI Contributions, 1921.
Antarctica
 
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Queen Maud Land (Dronning Maud Land)
      • Sør Rondane Mts
Ohtani, E., Ozawa, S., Miyahara, M., Ito, Y., Mikouchi, T., Kimura, M., ... & Hiraga, K. (2011). Coesite and stishovite in a shocked lunar meteorite, Asuka-881757, and impact events in lunar surface. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(2), 463-466.
Atlantic Ocean
 
  • Upper continental slope of New Jersey
B.P. Glass, S. Liu & P.B. Leavens (2002) Amer. Mineral. 87, 562-565
B.P. Glass, S. Liu & P.B. Leavens (2002) Amer. Mineral. 87, 562-565
Australia
 
  • Western Australia
    • Wyndham-East Kimberley Shire
      • Lake Argyle area
Kubel, S. Argyle Diamond Mine–Geology and Mining of the AK1 Pipe, Kimberley region, Northwest Australia.
Brazil
 
  • Mato Grosso
    • Juína
      • Sorriso river
Kaminsky, F. V., Ryabchikov, I. D., & Wirth, R. (2015). A primary natrocarbonatitic association in the Deep Earth. Mineralogy and Petrology, 1-12.
  • Minas Gerais
Chris D. Parkinson et al. , " Ultrahigh-pressure pyrope-kyanite granulites and associated eclogites in Neoproterozoic nappes of southeast Brazil", 2001, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, http://akmotoki.tripod.com/2001/Waseda/Cdp.html
Chris D. Parkinson et al. , " Ultrahigh-pressure pyrope-kyanite granulites and associated eclogites in Neoproterozoic nappes of southeast Brazil", 2001, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, http://akmotoki.tripod.com/2001/Waseda/Cdp.html
Canada
 
  • Northwest Territories
    • Lac de Gras
      • Diavik Mine
Donnelly, C. L. et al. (2007): Lithos 98, 160-176.
China
 
  • Anhui Province
    • Anqing Prefecture
      • Qianshan Co.
Jixi Xiang, Lingen Xu, Fan Xiang, Qianhua Shi, Siben Wu, Xinyuan Zhang, and Yiyong Zhang (2008): Geology in China 35(6), 869-878
American Mineralogist, Volume 87, pages 875-881, 2002, KAI YE et al. "Ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) low-Al titanites from carbonate-bearing rocks in Dabieshan-Sulu UHP terrane, eastern China".
      • Taihu Co.
Yonghong Shi and Qingchen Wang (2004): Chinese Journal of Geology 39(3), 375-387
Wu, Xiuling, Dawei Meng, and Yujing Han (2005), α-PbO2-type nanophase of TiO2 from coesite-bearing eclogite in the Dabie Mountains, China: American Mineralogist: 90: 1458-1461.
      • Yuexi Co.
Yilin Xiao, Hoefs, J., van den Kerkhof, A.M., Fiebig, J., and Yongfei Zheng (2000): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 139, 1-16.
www.scienceinchina.com/ky/0008/ky0748.pdf.
        • Wumiao
A.I. Okay et al. , Eur. J. Mineral. , 1989, 1, pp. 595-598.
          • Marble quarry
Aral, I. (1993). Petrology of a diamond and coesite-bearing metamorphic terrain: Dabie Shan. China. Eur. J. Mineral, 5, 659-675.
  • Henan Province
    • Sanmenxia Prefecture
      • Lushi Co.
        • Guanpo
Nenggao Hu, Donglin Zhao, Baiqing Xu, and Tao Wang (1995): Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 16(4)
    • Xinyang Prefecture
      • Xin Co.
Ruyuan Zhang and Liou, J.G. (1994): European Journal of Mineralogy 6(2), 217-233.
  • Hubei Province
    • Huanggang Prefecture
      • Hong'an Co.
Yuanbao Wu, Shan Gao, Hongfei Zhang, Saihong Yang, Wenfang Jiao, Yongsheng Liu, and Honglin Yuan (2008): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 155, 123-133.
      • Yingshan Co.
Guxian Lü, Jing Chen, Tiping Ding, Xiaobo Li, Fangzheng Wang, and Ruixun Li (2001): Journal of Geosciences of China 3(1), 1-12.
  • Jiangsu Province
    • Lianyungang Prefecture
      • Donghai Co.
        • Maobei
Yilin Xiao, Zheming Zhang, Hoefs, J., and van den Kerkhof, A. (2006): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 152, 443-458.
Zhang, R.Y., Liou, J.G., and Shu, J.F. (2002): American Mineralogist 87, 445-453; Yang, T.N. (2004): Journal of Metamorphic Geology 22(7), 653–669; Rong Yan and Jianjun Yang (2013): Acta Petrologica Sinica 29(5), 1621-1633
  • Liaoning Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
    • Anshan Prefecture
      • Xiuyan Co.
        • Pianling
Chen, M., Yin, F., Li, X., Xie, X., Xiao, W., & Tan, D. (2013). Natural occurrence of reidite in the Xiuyan crater of China. Meteoritics & Planetary Science.
  • Qinghai Province
    • Haixi Autonomous Prefecture
      • Dulan Co.
Mattinson, C.G., Wooden, J.L., Liou, J.G., Bird, D.K., and Wu, C.L. (2006): American Journal of Science 306, 683-711.
  • Shandong Province
    • Jiaodong Peninsula (Jiaodong Gold Province)
      • Qingdao Prefecture
        • Jiaonan Co.
Hongrui Fan, Jinghui Guo, Fangfang Hu, Xuelei Chu, and Chengwei Jin (2005): Acta Petrologica Sinica 21(4), 1125-1132.
      • Weihai Prefecture
        • Rongcheng Co.
Science, Vol. 278, 24 Oct. 1997, pp. 701-707.
    • Linyi Prefecture
      • Yimeng Mts (Yimeng Shan)
        • Mengyin Co.
          • Mengyin Kimberlite field
            • Changma Kimberlite belt
              • Wangcun deposit
Wuyi Wang (1998): Earth and Planetary Science Letters 160(3/4), 831-843.
    • Rizhao Prefecture
      • Lanshan District
http://dunite.mr.nsysu.edu.tw/m02%20Liou-modified.doc
American Mineralogist, Volume 87, pages 875-881, 2002, KAI YE et al. "Ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) low-Al titanites from carbonate-bearing rocks in Dabieshan-Sulu UHP terrane, eastern China".
  • Tibet Autonomous Region
    • Shannan Prefecture (Lhokha Prefecture; Lhoka Prefecture)
      • Qusum Co. (Qusong Co.)
Robinson, P.T., Jingsui Yang, Wenji Bai, and Qingsong Fang (2006): 3rd Annual Meeting of the Asia Oceania Geosciences Society (AOGS), July 10-14, 2006, Abstract 59-SE-A0857.
          • Luobusha Mine ("Luobusa" Mine)
Dobrzhinetskaya, L.F., Wirth, R., Yang, J., Green, H.W., Hutcheon, I.D., Weber, P.K. and Grew, E.S. (2014): Qingsongite, natural cubic boron nitride: The first boron mineral from the Earth’s mantle. American Mineralogist. 99, 764-772
  • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
    • Bayin'gholin Autonomous Prefecture (Bayingolin Autonomous Prefecture; Bayinguoleng Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Ruoqiang Co. (Qakilik Co.; Chaqiliq Co.)
        • Yinggelisayi area
Zhang Anda, Liu Liang, Sun Yong, Chen Danling, Wang Yan, and Luo Jinhai (2004): Chinese Science Bulletin 49(23), 2527-2532.
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Ústí Region
Kotková, J., O’Brien, P. J., & Ziemann, M. A. (2011). Diamonds in the Bohemian Massif—evidence for ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism. Geologické výzkumy na Morave a ve Slezsku 18, 1, 35-38.
Egypt
 
  • Matruh Governorate
    • East Uweinat Desert
Gian Paolo Sighinolfi, Chiara Elmi, Romano Serra, and Gabriele Contini (2014): High density silica phases as evidence of small-scale hypervelocity impacts: the Gebel Kamil Crater (Egypt). Periodico di Mineralogia 83, 299-312.
Finland
 
  • Western and Inner Finland Region
Lehtinen, Martti 1976. Lake lappajärvi, a meteorite impact site in western Finland. Geological Survey of Finland Bulletin 282.
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Nördlinger Ries Crater
      • Unterschneidheim
        • Zipplingen
Stähle, V., Altherr, R., Koch, M., and Nasdala, L. (2008): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 155, 457-472.
  • Bavaria
    • Swabia
      • Nördlinger Ries Crater
        • Nördlingen
http://geosciences.smsu.edu/geology/FieldTrips/Ries/page2.html
Stähle, V., Altherr, R., Koch, M., and Nasdala, L. (2008): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 155, 457-472.
http://geosciences.smsu.edu/geology/FieldTrips/Ries/page5.html
Ghana
 
  • Western Region
Boamah, D., & Koeberl, C. (2006). Petrographic studies of “fallout” suevite from outside the Bosumtwi impact structure, Ghana. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 41(11), 1761-1774.
Italy
 
  • Aosta Valley
    • Valtournanche Valley
      • Valtournanche
Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.; Compagnoni Roberto , Frezzotti Maria Luce, Selverstone Jane , Sharp Zachary (2011) 9th International Eclogite Conference 2011, Mariánské Lázně, Czech Republic
  • Piedmont
    • Cuneo Province
[MinRec 27:303]
      • Po Valley
        • Martiniana Po
Daniele Castelli
      • Varaita Valley
        • Brossasco
          • Gilba Valley
Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
T. Hirajima and R. Compagnoni : "Petrology of a jadeite-quartz-almandine-phengite fels with retrograde ferro-nyböite from the Dora-Maira Massif, Western Alps", Eur. Journ. Mineral., 1993, 5, pp 943-955.
Kazakhstan
 
  • Akmola Province (Aqmola Oblysy; Akmolinskaya Oblast')
    • Kokshetau (Kökshetau; Kokchetau; Kokchetav)
9th International Eclogite Conference 2011, Mariánské Lázně, Czech Republic ; Mikhno, A. O., & Korsakov, A. V. (2015). Carbonate, silicate, and sulfide melts: heterogeneity of the UHP mineral-forming media in calc-silicate rocks from the Kokchetav massif. Russian Geology and Geophysics, 56(1), 81-99.
    • Prirechnoye
      • Lake Kumdikol (Lake Kumdykol'; Ozero Kumdykol')
Nitsenko, P., and Ussoltsev, I.I. (2004): Earth Science Frontiers 11(2), 333-338
Nigeria
 
  • Yobe State
    • Bogga Dingare
Weisberg, M.K. & Kimura, M. (2010). Petrology and Raman spectroscopy of high pressure phases in the Gujba CB chondrite and the shock history of the CB parent body. Meteoritics & Planetary Science Volume 45, Issue 5, pages 873–884. (May 2010); Weisberg, M. K.; Kimura, M.; Suzuki, A.; Ohtani, E.; Sugiura, N. (2006). 37th Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, March 13-17, 2006, League City, Texas, abstract no.1788. (March 2006).
Norway
 
  • Møre og Romsdal
    • Haram
Root, D.B. Hacker, B.R. Gans, P.B. Ducea, M.N. Eide, E.A. & Mosenfelder, J.L. ( 2005): Discrete ultrahigh-pressure domains in the Western Gneiss Region, Norway: implication for the formation and exhumation. Journal of Metamorphic Geology. 23, 45-61.
    • Ulstein
      • Hareidland
Carswell et al.(2003): The timing of stabilisation and the exhumation rate for ultra-high pressure rocks in the Western Gneiss Region of Norway. Journal of Metamorphic Geology. 21, 601-612
      • Ulsteinvik
Carswell et al.(2003): The timing of stabilisation and the exhumation rate for ultra-high pressure rocks in the Western Gneiss Region of Norway. Journal of Metamorphic Geology. 21, 601-612
  • Sogn og Fjordane
    • Selje
      • Flatraket
Carswell, D. A., Brueckner,H. K.,Cuthbert, S. J.,Mehta, K. & O'Brien,P. J. (2003): The timing of stabilisation and the exhumation rate for ultra-high pressure rocks in the Western Gneiss Region of Norway. Journal of Metamorphic Geology. 21, 601-612.
Smith, D.C. (1984): Coesite in clinopyroxene in the Caledonides and its implication for geodynamics. Nature, 310, 641-644.
      • Nordpollen
http://www.geologyglasgow.org.uk/docs/017_070__2013_06_22_norway_1393678659.pdf
Carswell, D. A., Brueckner,H. K.,Cuthbert, S. J.,Mehta, K. & O'Brien,P. J. (2003): The timing of stabilisation and the exhumation rate for ultra-high pressure rocks in the Western Gneiss Region of Norway. Journal of Metamorphic Geology. 21, 601-612.
    • Vågsøy
Smith, D.C. & Lappin, M.A. (1989): Coesite in the Straumen kyanite-eclogite pod, Norway. Terra Nova, I, 47-56
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
      • Mirny
Argunov, K. P., 1990, Inclusions of potassic phases, coesite and omphacite in a coated diamond crystal from the Mir pipe: Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, v. 310, p. 129-140.
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Koriak Autonomous Okrug
      • Koryak Upland (Koriak; Koriakskhiye)
        • Iomrautvaam Massif
          • Chetkinvaiam tectonic melange
            • Khatyrka river
              • Listvenitovyi stream
Scientific Report 5:9111
Slovakia
 
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Rimavská Sobota Co.
Koděra et all.,1990: Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, I-III, 1590p
South Africa
 
  • Free State Province
    • Fezile Dabi District
Minerals of South Africa
http://www.unb.ca/passc/ImpactDatabase/images/vredefort.htm Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa.
    • Lejweleputswa District
      • Boshof
Am Min 62:828-830
  • Gauteng Province
    • Pretoria District (Tshwane District)
Minerals of South Africa
  • Limpopo Province
    • Bushveld Complex
      • Waterberg District
        • Mokopane (Potgietersrus)
Westerlund, K. J., & Gurney, J. J. (2004). Silicate and oxide inclusion characteristics and infra-red absorption analysis of diamonds from the Klipspringer kimberlites, South Africa. South African Journal of Geology, 107(1-2), 131-146.
Spain
 
Ruiz-Cruz, M. D., & De Galdeano, C. S. (2012). Diamond and coesite in ultrahigh-pressure–ultrahigh-temperature granulites from Ceuta, Northern Rif, northwest Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 76(3), 683-705.
USA (TL)
 
  • Arizona
    • Coconino Co.
      • Winslow
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 180; Chao, E.C.T., et al (1960), First natural occurrence of coesite, Science: 132: 220-222.
  • Colorado
    • Larimer Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
  • Indiana
    • Newton Co.
      • Kentland (Kent)
Science. 1961 Nov 17;134(3490):1624-1625
  • Oklahoma
    • Major Co.
Venezuela
 
  • Bolívar
Canadian Mineralogist 38:1347-1370
Mineral and/or Locality  
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