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Turgite

This page kindly sponsored by Jami Conroy
Formula:
Fe2-x(OH)xO3-x
In modern usage turgite is often referred to as an iridescent "variety" of either hematite or goethite, but it was originally described (Hermann, 1844, 1845) as a new brown-red, dense mineral, with a blood-red streak, believed to be in-between hematite and goethite. A similar hydrated Fe(III) oxide phase was termed as 'hydrohematite' by Breithaupt (1847).

It was later described by Posnjak and Merwin (1919) as a fibrous mineral, variable in composition and "probably represents a solid solution of goethite with hematite with enclosed and adsorbed water". Such a solid solution seems unlikely however and it may need some study with modern methods. Based on X-ray diffraction studies (Böhm, 1928; Palache et al., 1944) it has been characterised as mixtures of microcrystalline hematite and either goethite or amorphous Fe hydroxide.

In more recent times, especially within the collector community, the name has also been widely used as a term for iridescent hematite or goethite (and sometimes as iridescent iron-staining coatings of indeterminate composition). Some iridescent hematite coatings are composed of aggregates of nano-sized rods of hematite (Lin et al., 2018); other reports suggest an aluminium phosphate (or less commonly aluminium arsenate) coating (Chi Ma and George R. Rossman, unpublished: http://minerals.gps.caltech.edu/manuscripts/in-prep/submitted/rainbow_hematite/). For photos of this material see: iridescent coating.

Originally described from Turjinskii Mine (Turginsk Mine), Turjinsk, Turya River, Krasnoturjinsk (Bogolovsk; Krasnotur'insk; Krasnoturyinsk), Ekateriinburgskaya (Sverdlovskaya) Oblast', Middle Urals, Urals Region, Russia. Under modern terminology the original material would be described as either hematite and/or goethite depending on analysis.

Any usage of this term should be discouraged.



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Chemical Properties of TurgiteHide

Formula:
Fe2-x(OH)xO3-x

Synonyms of TurgiteHide

Other Language Names for TurgiteHide

Simplified Chinese:水赤铁矿
Spanish:Turgita

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for TurgiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Hermann, R. (1844). Untersuchungen russischer Mineralien. J. prakt. Chem., 33, 87-98. (p. 96)
Hermann, R. (1845). Untersuchungen einiger neuer russischer Mineralien. Bulletin de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou, 18 (1), 241-256. (pp. 252-254).
Breithaupt, A. (1847): Vollständiges Handbuch der Mineralogie. Arnoldische Buchhandlung, Dresden.
Posnjak, E., Merwin, H.E. (1919) The hydrated ferric oxides. American Journal of Science: 47: 311-347.
Spencer, L.J. (1919): Mineralogical characters of Turite ( = turgite) and some other iron-ores from Nova Scotia. Mineralogical Magazine 18, 339-348.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 532.
Böhm J. (1928) Röntgenographische Untersuchung der mikro­kristallinen Eisenhydroxydminerale. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Vol. 68, No. 1-6, pp. 567–585, http://dx.doi.org/10.1524/zkri.1928.68.1.567
Kristina M. Peterson, Peter J. Heaney, Jeffrey E. Post, Peter J. Eng (2015). A refined monoclinic structure for a variety of “hydrohematite”. American Mineralogist 100, 570–579. [with history of "turgite", "hydrohematite" and "protohematite".]
Xiayang Lin, Peter J. Heaney, and Jeffrey E. Post. (2018) Iridescence in Metamorphic “Rainbow” Hematite. Gems & Gemology, Vol. 54, No. 1.
Chi Ma and George R. Rossman, unpublished: Iridescent Hematite.

Internet Links for TurgiteHide

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