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About CronstedtiteHide

Axel Fredrik Cronstedt
Black, dark brown-black, green-black
Specific Gravity:
3.34 - 3.35
Crystal System:
After Axel Fredrik Cronstedt (1722-1765), Swedish chemist and mineralogist who discovered nickel, scheelite and coined the term zeolite. Cronstedt's mineralogical books revolutionized mineralogy and he is sometimes regarded as the father of modern mineralogy.
Several polytypes are known (see Crystallography section). Recently a new non-MDO polytype, 6T2, was discovered in Pohled, Czech Republic (Hybler et al., 2016).

Classification of CronstedtiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
E : Phyllosilicates
D : Phyllosilicates with kaolinite layers composed of tetrahedral and octahedral nets

71 : PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
1 : Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
19 : Silicates of Fe

Physical Properties of CronstedtiteHide

Black, dark brown-black, green-black
Dark olive-green
3½ on Mohs scale
on {001}
3.34 - 3.35 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Optical Data of CronstedtiteHide

Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.720 nβ = 1.800 nγ = 1.800
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.080
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
r < v moderate
In brown and blacks

Chemical Properties of CronstedtiteHide

IMA Formula:
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of CronstedtiteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M)
Space Group:
Space Group Setting:
Cell Parameters:
Unit Cell Volume (calc):
Monoclinic Trigonal Hexagonal  
m - Domatic3m - Ditrigonal Pyramidal6 - Pyramidal 
Bm P3 1mP63 
Cm P3 1mP63 
a = 5.5033(3) Å, b = 9.5289(6) Å, c = 7.3328(5) Å
β = 104.493(7)°
a = 5.512(1) Å, c = 7.106(1) Å
a = 5.500(1) Å, c = 14.163(2) Å

a:b:c = 0.578 : 1 : 0.77a:c = 1 : 1.289a:c = 1 : 2.575 
V 372.30 ų
(Calculated from Unit Cell)
V 186.97 ų
(Calculated from Unit Cell)
V 371.08 ų 
2 2 

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
7.09 (100)
3.54 (85)
2.722 (50)
2.439 (40)
2.305 (16)
1.680 (16)
1.586 (40)

Type Occurrence of CronstedtiteHide

Synonyms of CronstedtiteHide

Other Language Names for CronstedtiteHide

Relationship of Cronstedtite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
AmesiteMg2Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4Tric. 1 : P1
AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bm
Berthierine(Fe2+,Fe3+,Al)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4Mon. m : Bm
GuidottiiteMn2Fe3+(Fe3+SiO5)(OH)4Hex. 6 : P63
KellyiteMn2+2Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4Hex. 6 : P63

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Pyrite25 photos of Cronstedtite associated with Pyrite on mindat.org.
Siderite19 photos of Cronstedtite associated with Siderite on mindat.org.
Quartz11 photos of Cronstedtite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Goethite6 photos of Cronstedtite associated with Goethite on mindat.org.
Pyrrhotite3 photos of Cronstedtite associated with Pyrrhotite on mindat.org.
Sphalerite2 photos of Cronstedtite associated with Sphalerite on mindat.org.
Cacoxenite2 photos of Cronstedtite associated with Cacoxenite on mindat.org.
Marcasite2 photos of Cronstedtite associated with Marcasite on mindat.org.
Fluorite1 photo of Cronstedtite associated with Fluorite on mindat.org.
Chalcopyrite1 photo of Cronstedtite associated with Chalcopyrite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.ED.ClinochrysotileMon. 2/m
9.ED.05DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bb
9.ED.05KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Tric. 1 : P1
9.ED.05NacriteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bb
9.ED.05Odinite(Fe,Mg,Al,Fe,Ti,Mn)2.4((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bm
9.ED.10HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bb
9.ED.10HisingeriteFe3+2(Si2O5)(OH)4 · 2H2OMon.
9.ED.10Halloysite-7ÅAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bb
9.ED.15AmesiteMg2Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4Tric. 1 : P1
9.ED.15AntigoriteMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bm
9.ED.15Berthierine(Fe2+,Fe3+,Al)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4Mon. m : Bm
9.ED.15KellyiteMn2+2Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4Hex. 6 : P63
9.ED.15GuidottiiteMn2Fe3+(Fe3+SiO5)(OH)4Hex. 6 : P63
9.ED.20Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2OAmor.
9.ED.20ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2OOrth.
9.ED.20Neotocite(Mn,Fe,Mg)SiO3 · H2OAmor.
9.ED.25BismutoferriteFe3+2Bi(SiO4)2(OH)Mon. m : Bm
9.ED.25ChapmaniteFe3+2Sb3+(Si2O5)O3(OH)Mon. m : Bm

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide 6 : P63

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

14.19.1FayaliteFe2+2SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
14.19.2FerrosiliteFeSiO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
14.19.8HisingeriteFe3+2(Si2O5)(OH)4 · 2H2OMon.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for CronstedtiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Steadman, R. and Nuttall, P.M. (1963): Polymorphism in cronstedtite. Acta Crystallographica, 16, 1-8.
Mineralogical Record (1988): 19: 169.
Smrčok, L'., Ďurovič, S., Petříček, V. and Weiss, Z. (1994): Refinement of the crystal structure of cronstedtite-3T. Clays and Clay Minerals, 42, 544-551.
Jiří Hybler, Václav Petříček, Slavomil Ďurovič and Ĺubomír Smrčok (2000): Refinement of the crystal structure of cronstedtite-1T. Clays and Clay Minerals 48, 331-338.
Ďurovič, Slavomil; Hybler, Jiri; Kogure, Toshihiro (2004): Parallel intergrowths in cronstedtite-1T: Implications for structure refinement. Clays and Clay Minerals 52, 613-621.
Hybler, J. (2014): Refinement of cronstedtite-1M. Acta Crystallogr. B70, 963-972.
Hybler, J., Sejkora, J., Venclík, V. (2016): Polytypism of cronstedtite from Pohled, Czech Republic. European Journal of Mineralogy, 28, 765-775.
Hybler, J. (2016): Crystal structure of cronstedtite-6T2, a non-MDO polytype. European Journal of Mineralogy 28, 777-788.
Hybler, J. & Sejkora, J. (2017): Polytypism of cronstedtite from Chyňava, Czech Republic. Journal of Geosciences, 62, 137-146.

Internet Links for CronstedtiteHide

Localities for CronstedtiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Entre Ríos
Howard, K.T., Alexander, C.M.O'D, Schrader D.L. & Dyl K.A. (2015) Classification of hydrous meteorites (CR, CM, and C2 ungrouped) by phyllosilicate fraction: PSD-XRD modal mineralogy and planetismal environments. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 149, 206-222.
  • Erevan Province (Yerevan)
Nazarov, M. A., Brandstätter, F., Kurat, G., Spettel, B. & Palme, H. ( 1994) Chemistry of Carbonaceous Xenoliths from the Erevan Howardite: Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XXV, Abstracts: 981-982 (March 1994)
  • Victoria
    • City of Greater Shepparton
      • Murchison
Michael Zolensky & James L. Gooding (1987). Mineralogical variations within the matrices of CM carbonaceous chondrites. Meteoritics 22, #4, 544-545. (Dec 1987). ; Palmer, E.E. & Lauretta, D.S. (Oct 2011) Aqueous alteration of kamacite in CM chondrites: Meteoritics & Planetary Science: 46 (10): 1587-1607 (Oct 2011)
  • Western Australia
    • Cue Shire
      • Madoonga Station
  • Lower Austria
    • Waldviertel
      • Persenbeug-Gottsdorf
        • Loja
Löffler, E. & Kolitsch, U. (2011): Die Mineralien der Loja bei Persenbeug, Niederösterreich (I). Mineralien-Welt. 22 (3): 73-84
  • Salzburg
    • Lungau
      • Murwinkel
        • Rotgülden
          • Lower Rotgülden lake
[Lapis 1993:5 p.13-28]
  • La Paz
    • Inquisivi Province
      • Colquiri
Salomon Rivas y Federico Ahlfeld (1998) Los Minerales de Bolivia y sus Parajes. (Santa Cruz)
  • Oruro
    • Dalence Province
      • Huanuni
[MinRec 32:472]; Min Rec 34 (2003), 155
  • Potosí
    • Rafael Bustillo
      • Llallagua
Mineralogical Record: 32: 474.;Hyrsl, J. & A. Petrov (2006): Famous Mineral Localities: Llallagua, Bolivia. Mineralogical Record. 37: 117-162
Czech Republic
  • Central Bohemian Region
    • Beroun District
      • Chyňava
Hybler, J. & Sejkora, J. (2017): Polytypism of cronstedtite from Chyňava, Czech Republic. Journal of Geosciences, 62, 137-146.
    • Kutná Hora District
C. Lemanski, Jr. (7076CL).
Am Min 47 (1962), 781
      • Březové Hory ore region (Birkenberg)
        • Březové Hory deposit
[Bull.N.M.Praha 2002, 10, p.43-77]
  • Pardubice Region
    • Pardubice District
Novák, F., Jansa, J.: Parageneze nerostů s helvínem z chvaletického ložiska. Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii, 1965, roč. 10, č. 1, s. 75-79.
  • Vysočina Region
    • Havlíčkův Brod District
      • Havlíčkův Brod
Hybler, J., Seikora, J., Venclík, V. (2016): Polytypism of cronstedtite from Pohled, Czech Republic. European Journal of Mineralogy: 28 (in press); http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=12652&sid=242fea5f8acb671b08519cab938f8217 (2016)
Hybler, J., Sejkora, J., Venclík, V. (2016): Polytypism of cronstedtite from Pohled, Czech Republic. European Journal of Mineralogy, 28, 765-775.
  • Zealand Region
    • Lolland
Henning Haack et al., (2012). Maribo— A new CM fall from Denmark. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 47 (1) 30-50. (Jan 2012)
DR Congo
  • Ituri
Howard, K.T., Alexander, C.M.O'D, Schrader D.L. & Dyl K.A. (2015) Classification of hydrous meteorites (CR, CM, and C2 ungrouped) by phyllosilicate fraction: PSD-XRD modal mineralogy and planetismal environments. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 149, 206-222.
  • Grand Est
    • Haut-Rhin
Wittern, Journée: "Mineralien finden in den Vogesen", von Loga (Cologne), 1997
  • Ile-de-France
    • Paris
Marrocchi, Y., Gounelle, M., Blanchard, I., Caste, F. & Kearsley, A.T. (2014) The Paris CM chondrite: secondary minerals and asteroidal processing. Meteoritics & Planetary Science: 49 (7): 12321249. (July 2014).; Hewins, Roger H. & 16 others (2014) The Paris meteorite, the least altered CM chondrite so far. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 124: 190-222. (1 January 2014); Rubin, A. E. (2015) An American on Paris: Extent of aqueous alteration of a CM chondrite and the petrography of its refractory and amoeboid olivine inclusions. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 50(9): 1595-1612. (Sept 2015).; Pignatelli, I. et al. (2016) Multiple precursors of secondary mineralogical assemblages in CM chondrites: Meteoritics & Planetary Science 51(4): 785-805. (April 2016).
  • Occitanie
    • Aude
      • Salsigne
Le Règne Minéral, Hors série (3), 36-54; Cooper, Michael P.(1997) What’s New in Minerals, Munich Show 1996. Mineralogical Record 28:137
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Leonberg
        • Pfaffenreuth
F. Müller: "Bayerns steinreiche Ecke", 2nd. ed. (1984), pp. 29-32
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Harz
      • Gernrode
        • Hagental
Lapis 15(7/8), 38-40 (1990)
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
  • Pest
    • Börzsöny Mts
      • Nagybörzsöny (Deutsch Pilsen; Deutschpilsen)
Szakáll & Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary, 1995
  • Rajasthan
    • Jaipur Division
      • Jhunjhunu District
Metzler, K., Bischoff, A. & Stöffler, D. (1992) Accretionary dust mantles in CM chondrites: evidence for solar nebula processes. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 56 (7), 2873-2897. (July 1992)
  • Liguria
    • Genova Province
      • Sestri Levante
Carbone, C. , Marescotti, P., Cabella, R., Lucchetti, G. (2002): Sulfide alteration and related secondary minerals from the Libiola mine (Eastern Liguria, Italy). Poster at the 82° SIMP Congress , Arcavacata di Rende (CS) 18-20/09/2002. Abstract in Plinius 28 , 88-89.
  • Lombardy
    • Sondrio Province
      • Valtellina
        • Malenco Valley
          • Torre di Santa Maria
AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
  • Piedmont
    • Metropolitan City of Turin
      • Canavese District
        • Chiusella Valley
          • Traversella
Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
        • Léssolo
          • Cálea
"Le miniere di Brosso" I.Campostrini 2001 - ed. Museo Regionale Torino
  • Sardinia
    • Sassari Province
      • Sassari
Ara D., Sanna L., Rossi A., Galli E., De Waele J. (2013): Minerali secondari in ambiente sotterraneo: la miniera dell’Argentiera (Sardegna nord-occidentale). In: Cucchi F., Gudi P. (eds.), Atti del XXI Congresso Nazionale di Speleologia “Diffusione delle conoscenze”, Sessione Attività di esplorazione e ricerca. Trieste 2-5 giugno 2011. Edizioni Università di Trieste, Trieste, 290-295.
Stara, P. & Conti-Vecchi, G. (1991): Minerali della Sardegna. Edizioni Della Torre, Cagliari, 276 pp.
  • Karaganda Region
    • Karazhal
      • Betpakdala Desert (Bet-Pak-Dal Desert)
Jeremolenko, V. (2002): Kara-Oba: Mineralogische Perle der Betpak-Ebene bei Dzhambul, Kasachstan. Lapis 27 (4), 13-34 + 50
  • Chihuahua
    • Aquiles Serdán Municipality
      • Santa Eulalia District
        • East Camp
Martin Števko-unpublished data (confirmed by PXRD and EMPA-WDS)
        • West Camp
          • Francisco Portillo
Panczner (1987):94-366.
  • Fès-Meknès Region
    • Meknès Prefecture
      • Meknès
        • El Hammam (El Hamman)
Jordi Fabre (referring to the cronstedtite specimens attributed to the Hammam mines, 2017); PXRD by Alfredo Petrov, July 2016.
  • Telemark
    • Porsgrunn
      • Rønningen (Skredderrønningen)
Andersen, F., Berge, S.A. & Burvald, I. (1996): Die Mineralien des Langesundsfjords und des umgebenden Larvikit-Gebietes, Oslo-Region, Norwegen. Mineralien-Welt 7(4), 21-100; Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 p
  • Al Wusta
    • Sayh al Uhaymir
Ivanova, M. A., Nazarov, M. A., Clayton, R. N., Mayeda, T. K., & Taylor, L. A. (2003, March). Sayh al Uhaymir 085, CV3 chondrite: mineralogical links with CK chondrites. In Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf (Vol. 24, p. 1226).
  • Áncash
    • Bolognesi Province
      • Huallanca District
        • Huallanca
Hyrsl & Rosales (2003) Mineralogical Record, 34, 241-254.
  • Maramureș
    • Baia Mare (Nagybánya)
A specimen in the British Museum-Rock Currier
Huber, P. & Muresan,I. (1996): Die Erzlagerstätte Herja - Eisen-, Blei- und Antimonminerale aus der Erzlagerstätte Herja (Herzsabánya). Lapis, 21 (7), 27ff. (in German)
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Rimavská Sobota Co.
Koděra et all.,1990: Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, I-III, 1590p
  • Košice Region
    • Rožňava Co.
      • Nižná Slaná (Niedersalz; Alsósajó)
Hybler J., Števko M., Sejkora J. (2016): Polytypism of cronstedtite from Nižná Slaná, Slovakia. European Journal of Mineralogy, 29, 91-99.
      • Rožňava (Rosenau; Rozsnyó)
- Varček, C., Vascoucelos, J. M., Petrova, R., Fejdi, P. (1990): Cronstedtit (Fe2+Fe3+)SiFe3+O5(OH)4 zo žily Klement, Rožňava. Miner. Slov., 22, 565-567.
South Africa
  • Western Cape
    • Cape Winelands District
      • Ceres
        • Koue Bokkeveld Mtn
Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIV (2003); Thomas J. Zega & Peter R. Buseck (2003). Fine-grained-rim mineralogy of the Cold Bokkeveld CM chondrite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67, #9, 1711-1721. (May 2003.); Miyahara, M., Uehara, S., Ohtani, E., Nagase, T., Nishijima, M., Vashaei, Z. and Kitagawa, R. (2008): THE ANATOMY OF ALTERED CHONDRULES AND FGRS COVERING THEM IN A CM CHONDRITE BY FIB- TEM/STEM. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIX, 1194.
  • Murcia
    • La Unión
      • Sierra Minera de Cartagena-La Unión
Calvo, M. (1996). Mineralogía. La Unión. Bocamina, 2, 14-35
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • Kea
        • Baldhu
Hey's Mineral Index 3rd ed.; Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
      • Lostwithiel
Hogg, T. (1825): A Manual of Mineralogy. Polyblank Publishers (London), p. 60; Hall, T.M. (1868): The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.; Dines, H.G. (1956): The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. HMSO Publications (London), Vol. 2, pp. 517-518
      • Penzance
        • Newlyn
Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
  • Mykolayiv Oblast
Ian D. R. MacKinnon (1980). Analytical Electron Microscopy of Matrix Phases in Murchison and Mighei (Abstract). Meteoritics 15, p. 328.
  • Arizona
    • Mohave Co.
      • Aquarius Mts (Aquarius Range; Peacock Range)
Heinrich, E. Wm. (1960), AZ Bur. of Mines Bull. 167: 12-18; Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 194, 303; Kauffman, A.J., Jr. & Jaffe, H.W. (1946), Chevkinite (tscheffkinite) from AZ, Am.Min.: 31:582-588.
Kauffman and Jaffe (1946): 582; Heinrich, E.Wm. (1960), AZ Bur. of Mines Bull. 167: 19.
  • California
    • El Dorado Co.
      • West Belt
        • Coloma District
          • Coloma
            • Sutter Mill Bar and River (Old Sutter Mill site)
Zolensky, M. & 21 others (2014) Mineralogy and petrography of C asteroid regolith: The Sutter's Mill CM meteorite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 49(11): 1997-2016. (Nov 2014)
  • Connecticut
    • Fairfield Co.
      • Trumbull
        • Long Hill
Hoadley, Charles W. (1918): An American Occurrence of Cronstedtite. American Mineralogist: 3:6.; Manchester, James G. (1931): The Minerals of New York City and Its Environs. Afferton Press. 168 p.
    • Middlesex Co.
      • Haddam
Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
  • Kentucky
    • Calloway Co.
Theodore E Bunch & S. Chang (1980) Carbonaceous chondrites--II. Carbonaceous chondrite phyllosilicates and light element geochemistry as indicators of parent body processes and surface conditions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 44, 1543-1578. ; Palmer, E.E. & Lauretta, D.S. (Oct 2011) Aqueous alteration of kamacite in CM chondrites: Meteoritics & Planetary Science: 46 (10): 1587-1607 (Oct 2011)
  • Michigan
    • Menominee Co.
      • Hermansville
Xu, J., Melgarejo, J. C., i Abat, L. T., & Castillo-Oliver, M. (2017) Magma mingling at the Menominee pipe, USA? Contributions from texture and mineral chemistry. 11th International Kimberlite Conference Extended Abstract No. 11IKC-4625, 2017
  • Nevada
    • Elko Co.
      • Cornucopia District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Mexico
    • Grant Co.
      • Hanover-Fierro District
Michael C. Michayluk collection
  • Texas
    • Grayson Co.
Howard, K.T., Alexander, C.M.O'D, Schrader D.L. & Dyl K.A. (2015) Classification of hydrous meteorites (CR, CM, and C2 ungrouped) by phyllosilicate fraction: PSD-XRD modal mineralogy and planetismal environments. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 149, 206-222.
  • Hadramawt Governorate
Zolensky, M. & A.Ivanov, Chemie der Erde 63,185-246(2003)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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