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Copper

This page kindly sponsored by Paul Brandes
Formula:
Cu
Colour:
Copper-red. Tarnishes to black or green in air.
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
2½ - 3
Specific Gravity:
8.94 - 8.95
Crystal System:
Isometric
Member of:
Name:
From Greek "kyprios", of Cyprus, the location of ancient copper mines; Latin "cuprum".
Copper Group.

Copper was one of the first metals to be worked into implements and the first metal to be smelted from ores. Its excellent ductility and high conductivity assure its use in modern society.


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Classification of CopperHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
1.AA.05

1 : ELEMENTS (Metals and intermetallic alloys; metalloids and nonmetals; carbides, silicides, nitrides, phosphides)
A : Metals and Intermetallic Alloys
A : Copper-cupalite family
Dana 7th ed.:
1.1.1.3
1.1.1.3

1 : NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
1 : Metals, other than the Platinum Group
1.1

1 : Elements and Alloys (including the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au)

Physical Properties of CopperHide

Metallic
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
Copper-red. Tarnishes to black or green in air.
Streak:
Copper-red
Hardness:
2½ - 3 on Mohs scale
Hardness:
VHN100=77 - 99 kg/mm2 - Vickers
Tenacity:
Malleable
Cleavage:
None Observed
None
Fracture:
Hackly
Density:
8.94 - 8.95 g/cm3 (Measured)    8.93 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Chemical Properties of CopperHide

Crystallography of CopperHide

Crystal System:
Isometric
Class (H-M):
m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:
Fm3m
Cell Parameters:
a = 3.615 Å
Unit Cell V:
47.24 ų
Z:
4
Morphology:
Cubes, dodecahedra, and as tetrahexahedra; rarely as octahedra and complex combinations. Filliform, herringbone, arborescent, wires and massive.
Twinning:
Spinel twins {111}

Crystallographic forms of CopperHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Copper no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Copper no.2 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Copper no.5 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Copper no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Copper no.65 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Synonyms of CopperHide

Other Language Names for CopperHide

Afrikaans:Koper
Albanian:Bakri
Arabic:نحاس
Armenian:Պղինձ
Aymara:Anti
Azeri:Mis
Basque:Kobre
Belarusian:Медзь
Belarusian (Tarashkevitsa):Медзь
Bengali:তামা
Bosnian (Latin Script):Bakar
Bulgarian:Мед
Catalan:Coure
Chuvash:Пăхăр
Cornish:Kober
Corsican:Ramu
Croatian:Bakar
Czech:Měď
Danish:Kobber
Dutch:Koper
Erzya:Пиже
Esperanto:Kupro
Estonian:Vask
Finnish:Kupari
French:Cuivre
Friulian:Ram
Galician:Cobre
Haitian:Kuiv
Hebrew:נחושת
Hungarian:Réz
Icelandic:Kopar
Ido:Kupro
Indonesian:Tembaga
Irish Gaelic:Copar
Italian:Rame
Japanese:自然 銅
Javanese:Tembaga
Kongo:Mutako
Korean:구리
Kurdish (Latin Script):Mis
Latvian:Varš
Limburgian:Koper
Lithuanian:Varis
Lojban:tunka
Low Saxon:Kopper
Luxembourgish:Koffer
Macedonian:Бакар
Malay:Tembaga
Manx:Cobbyr
Maori:Konukura
Min Nan:Cu
Mongolian (Cyrillic Script):Зэс
Norwegian (Bokmål):Kobber
Norwegian (Nynorsk):Kopar
Occitan:Coire
Persian:مس
Polish:Miedź
Portuguese:Cobre
Quechua:Anta
Ripuarian:Koffer
Romanian:Cupru
Russian:Медь
Scottish Gaelic:Copar
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Бакар
Serbo-Croatian:Bakar
Sicilian:Rami
Simplified Chinese:自然铜
Slovak:Meď
Slovenian:Baker
Spanish:Cobre
Swahili:Shaba
Swedish:Koppar
Tagalog:Tanso
Tajik (Cyrillic Script):Мис
Turkish:Bakır
Ukrainian:Мідь
Uzbek (Latin Script):Mis
Vietnamese:Đồng
Welsh:Copr
Yiddish:קופער
Zulu:Umthofu

Varieties of CopperHide

Auriferous Zincian CopperA Gold-bearing zincian copper. Compare with UM2003-03-E:AgAuCuZn.
Nickeloan CopperNatural nickel-copper alloys with structure of α-Cu. Nickel contents in Bronzes may to vary in wide range from first percents up to 10 and more mas.%. Often subordinate contents of iron also able to presents.
In technic all copper alloys with different ...
Palladian CopperLooks just like native Cu, but turns silver white on exposure to nitric acid which dissolves the copper and leaves the palladium. With in hours the copper has diffused back to the surface returning it to the appearance of native copper.
Stanniferous CopperNatural copper-tin alloys (i.e. bronzes). Tin contents may vary in a wide range, from a few percents up to 35% and more. Subordinate contents of lead are also often present.

The material reported by Xu et al. (1987) corresponds to α-CuSn in the copper...
WhitneyiteArsenic-bearing copper. High arsenic content (up to 11.5% As) in initial description was connected with some intimately associated Algodonite. Modern microprobe analyses of homogeneous As-bearing copper shows contents in range 1.5-6.6 mas.% As.

Relationship of Copper to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
GoldAuIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
LeadPbIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
MaldoniteAu2BiIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
SilverAgIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m

Common AssociatesHide

CupriteCu2O
MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
TenoriteCuO
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Cuprite926 photos of Copper associated with Cuprite on mindat.org.
Calcite631 photos of Copper associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Malachite457 photos of Copper associated with Malachite on mindat.org.
Silver338 photos of Copper associated with Silver on mindat.org.
Quartz257 photos of Copper associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Prehnite148 photos of Copper associated with Prehnite on mindat.org.
Aragonite103 photos of Copper associated with Aragonite on mindat.org.
Chrysocolla81 photos of Copper associated with Chrysocolla on mindat.org.
Epidote81 photos of Copper associated with Epidote on mindat.org.
Gypsum81 photos of Copper associated with Gypsum on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

1.AA.05AluminiumAlIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.AA.05Electrum(Au, Ag)
1.AA.05GoldAuIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.AA.05LeadPbIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.AA.05NickelNiIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.AA.05SilverAgIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.AA.05UM2004-08-E:AuCuPd(Cu,Pd,Au)
1.AA.05UM1991-06-E:AuCuAu3Cu
1.AA.10aAuricuprideCu3AuOrth.
1.AA.10bTetra-auricuprideAuCuTet.
1.AA.10aCuproaurideCu3Au
1.AA.15AnyuiiteAuPb2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I4/mcm
1.AA.15Khatyrkite(Cu,Zn)Al2Tet.
1.AA.15IodineI2
1.AA.15NovodnepriteAuPb3Tet. 4 2m : I4 2m
1.AA.15UM1985-02-E:AlZn(Zn,Cu)Al2
1.AA.20Cupalite(Cu,Zn)AlOrth.
1.AA.25HunchuniteAu2PbIso.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

1.1.1.1GoldAuIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.1.1.2SilverAgIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.1.1.4LeadPbIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.1.1.5AluminiumAlIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

1.2SilverAgIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.5GoldAuIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.6AuricuprideCu3AuOrth.
1.7Tetra-auricuprideAuCuTet.
1.8ZincZnHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.9CadmiumCdHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.10DanbaiteCuZn2Iso.
1.11ZhanghengiteCuZnIso.
1.12MercuryHgTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
1.13KolymiteCu7Hg6Iso.
1.14MoschellandsbergiteAg2Hg3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
1.15EugeniteAg11Hg2Iso.
1.16SchachneriteAg1.1Hg0.9Hex.
1.17ParaschachneriteAg3Hg2Orth.
1.18LuanheiteAg3HgHex.
1.19Weishanite(Au,Ag)3Hg2Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.20IndiumInTet.
1.21AluminiumAlIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.22Khatyrkite(Cu,Zn)Al2Tet.
1.23Cupalite(Cu,Zn)AlOrth.
1.24DiamondCIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
1.25GraphiteCHex. 6mm : P63mc
1.26ChaoiteCHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mmm
1.27LonsdaleiteCHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.28SiliconSi
1.29TinSnTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
1.30LeadPbIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.31AnyuiiteAuPb2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I4/mcm
1.31NovodnepriteAuPb3Tet. 4 2m : I4 2m
1.32LeadamalgamPb0.7Hg0.3Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I4/mmm
1.33ArsenicAsTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
1.34ArsenolampriteAsOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
1.35PaxiteCuAs2Mon.
1.36KoutekiteCu5As2Hex.
1.37DomeykiteCu3AsIso. 4 3m : I4 3d
1.38Algodonite(Cu1-xAsx)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.39NovákiteCu20AgAs10Mon.
1.40KutinaiteAg6Cu14As7 Iso.
1.41AntimonySbTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
1.42StibarsenAsSbTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
1.43ParadocrasiteSb3AsMon. 2 : B2
1.44HorsforditeCu, Sb
1.45CuprostibiteCu2(Sb,Tl)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
1.46Allargentum(Ag1-xSbx)Hex.
1.47AurostibiteAuSb2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
1.48DyscrasiteAg3SbOrth. mm2 : Pmm2
1.49BismuthBiTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
1.50MaldoniteAu2BiIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
1.51SulphurS8Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Fddd
1.52RosickýiteSMon. 2/m : P2/b
1.53SeleniumSeTrig. 3 2 : P31 2 1
1.54TelluriumTeHex.
1.55ChromiumCrIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Im3m
1.56RheniumReHex.
1.57IronFeIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Im3m
1.58ChromferideFe3Cr1-x (x=0.6)Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Pm3m
1.59FerchromideCr3Fe1-xIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Pm3m
1.60WairauiteCoFe
1.61NickelNiIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.62Kamacite(Fe,Ni)Iso.
1.63Taenite(Fe,Ni)Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.64TetrataeniteFeNiTet.
1.65AwaruiteNi3FeIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.66Palladium(Pd,Pt)
1.67PotaritePdHgTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/mmm
1.68PaolovitePd2SnOrth.
1.69Stannopalladinite(Pd,Cu)3Sn2Hex.
1.70CabriitePd2CuSnOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmm
1.71Taimyrite(Pd,Cu,Pt)3SnOrth.
1.72Atokite(Pd,Pt)3SnIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.73Rustenburgite(Pt,Pd)3Sn
1.74ZvyagintsevitePd3PbIso.
1.75PlumbopalladinitePd3Pb2Hex.
1.76Osmium(Os,Ir,Ru)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.77Iridium(Ir,Os,Ru)Iso.
1.82PlatinumPtIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.83HongshiitePtCuTrig.
1.84NiggliitePtSnHex.
1.85IsoferroplatinumPt3FeIso.
1.86TetraferroplatinumPtFeTet.
1.87TulameenitePt2CuFeTet.
1.88FerronickelplatinumPt2FeNiTet.
1.89Rhodium(Rh,Pt)Iso.

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Completely soluble with Gold.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
Electrical wire, cooking utensils, in alloys such as brass and bronze.

Copper in petrologyHide

An essential component of rock names highlighted in red, an accessory component in rock names highlighted in green.

References for CopperHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Dana (1886) American Journal of Science: 32: 413.
Bragg (1914) Philadelphia Magazine: 28: 255.
Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 5: 57.
Ramsdell, L.S. (1929) An X-ray study of the domeykite group. American Mineralogist: 14: 188.
Owen, Yates (1933) Philadelphia Magazine: 15: 472.
Vegard and Kloster (1934) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 89: 560.
Owen and Rogers (1935) Journal of the Institute of Metals, London: 57: 257.
Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Seventh edition, Volume I: 99-102.
Ma, C., Lin, C., Bindi, L., and Steinhardt, P.J. (2016) Discovery of new Al-Cu-Fe minerals in the Khatyrka CV3 meteorite. 79th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society, PDF no. 6017. [http://www.hou.usra.edu/meetings/metsoc2016/pdf/6017.pdf]

Internet Links for CopperHide

Localities for CopperHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListShow