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Allactite

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About AllactiteHide

Formula:
Mn2+7(AsO4)2(OH)8
Colour:
Brown, dark to light purplish red, brownish red, colourless to white
Lustre:
Vitreous, Greasy
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
3.83
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Member of:
Name:
Named by Stens Anders Hjalmar Sjogren in 1884 from the Greek αλλάκτειν ("allaktein"), "to change," alluding to its marked pleochroism.
Isostructural with:
The arsenate analogue of argandite and waterhouseite.

In the structure there are 4 fully occupied hydrogen sites and at least 9 energetically favourable mono-, bi- and trifurcated hydrogen bonds (Gatta et al., 2016).


Classification of AllactiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
8.BE.30

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
B : Phosphates, etc., with additional anions, without H2O
E : With only medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 > 2:1
41.2.1.1

41 : ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
2 : (AB)7(XO4)2Zq
20.8.6

20 : Arsenates (also arsenates with phosphate, but without other anions)
8 : Arsenates of Mn

Physical Properties of AllactiteHide

Vitreous, Greasy
Transparency:
Translucent
Comment:
Lustre somewhat greasy on fracture surfaces.
Colour:
Brown, dark to light purplish red, brownish red, colourless to white
Streak:
Grayish to faint brown
Hardness:
4½ on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
On {001}, distinct.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
3.83 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.94 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of AllactiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.755 - 1.761 nβ = 1.772 - 1.786 nγ = 1.774 - 1.787
2V:
Calculated: 36°
Birefringence:
0.022
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.019 - 0.026
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
r > v, distinct to strong
Optical Extinction:
X ^ c = 51°, Y = b
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
nX = Blood-red
nY = Light yellow
nZ = Sea-green

Chemical Properties of AllactiteHide

Formula:
Mn2+7(AsO4)2(OH)8
IMA Formula:
Mn2+7(AsO4)2(OH)8

Crystallography of AllactiteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/b
Setting:
P21/a
Cell Parameters:
a = 11.03 Å, b = 12.12 Å, c = 5.5 Å
β = 114.1°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.91 : 1 : 0.454
Unit Cell V:
671.17 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
As terminated prisms elongated on [010] , or bladed and tabular on {100} , with many forms, yielding complex wedgelike terminations. In divergent or subparallel rosette-like aggregates, to 6 mm; may be in druses.
Comment:
P21/c setting (P21/n setting also possible)

Crystallographic forms of AllactiteHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Click on an icon to view
Allactite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indices | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
4.95 (45)
3.71 (65)
3.39 (45)
3.28 (55)
3.23 (50)
3.06 (100)
2.929 (50)
Comments:
ICDD 17-748

Type Occurrence of AllactiteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Pink bladed crystals in groups
Geological Setting of Type Material:
As a rare secondary mineral in veinlets through metamorphosed manganese deposits
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of AllactiteHide

Other Language Names for AllactiteHide

Relationship of Allactite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
ArganditeMn7(VO4)2(OH)8Mon. 2/m : P21/m
RaadeiteMg7(PO4)2(OH)8Mon. 2/m

Common AssociatesHide

AdeliteCaMg(AsO4)(OH)
BaryteBaSO4
CalciteCaCO3
CaryopiliteMn2+3Si2O5(OH)4
Chlorite GroupA group of mostly monoclinic (also triclinic or orthorhombic) micaceous phyllosilicate minerals with a structure ...
FluoriteCaF2
FrankliniteZn2+Fe3+2O4
FriedeliteMn2+8Si6O15(OH,Cl)10
HodgkinsoniteMn2+Zn2(SiO4)(OH)2
LeucophoeniciteMn2+7(SiO4)3(OH)2
PyroauriteMg6Fe3+2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2O
Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D= Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
SphaleriteZnS
WillemiteZn2SiO4
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Lead10 photos of Allactite associated with Lead on mindat.org.
Pyrochroite9 photos of Allactite associated with Pyrochroite on mindat.org.
Hydrocerussite6 photos of Allactite associated with Hydrocerussite on mindat.org.
Chlorophoenicite5 photos of Allactite associated with Chlorophoenicite on mindat.org.
Willemite4 photos of Allactite associated with Willemite on mindat.org.
Franklinite4 photos of Allactite associated with Franklinite on mindat.org.
Holdawayite4 photos of Allactite associated with Holdawayite on mindat.org.
Rhodochrosite3 photos of Allactite associated with Rhodochrosite on mindat.org.
Kraisslite3 photos of Allactite associated with Kraisslite on mindat.org.
Calcite1 photo of Allactite associated with Calcite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

8.BE.05AugeliteAl2(PO4)(OH)3Mon. 2/m : B2/m
8.BE.10GrattarolaiteFe3+3(PO4)O3Trig. 3m : R3m
8.BE.15CornetiteCu3(PO4)(OH)3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
8.BE.20ClinoclaseCu3(AsO4)(OH)3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
8.BE.25ArhbariteCu2Mg(AsO4)(OH)3Tric. 1 : P1
8.BE.25GilmariteCu3(AsO4)(OH)3Tric.
8.BE.30FlinkiteMn2+2Mn3+(AsO4)(OH)4Orth.
8.BE.30RaadeiteMg7(PO4)2(OH)8Mon. 2/m
8.BE.30ArganditeMn7(VO4)2(OH)8Mon. 2/m : P21/m
8.BE.35Chlorophoenicite(Mn,Mg)3Zn2(AsO4)(OH,O)6Mon. 2/m : B2/m
8.BE.35Magnesiochlorophoenicite(Mg,Mn)3Zn2(AsO4)(OH,O)6Mon. 2/m : B2/m
8.BE.40Gerdtremmelite(Zn,Fe)(Al,Fe)2(AsO4)(OH)5Tric.
8.BE.45DixeniteCuMn2+14Fe2+(SiO4)2(As5+O4)(As3+O3)5(OH)6Trig.
8.BE.45Hematolite(Mn,Mg,Al,Fe3+)15(As5+O4)2(As3+O3)(OH)23Trig. 3 : R3
8.BE.45KraissliteZn3(Mn,Mg)25(Fe3+,Al)(As3+O3)2[(Si,As5+)O4]10(OH)16Orth. 2 2 2 : C2 2 21
8.BE.45McgoverniteMn19Zn3(AsO4)3(AsO3)(SiO4)3(OH)21Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
8.BE.45Arakiite(Zn,Mn2+)(Mn2+,Mg)12(Fe3+,Al)2(As5+O4)2(As3+O3)(OH)23Mon.
8.BE.45Turtmannite(Mn,Mg)22.5Mg3-3x((V5+,As5+)O4)3(As3+O3)x(SiO4)3O5-5x(OH)20+xTrig.
8.BE.45CarlfrancisiteMn2+3(Mn2+,Mg,Fe3+,Al)42[As3+O3]2(As5+O4)4[(Si,As5+)O4]6[(As5+,Si)O4]2(OH)42 Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
8.BE.50SynadelphiteMn2+9(As5+O4)2(As3+O3)(OH)9 · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
8.BE.55Holdenite(Mn2+,Mg)6Zn3(AsO4)2(SiO4)(OH)8Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Ccca
8.BE.60KoliciteMn2+7Zn4(AsO4)2(SiO4)2(OH)8Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmca
8.BE.65Sabelliite(Cu,Zn)2Zn(AsO4,SbO4)(OH)3Trig. 3 : P3
8.BE.70JarosewichiteMn2+3Mn3+(AsO4)(OH)6Orth. 2 2 2
8.BE.75TheisiteCu5Zn5(AsO4,SbO4)2(OH)14Orth.
8.BE.80CoparsiteCu4(AsO4,VO4)O2ClOrth.
8.BE.85WaterhouseiteMn2+7(PO4)2(OH)8Mon. 2/m : P21/b

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

41.2.1.4ArganditeMn7(VO4)2(OH)8Mon. 2/m : P21/m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

20.8.1SarkiniteMn2+2(AsO4)(OH)Mon. 2/m : P2/m
20.8.2EveiteMn2+2(AsO4)(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
20.8.3ArsenoclasiteMn2+5(AsO4)2(OH)4Orth.
20.8.4FlinkiteMn2+2Mn3+(AsO4)(OH)4Orth.
20.8.5JarosewichiteMn2+3Mn3+(AsO4)(OH)6Orth. 2 2 2
20.8.7KrautiteMn(HAsO4) · H2OMon. 2 : P21
20.8.8SynadelphiteMn2+9(As5+O4)2(As3+O3)(OH)9 · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
20.8.9SterlinghilliteMn3(AsO4)2 · 4H2OTric. 1 : P1
20.8.10GeigeriteMn2+5(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 10H2OTric.
20.8.11Akrochordite(Mn2+,Mg)5(AsO4)2(OH)4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
20.8.12Manganohörnesite(Mn,Mg)3(AsO4)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
20.8.13FluckiteCaMn2+(HAsO4)2 · 2H2OTric. 1 : P1
20.8.14BrandtiteCa2(Mn2+,Mg)(AsO4)2 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
20.8.15ParabrandtiteCa2Mn2+(AsO4)2 · 2H2OTric.
20.8.16WallkilldelliteCa2Mn2+3(AsO4)2(OH)4 · 9H2OHex.
20.8.17Berzeliite(NaCa2)Mg2(AsO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
20.8.18ManganberzeliiteNaCa2Mn2+2(AsO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
20.8.19Magnesiochlorophoenicite(Mg,Mn)3Zn2(AsO4)(OH,O)6Mon. 2/m : B2/m
20.8.20VillyaelleniteMnMn2Ca2(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
20.8.21Hematolite(Mn,Mg,Al,Fe3+)15(As5+O4)2(As3+O3)(OH)23Trig. 3 : R3
20.8.22GrischuniteNaCa2Mn2+5Fe3+(AsO4)6 · 2H2OOrth.

Fluorescence of AllactiteHide

Not fluorescent

Other InformationHide

IR Spectrum:
OH stretching bands are present at 3236, 3288, 3387, 3446, 3484, 3562 and 3570 cm-1
Notes:
Readily soluble in HCl.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for AllactiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Sjögren, H. (1884) Allaktit, ett nytt manganarseniat från Mossgrufvan å Nordmarksfältet. Geologiska Föreningens I Stockholm Förhandlingar: 7: 109-111.
Sjögren, H. (1884) Kristallografiska studier: VIII. Allaktit från Nordmarken. Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm Förhandlinger: 7: 220-236. [as Allaktit]
Sjögren, H. (1884) Svenska Vetenskapsakademien, Stockholm, Öfv.: 41, no. 3: 29. [as Allaktit]
Sjögren, H. (1885) Ueber die Manganarseniate von Nordmarken in Wermland. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 10: 113-155.
Sjögren, H. (1887) Svenska Vetenskapsakademien, Stockholm, Öfv.: 44: 109 (Lundström analysis).
Igelström, L.J. (1893): Mineralogiska meddelanden. 20. Nya mineral från Sjögrufvan. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm. Förhandlinger. 15: 471-472. [as Elfstorpite]
Igelström (1893) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 22: 468. [as Elfstorpite]
Goldschmidt, V. (1897): 33.
Aminoff (1921) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 43: 24.
Hintze, C. (1933) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [4B]: 1184.
Palache, C., Berman, H. (1933) Kungl. Svenska Vetenskap., Handl.: [3]: 11, no. 4: 32.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 785-787.
Moore, P.B. (1968) Crystal chemistry of the basic manganese arsenate minerals. American Mineralogist: 53: 733-741.
Fleischer, M. (1973) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 58: 560-562.
Gatta, G.D., Bosi, F., Fernandez Diaz, M.T., Hålenius, U. (2016): H-bonding scheme in allactite: a combined single-crystal X-ray and neutron diffraction, optical absorption spectroscopy, FTIR and EPMA-WDS study. Mineralogical Magazine 80, 719-732.

Internet Links for AllactiteHide

Localities for AllactiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • South Australia
    • Eyre Peninsula
      • Middleback Range
        • Iron Knob
Minerals of Iron Monarch, Glyn L. Francis
Sweden
 
  • Värmland
    • Filipstad
Sjögren, A. (1886). Mineralogiska notiser XII. Fynd af allaktit i Långbans grufvor. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlinger 8: 473-474 ; Nysten, P., Holtstam, D. and Jonsson, E. (1999) The Långban minerals. In Långban - The mines,their minerals, geology and explorers (D. Holtstam and J. Langhof, eds.), Swedish Museum of Natural History and Raster Förlag, Stockholm & Chr. Weise Verlag, Munich, pp. 89-183; Gatta, G.D., Bosi, F., Fernandez Diaz, M.T., Hålenius, U. (2016): H-bonding scheme in allactite: a combined single-crystal X-ray and neutron diffraction, optical absorption spectroscopy, FTIR and EPMA-WDS study. Mineralogical Magazine 80, 719-732.
Sjögren, A. (1886). Mineralogiska notiser XII. Fynd af allaktit i Långbans grufvor. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlinger 8: 473-474
Nysten, P., Holtstam, D. and Jonsson, E. (1999) The Långban minerals. In Långban - The mines,their minerals, geology and explorers (D. Holtstam and J. Langhof, eds.), Swedish Museum of Natural History and Raster Förlag, Stockholm & Chr. Weise Verlag, Munich, pp. 89-183.
Nysten, P. (1987). Armangite from Nordmark. GFF, 109(2), 110-110.
Mineralogical Magazine(1978) 42, 133-136; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 787.
Nysten, P. (1987). Armangite from Nordmark. GFF, 109(2), 110-110.
Mineralogical Magazine (1998) 62 (3), 395-407
Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm. Förhandlingar, Stockholm (1884): 7: 109; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 782, 787; Clark, 1993 - "Hey's Mineral Index, 3rd Edition"
      • Persberg district
        • Pajsberg
Nysten, P. (2004): Harstigen ett mineralogisk eldorado i Bergslagen. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 28: 5-13
  • Västmanland
    • Hällefors
      • Grythyttan
Igelström, L.J. (1893): Mineralogiska meddelanden. 20. Nya mineral från Sjögrufvan. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm. Förhandlinger. 15: 471-472; Fontan, F.; Holtstam, D.; de Parseval, P.; Permingeat, F. and Mason, B. (2004): Elfstorpite synonymy with allactite; mineral and name discredited. Mineralogical Magazine. 68: 523-526; Moore, P. B. (1972). III. On Igelström's Manganese Arsenates and Antimonates from the Sjö Mine, Grythyttan, Örebro County, Sweden. GFF, 94(3), 423-434.
USA
 
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin mining district
        • Franklin
Palache, C. (1935), USGS Professional Paper 180: 122; Dunn, P.J. (1995): Part 5: 656-657.
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
Palache, C. (1935) USGS Professional Paper 180: 122; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 787; Dunn, P.J. (1995):Part 5: 656-657.
Peter Chin
Mineral and/or Locality  
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