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About Dickinsonite-(KMnNa)Hide

John William Dickinson
Green shades to dark green, yellowish green, brownish green; green in transmitted light.
Vitreous, Pearly
3½ - 4
Specific Gravity:
3.38 - 3.41
Crystal System:
After the Reverend John William Dickinson (1835-1899) of Redding, Connecticut, USA, who collected minerals of the area and drew attention to them.
Arrojadite Group. Arrojadite-(KFe)-Dickinsonite-(KMnNa) Series.

Dickinsonite group.

Note: Mücke & Keck describe "Dickinsonite-(NaMn)" and "Dickinsonite-(KMn)" from Hagendorf-Süd, on the basis of EPMA data.
Ba- and Pb-dominant members are reported from Szklary pegmatite, Poland. See Unnamed (Ba-dominant member of dickinsonite group) and Unnamed (Pb-dominant member of dickinsonite group).

Classification of Dickinsonite-(KMnNa)Hide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
Approval Year:

B : Phosphates, etc., with additional anions, without H2O
F : With medium-sized and large cations, (OH, etc.):RO4< 0.5:1

7 : (AB)7(XO4)4Zq

19 : Phosphates
12 : Phosphates of Mn

Physical Properties of Dickinsonite-(KMnNa)Hide

Vitreous, Pearly
Transparent, Translucent
Lustre somewhat pearly on the cleavage.
Green shades to dark green, yellowish green, brownish green; green in transmitted light.
Nearly white
3½ - 4 on Mohs scale
Very brittle
On {001}, perfect (almost micaceous).
3.38 - 3.41 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.42 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Measured end values on Branchville (3.41) and Poland, Maine (3.38) materials.

Optical Data of Dickinsonite-(KMnNa)Hide

Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.648 - 1.658 nβ = 1.655 - 1.662 nγ = 1.662 - 1.671
Measured: 80° to 90°, Calculated: 68° to 88°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.014
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
relatively strong
X = b = Light olive-green
Y = ^c ~ +15° = Lighter olive-green
Z = Very light yellowish green

Chemical Properties of Dickinsonite-(KMnNa)Hide

IMA Formula:

Chemical AnalysisHide

Oxide wt%:
P2O539,5 %
Al2O32,0 %
FeO13,3 %
MnO32,0 %
CaO2,3 %
Na2O7,8 %
K2O1,1 %
LiO0,45 %
H2O1,65 %
Total:97 %
Sample references:
1Fillow Quarry, Branchville, Redding, Fairfield Co., Connecticut, USAMoore, P.B., Ito, J. (1979) Alluaudites, wyllieites, arrojadites: crystal chemistry and nomenclature. Mineralogical Magazine: 43: 227-235.

Crystallography of Dickinsonite-(KMnNa)Hide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 24.94 Å, b = 10.13 Å, c = 16.72 Å
β = 105.6°
a:b:c = 2.462 : 1 : 1.651
Unit Cell V:
4,068.57 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals tabular {001}. Commonly pseudo-rhombohedral in habit. Triangular striations on {001}. Frequently foliated to micaceous; curved lamellar; radiated; stellated; and as disseminated scales.

Type Occurrence of Dickinsonite-(KMnNa)Hide

Synonyms of Dickinsonite-(KMnNa)Hide

Other Language Names for Dickinsonite-(KMnNa)Hide

Relationship of Dickinsonite-(KMnNa) to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
Arrojadite-(BaNa)BaNa3(NaCa)Fe2+13Al(PO4)11(PO3OH)(OH)Mon. 2/m : B2/b
Arrojadite-(KNa){KNa}{Na2}{Ca}{Na2⃞}{Fe2+13}{Al}(PO4)11(HPO4)(OH)2Mon. m : Bb
Arrojadite-(PbFe){Pb⃞}{Fe2+⃞}{Ca}{Na2⃞}{Fe2+13}{Al}(PO4)11(HPO4)(OH)2Mon. m : Bb
Arrojadite-(SrFe){Sr⃞}{Fe2+⃞}{Ca}{Na2⃞}{Fe2+13}{Al}(PO4)11(HPO4)(OH)2Mon. m : Bb
Fluorarrojadite-(BaFe){Ba⃞}{Fe2+⃞}{Ca}{Na2⃞}{Fe2+13}{Al}(PO4)11(HPO4)F2Mon. m : Bb
Fluorarrojadite-(BaNa)BaNa4CaFe13Al(PO4)11(PO3OH)F2Mon. m : Bb
Fluorcarmoite-(BaNa)Ba□Na2Na2□CaMg13Al(PO4)11(PO3OH)F2Mon. m : Bb
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Fairfieldite5 photos of Dickinsonite-(KMnNa) associated with Fairfieldite on mindat.org.
Triploidite4 photos of Dickinsonite-(KMnNa) associated with Triploidite on mindat.org.
Lithiophilite4 photos of Dickinsonite-(KMnNa) associated with Lithiophilite on mindat.org.
Reddingite3 photos of Dickinsonite-(KMnNa) associated with Reddingite on mindat.org.
Fillowite1 photo of Dickinsonite-(KMnNa) associated with Fillowite on mindat.org.
Rhodochrosite1 photo of Dickinsonite-(KMnNa) associated with Rhodochrosite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

8.BF.05Arrojadite-(SrFe){Sr⃞}{Fe2+⃞}{Ca}{Na2⃞}{Fe2+13}{Al}(PO4)11(HPO4)(OH)2Mon. m : Bb
8.BF.05Arrojadite-(KNa){KNa}{Na2}{Ca}{Na2⃞}{Fe2+13}{Al}(PO4)11(HPO4)(OH)2Mon. m : Bb
8.BF.05Arrojadite-(PbFe){Pb⃞}{Fe2+⃞}{Ca}{Na2⃞}{Fe2+13}{Al}(PO4)11(HPO4)(OH)2Mon. m : Bb
8.BF.05Fluorarrojadite-(BaFe){Ba⃞}{Fe2+⃞}{Ca}{Na2⃞}{Fe2+13}{Al}(PO4)11(HPO4)F2Mon. m : Bb
8.BF.05Arrojadite-(BaNa)BaNa3(NaCa)Fe2+13Al(PO4)11(PO3OH)(OH)Mon. 2/m : B2/b
8.BF.10Samuelsonite(Ca,Ba)Ca8Fe2+2Mn2+2Al2(PO4)10(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
8.BF.15GriphiteNa4Li2Ca6(Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)19Al8(PO4)24(F,OH)8Iso. m3 (2/m 3)

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide{KNa}{Fe2+⃞}{Ca}{Na2⃞}{Fe2+13}{Al}(PO4)11(HPO4)(OH)2Mon.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

19.12.1MetaswitzeriteMn2+3(PO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P2/b
19.12.2BermaniteMn2+Mn3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P2/b
19.12.3NatrophiliteNaMn2+PO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmna
19.12.5Niahite(NH4)(Mn2+,Mg)(PO4) · H2OOrth. mm2 : Pmn21
19.12.6RobertsiteCa2Mn3+3(PO4)3O2 · 3H2OMon. m : Bb
19.12.7PararobertsiteCa2Mn3+3(PO4)3O2 · 3H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
19.12.8SinkankasiteMn2+Al(PO3OH)2(OH) · 6H2OTric.
19.12.9MangangordoniteMn2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2OTric.
19.12.10Heterosite(Fe3+,Mn3+)PO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmna
19.12.11Purpurite(Mn3+,Fe3+)PO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmna
19.12.12Wolfeite(Fe2+,Mn2+)2(PO4)(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
19.12.13Triploidite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(OH)Mon. 2/m : P2/b
19.12.15FrondeliteMn2+Fe3+4(PO4)3(OH)5Orth. 2 2 2 : C2 2 21
19.12.16RockbridgeiteFe2+Fe3+4(PO4)3(OH)5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
19.12.18LandesiteMn2+3-xFe3+x(PO4)2(OH)x · (3-x)H2OOrth.
19.12.19Phosphoferrite(Fe2+,Mn2+)3(PO4)2 · 3H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmna
19.12.20Reddingite(Mn2+,Fe2+)3(PO4)2 · 3H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmna
19.12.21EarlshannoniteMn2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
19.12.22Hureaulite(Mn,Fe)5(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
19.12.23Switzerite(Mn,Fe)3(PO4)2 · 7H2OMon.
19.12.24LaueiteMn2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2OTric. 1 : P1
19.12.25PseudolaueiteMn2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
19.12.26StrunziteMn2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2OTric. 1 : P1
19.12.27StewartiteMn2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2OTric. 1 : P1
19.12.30Fillowite{Mn2+}{Na8}{Ca4Na4}{(Mn2+,Fe2+)43}(PO4)36Trig. 3 : R3
19.12.32WicksiteNaCa2(Fe2+,Mn2+)4MgFe3+(PO4)6 · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
19.12.34Sarcopside(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)3(PO4)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
19.12.35LudlamiteFe2+3(PO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
19.12.36GraftoniteFe2+Fe2+2(PO4)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
19.12.37WilhelmvierlingiteCaMnFe3+(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2OOrth.
19.12.38FairfielditeCa2Mn2+(PO4)2 · 2H2OTric. 1 : P1
19.12.39BeusiteMn2+Mn2+2 (PO4)2Mon.
19.12.40MesseliteCa2Fe2+(PO4)2 · 2H2OTric. 1 : P1
19.12.41Jahnsite-(CaMnFe){Ca}{Mn2+}{Fe2+2}{Fe3+2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P2/b
19.12.42Jahnsite-(CaMnMn){Ca}{Mn2+}{Mn2+2}{Fe3+2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P2/b
19.12.43Jahnsite-(CaMnMg){Ca}{Mn2+}{(Mg,Fe2+)2}{Fe3+2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P2/b
19.12.44KeckiteCaMn2+(Fe3+Mn2+)Fe3+2(PO4)4(OH)3 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P2/b
19.12.47ZodaciteCa4Mn2+Fe3+4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2OMon.
19.12.48HagendorfiteNaCaMn2+Fe2+2(PO4)3Mon. 2/m : B2/b
19.12.50VaruliteNaCaMn2+Mn2+2(PO4)3Mon. 2/m : B2/b
19.12.51GriphiteNa4Li2Ca6(Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)19Al8(PO4)24(F,OH)8Iso. m3 (2/m 3)
19.12.52Attakolite(Ca,Sr)Mn(Al,Fe)4(HPO4,PO4)3(SiO4,PO4)(OH)4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
19.12.54Lun'okite(Mn,Ca)(Mg,Fe,Mn)Al(PO4)2OH · 4H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
19.12.55EosphoriteMn2+Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmca
19.12.56Ernstite(Mn2+,Fe3+)Al(PO4)(OH,O)2 · H2OMon.
19.12.57ChildreniteFe2+Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2OOrth. mm2 : Ccc2
19.12.58BobfergusoniteNa2Mn5FeAl(PO4)6Mon. 2/m : P2/b
19.12.59QingheiiteNaMn3+Mg(Al,Fe3+)(PO4)3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
19.12.60Whiteite-(CaFeMg){Ca}{(Fe2+,Mn2+)}{Mg2}{Al2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
19.12.61Whiteite-(CaMnMg){Ca}{Mn2+}{Mg2}{Al2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m
19.12.62Whiteite-(MnFeMg){(Mn2+,Ca)}{(Fe2+,Mn2+)}{Mg2}{Al2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
19.12.63Rittmannite{(Mn2+,Ca)}{Mn2+}{(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)2}{(Al,Fe3+)2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2OMon.
19.12.64ZanazziiteCa2Mg5Be4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
19.12.65Samuelsonite(Ca,Ba)Ca8Fe2+2Mn2+2Al2(PO4)10(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m

Other InformationHide

Soluble in acids.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Dickinsonite-(KMnNa)Hide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Brush and Dana (1878) American Journal of Science: 16: 114 (as Dickinsonite).
Brush and Dana (1890) American Journal of Science: 39: 213.
Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 68.
Berman and Gonyer (1930) American Mineralogist: 15: 375.
Wolfe (1941) American Mineralogist: 26: 339.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 717-719 (as Dickinsonite).
American Mineralogist (1981): 66: 1034-1049.
Cámara, F., Oberti, R., Chopin, C., Medenbach, O. (2006): The arrojadite enigma: I. A new formula and a new model for the arrojadite structure. American Mineralogist, 91, 1249-1259
Chopin, C., Oberti, R., Cámara, F. (2006): The arrojadite enigma: II. Compositional space, new members and nomenclature of the group. American Mineralogist, 91, 1260-1270.
Mücke, A. & Keck, E. (2011): Karbonate aus dem Pegmatit von Hagendorf-Süd/Opf.: Zusammensetzung, Verbreitung und begleitende Phosphat-Mineralien (Apatit, Hagendorfit und Eosphorit-Gruppe) - darunter einige Neufunde (Triplit, Mineralien der Arrojadit-Dickinsonit Reihe, Goyazit und Variscit). Aufschluss 62, 87-117.

Internet Links for Dickinsonite-(KMnNa)Hide

Localities for Dickinsonite-(KMnNa)Hide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Salta
    • La Poma department
      • Nevados de Palermo
        • El Quemado district
Galliski, M. A., & Hawthorne, F. C. (2002). Refinement of the crystal structure of ushkovite from Nevados de Palermo, Republica Argentina. The Canadian Mineralogist, 40(3), 929-937.
  • San Luis
    • San Martín department
      • Las Aguadas
Roda-Robles, E., Galliski, M. A., Roquet, M. B., Hatert, F., & de Paeseval, P. (2012). Phosphate nodules containing two distinct assemblages in the Cema granitic pegmatite, San Luis province, Argentina: Paragenesis, composition and significance. The Canadian Mineralogist, 50(4), 913-931.
  • South Australia
    • Olary Province
      • Boolcoomatta Reserve (Boolcoomata Station; Boolcoomatta)
Record of Sth.Aust. mines summary Olary SI5402 card 235
  • Manitoba
    • Cross Lake
      • North Group
ERCIT, S.T., TAIT, K.T., COOPER, M.A. ABDU, Y., BALL, N.A., ANDERSON, A.J., ČERNÝ, P. & HAWTHORNE, F.C. (2010) Manitobaite, Na16Mn2+25Al8(PO4)30, a new phosphate mineral species from Cross Lake, Manitoba, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist 48, 1455-1463.
Czech Republic
  • Plzeň Region
    • Poběžovice (Ronsperg; Ronsberg; Ronsperk)
      • Otov
Masau, M., Staněk, J., Černý, P., Chapman, R. (2000). Metasomatic wolfeite and associated phosphates from the Otov I granitic pegmatite, western Bohemia. J. Czech Geol. Soc. 45, 159-173.
  • Erongo Region
    • Karibib
      • Okongava Ost Farm 72
P. Keller et al., NJMA 183, 197-201 (2007)
  • Lower Silesia
    • Świdnica
Pieczka, A., Włodek, A., Gołębiowska, B., Szełęg, E., Szuszkiewicz, A., Ilnicki, S., Nejbert, K., Turniak, K. (2015): Phosphate-bearing pegmatites in the Góry Sowie Block and adjacent areas, Sudetes, SW Poland. 7th International Symposium on Granitic Pegmatites, PEG 2015 Książ, Poland. Abstracts: 77-78
  • Arizona
    • Yavapai Co.
AmMin 67: 97-113 (1982)
  • Connecticut
    • Fairfield Co.
Januzzi (1976) Mineral Localities of Connecticut & Southeastern New York State, p.278
Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994), Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
      • Redding (Reading)
        • Branchville
Brush and Dana (1878).; Shainin, V. (1946) The Branchville, Connecticut, Pegmatite. American Mineralogist: 31: 329-345.; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 671, 718, 855.; Moore, P.B., Ito, J. (1979) Alluaudites, wyllieites, arrojadites: crystal chemistry and nomenclature. Mineralogical Magazine: 43: 227-235.; Weber, Marcelle H. and Earle C. Sullivan (1995) Connecticut Mineral Locality Index. Rocks & Minerals (Connecticut Issue): 70(6) (November/December): 396-409.; Daltry, V.D.C. and von Knorring, O. (1998) Type-mineralogy of Rwanda with particular reference to the Buranga pegmatite. Geologica Belgica: 1: 9-15 (referring to Moore & Ito, 1979).
    • Middlesex Co.
      • Portland
        • Collins Hill
          • Strickland pegmatite (Strickland-Cramer Quarry; Strickland-Cramer Mine; Strickland-Cramer Feldspar-Mica Quarries)
Schairer, J. F. (1926): Lithiophilite and Other Rare Phosphates from Portland, Connecticut. American Mineralogist: 11(4): 101-104.; Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.
  • Maine
    • Androscoggin Co.
      • Auburn
        • East Mount Apatite District
No reference listed
"Maine Mineral Localities, 3rd Ed." by Thompson, W.B., et.al., 1998
        • West Mount Apatite District
No reference listed
No reference listed
No reference listed
      • Poland
King, V. T. and Foord, E. E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, Descriptive Mineralogy, volume 1, Maine Geological Survey, Augusta, Maine, USA, pp. 418 + 88 plates.
    • Oxford Co.
      • Greenwood
"Maine Mineral Localities, 3rd Ed." by Thompson, W.B., et.al., 1998
        • Uncle Tom Mountain
No reference listed
      • Hebron
Van King
      • Newry
King, V. T., 2006, Minerals of Halls Ridge and Plumbago-Puzzle Mountain, Newry, ... Maine, Mineral News, v. 22(6): p. 1-3.
      • Rumford
Guidebook 1 to Mineral Collecting in the Maine Pegmatite Belt
  • New Hampshire
    • Cheshire Co.
      • Alstead
Rocks & Minerals (2005) 80:242-261 New Hampshire Mineral Locality Index
Robert Whitmore collection
    • Grafton Co.
      • Alexandria
Rocks & Minerals (2005) 80:242-261 New Hampshire Mineral Locality Index
      • Groton
Rocks & Minerals (2005) 80:242-261 New Hampshire Mineral Locality Index
The following references are in error. Dickinsonite has not been properly identified in these references. Morrill, 1960. NH Mines and Minerals Localities, 2nd ed.; Am. Min. 50 (1965), 713-717
    • Sullivan Co.
      • Newport
Rocks & Minerals (2005) 80:242-261 New Hampshire Mineral Locality Index
  • North Carolina
    • Gaston Co.
      • Bessemer City
No reference listed
  • South Dakota
    • Pennington Co.
      • Keystone District
        • Keystone
Seaman, 1976. Pegmatite Minerals of the World
Mineral and/or Locality  
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