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Digenite

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Formula:
Cu9S5
Colour:
Grey to greyish black, turning bluish on exposure to air
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
2½ - 3
Specific Gravity:
5.546
Crystal System:
Trigonal
Name:
Named in 1844 by August Breithaupt from Greek διγενηζ digenus = of two origins, because it is related to chalcocite and covellite
Chalcocite-Digenite Group.

Note: Many of the reported associations of digenite and djurleite, identified by powder diffraction, could be anilite and djurleite, as anilite transforms to digenite during grinding.

A recent study showed the existence of a complete solid-solution series between high digenite [cubic, high-temperature digenite] and berzelianite (Pirard & Hatert, 2008).


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Classification of DigeniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
2.BA.10

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
B : Metal Sulfides, M: S > 1: 1 (mainly 2: 1)
A : With Cu, Ag, Au
2.4.7.3

2 : SULFIDES
4 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
3.1.3

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
1 : Sulphides etc. of Cu

Physical Properties of DigeniteHide

Metallic
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
Grey to greyish black, turning bluish on exposure to air
Streak:
Greyish black
Hardness:
2½ - 3 on Mohs scale
Hardness:
VHN100=86 - 106 kg/mm2 - Vickers
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
{111} on synthetic material
Fracture:
Conchoidal
Density:
5.546 g/cm3 (Measured)    5.706 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of DigeniteHide

Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Mostly isotropic.
Colour in reflected light:
Blue

Chemical Properties of DigeniteHide

Formula:
Cu9S5
IMA Formula:
Cu1.8S
Common Impurities:
Fe

Crystallography of DigeniteHide

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Space Group:
R3m
Cell Parameters:
a = 3.92 Å, c = 48 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 12.245
Unit Cell V:
638.77 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
15
Morphology:
Pseudocubic crystals (rare) to 3 cm, usually as intergrowths with other copper sulphides.
Comment:
Above 73°C, cubic with space group Fm-3m, a = 5.57 Å, Z = 4.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.21 (40)
3.05 (10)
2.79 (40)
2.17 (10)
1.973 (100)
1.686 (30)
1.139 (20)

Type Occurrence of DigeniteHide

Synonyms of DigeniteHide

Other Language Names for DigeniteHide

Relationship of Digenite to other SpeciesHide

Structurally related to group(s):

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Quartz17 photos of Digenite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Malachite17 photos of Digenite associated with Malachite on mindat.org.
Chalcopyrite12 photos of Digenite associated with Chalcopyrite on mindat.org.
Bornite11 photos of Digenite associated with Bornite on mindat.org.
Pyrite11 photos of Digenite associated with Pyrite on mindat.org.
Chalcocite7 photos of Digenite associated with Chalcocite on mindat.org.
Covellite6 photos of Digenite associated with Covellite on mindat.org.
Cuprosklodowskite4 photos of Digenite associated with Cuprosklodowskite on mindat.org.
Brochantite4 photos of Digenite associated with Brochantite on mindat.org.
Enargite4 photos of Digenite associated with Enargite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.BA.05ChalcociteCu2SMon. 2/m : P21/b
2.BA.05DjurleiteCu31S16Mon. 2/m
2.BA.05GeeriteCu8S5Trig. 3
2.BA.05RoxbyiteCu9S5Tric. 1 : P1
2.BA.10AniliteCu7S4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
2.BA.15BorniteCu5FeS4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
2.BA.20BellidoiteCu2SeTet. 4/m : P42/n
2.BA.20BerzelianiteCu2SeIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
2.BA.25AthabascaiteCu5Se4Orth.
2.BA.25UmangiteCu3Se2Tet.
2.BA.30RickarditeCu7Te5Orth.
2.BA.30WeissiteCu2-xTeHex.
2.BA.35AcanthiteAg2SMon. 2/m : P21/m
2.BA.40MckinstryiteAg5-xCu3+xS4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
2.BA.40StromeyeriteAgCuSOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.BA.40dUM2003-13-S:AgAuCuAg6AuCu2S5
2.BA.45JalpaiteAg3CuS2Tet.
2.BA.45SelenojalpaiteAg3CuSe2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
2.BA.50EucairiteAgCuSeOrth.
2.BA.55AguilariteAg4SeSMon. 2/m
2.BA.55NaumanniteAg2SeOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
2.BA.60CervelleiteAg4TeSMon. 2/m
2.BA.60HessiteAg2TeMon. 2/m : P21/b
2.BA.60ChenguodaiteAg9Fe3+Te2S4Orth.
2.BA.65Henryite(Cu,Ag)3+xTe2 , with x ~ 0.40 Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c
2.BA.65StütziteAg5-xTe3, x = 0.24-0.36Hex.
2.BA.70ArgyroditeAg8GeS6Orth. mm2 : Pna21
2.BA.70CanfielditeAg8SnS6Orth. mm2
2.BA.70Putzite(Cu4.7Ag3.3)GeS6Iso. 4 3m : F4 3m
2.BA.75FischesseriteAg3AuSe2Iso. 4 3 2 : I41 3 2
2.BA.75Penzhinite(Ag,Cu)4Au(S,Se)4Hex.
2.BA.75PetrovskaiteAuAg(S,Se)Mon.
2.BA.75PetziteAg3AuTe2Iso. 4 3 2 : I41 3 2
2.BA.75UytenbogaardtiteAg3AuS2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
2.BA.80Bezsmertnovite(Au,Ag)4Cu(Te,Pb)Orth.
2.BA.80BilibinskitePbCu2Au3Te2Iso.
2.BA.80Bogdanovite(Au,Te,Pb)3(Cu,Fe)Iso.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

2.4.7.1ChalcociteCu2SMon. 2/m : P21/b
2.4.7.2DjurleiteCu31S16Mon. 2/m
2.4.7.4RoxbyiteCu9S5Tric. 1 : P1
2.4.7.5AniliteCu7S4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
2.4.7.7SpionkopiteCu39S28Trig.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

3.1.1ChalcociteCu2SMon. 2/m : P21/b
3.1.2DjurleiteCu31S16Mon. 2/m
3.1.4AniliteCu7S4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.1.5RoxbyiteCu9S5Tric. 1 : P1
3.1.6SpionkopiteCu39S28Trig.
3.1.7GeeriteCu8S5Trig. 3
3.1.8CovelliteCuSHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
3.1.9BerzelianiteCu2SeIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
3.1.10BellidoiteCu2SeTet. 4/m : P42/n
3.1.11UmangiteCu3Se2Tet.
3.1.12YarrowiteCu9S8Trig.
3.1.13AthabascaiteCu5Se4Orth.
3.1.14KlockmanniteCuSeHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
3.1.15Krut'aiteCuSe2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.1.16WeissiteCu2-xTeHex.
3.1.17RickarditeCu7Te5Orth.
3.1.18VulcaniteCuTeOrth.
3.1.19BambollaiteCu(Se,Te)2Tet.
3.1.20LautiteCuAsSOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.1.21MgriiteCu3AsSe3
3.1.22CubaniteCuFe2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.1.23BorniteCu5FeS4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
3.1.24FukuchiliteCu3FeS8Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.1.25ChalcopyriteCuFeS2Tet. 4 2m : I4 2d
3.1.26MooihoekiteCu9Fe9S16Tet.
3.1.27HaycockiteCu4Fe5S8Orth. 2 2 2
3.1.28IsocubaniteCuFe2S3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
3.1.29IdaiteCu5FeS6Hex.
3.1.30NukundamiteCu3.4Fe0.6S4Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
3.1.31PutoraniteCu1.1Fe1.2S2Iso.
3.1.32Orickite2CuFeS2 · H2OHex.
3.1.33EskeborniteCuFeSe2Tet.
3.1.34Chaméanite(Cu,Fe)4As(Se,S)4Iso.
3.1.35TalnakhiteCu9(Fe,Ni)8S16Iso. 4 3m : I4 3m

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
Copper ore

References for DigeniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Breithaupt, A. (1844) Zwei neue Kupfer enthaltende Mineralien aus der Ordnung der Glanze.- Poggendorffs Annalen der Physik und Chemie: 61, 671-675.
American Mineralogist (1942): 27: 712-716.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 834pp.: 180-182.
American Mineralogist (1958): 43: 230-242.
Pósfai, M. & Buseck, P. R. (1994) Djurleite, digenite, and chalcocite: Intergrowths and transformations. American Mineralogist, 79, 308-315.
Pirard, C. & Hatert, F. (2008) The sulfides and selenides of the Musonoi Mine, Kolwezi, Katanga, Democratic Republic of Congo. Canadian Mineralogist 46, 219-231.

Internet Links for DigeniteHide

Localities for DigeniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListShow

Mineral and/or Locality  
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