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Acetamide

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Formula:
CH3CONH2
Colour:
Colourless, grey
Lustre:
Vitreous, Greasy
Hardness:
1 - 1½
Crystal System:
Trigonal
Name:
Named for the chemical compound it represents: Acetic acid amide. Acetamide is the common short name (trivial name) of this compound.
Naturally occurring acetamide (acetic acid amide).


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Classification of AcetamideHide

Approved
Approval Year:
1974
10.AA.20

10 : ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
A : Salts of organic acids
A : Formates, Acetates, etc.
50.4.7.1

50 : ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
4 : Miscellaneous
32.11

32 :

Physical Properties of AcetamideHide

Vitreous, Greasy
Colour:
Colourless, grey
Comment:
grey if included with carbonaceous material
Streak:
white
Hardness:
1 - 1½ on Mohs scale
Fracture:
Conchoidal

Optical Data of AcetamideHide

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.495 nε = 1.460
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.035
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate

Chemical Properties of AcetamideHide

Formula:
CH3CONH2

Crystallography of AcetamideHide

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3m - Ditrigonal Pyramidal
Space Group:
R3c
Cell Parameters:
a = 11.44 Å, c = 13.5 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 1.18
Unit Cell V:
1,530.09 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
18
Morphology:
Crystals are prismatic, to 5 mm, with prominent {1120}; as small stalactites and in granular aggregates.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
5.7 (100)
3.98 (90)
3.83 (10)
3.54 (90)
3.32 (30)
2.86 (80)
2.17 (10)
(

Type Occurrence of AcetamideHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Mining Museum, St. Petersburg Mining Institute, St. Petersberg, Russia;
A.E.Fersman Mineralogical Museum, Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Geological Setting of Type Material:
In waste piles of a coal shaft. A seasonal mineral, appearing only in periods of dry weather.
Reference:
Srebrodol’skii B I (1975) Acetamide CH3CONH2 - a new mineral. Zapiski Vsesoyuznogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva 104, issue 3, 326-328

Synonyms of AcetamideHide

Other Language Names for AcetamideHide

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

10.AA.05FormicaiteCa(HCOO)2Tet.
10.AA.10DashkovaiteMg(HCOO)2 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
10.AA.25CalclaciteCa(CH3COO)Cl · 5H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
10.AA.30PaceiteCaCu(CH3COO)4 · 6H2OTet.
10.AA.35HoganiteCu(CH3COO)2 · H2OMon.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

32.1EvenkiteC21H44Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcm
32.2FichteliteC19H34Mon.
32.3SimonelliteC19H24Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnna
32.4KratochvíliteC13H10Orth.
32.5IdrialiteC22H14Orth.
32.6CarpathiteC24H12Mon. 2/m : P21/b
32.7RefikiteC20H32O2Orth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 2
32.8FlagstaffiteC10H22O3Orth.
32.9HoeliteC14H8O2Orth.
32.10KladnoiteC6H4(CO)2NHMon. 2/m
32.12GuanineC5H5N5OMon.
32.13UreaCO(NH2)2Tet. 4 2m : P4 21m
32.14UriciteC5H4N4O3Mon.
32.15AbelsoniteNi(C31H32N4)Tric. 1 : P1

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Melting point: 81°C
Boiling point: 221°C (at 1.013 bar)
Acetamide is readily soluble in water (solubility: 2 g/ml at ambient temperature). Taste very bitter; volatilises on exposure to air and sunlight.
Decomposes to ammonium acetate in contact with acids or alkali.
Health Risks:
Acetamide is classified as a potentially carcinogenic substance. It also is a mild irritant.
Industrial Uses:
In the past, acetamide was used as a plasticiser and as a stabiliser. Molten acetamide was frequently used as a solvent in chemical synthesis. It also acts as a solubiliser; its mere addition renders many sparingly soluble compounds more soluble in water.

References for AcetamideHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Srebrodol'skii, B.I. (1975) Acetamide - a new mineral. Zapiski Vserossiyskogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva: 104(3): 326-328. http://rruff.info/rruff_1.0/uploads/ZVMO104N3_326.pdf
Fleischer, M., Chao, G.Y., Mandarino, J.A. (1976) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 61: 338-341. http://rruff.info/rruff_1.0/uploads/AM61_338.pdf
Windholz, M., Budavari, S., Blumetti, R.F., Otterbein, E.S., editors (1983) The Merck Index, 10th ed., Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway (NJ, USA).
Srebrodol'skii, B.I. (1986) Phases of mineral formation on spoil heaps of coal mines. Doklady Acad. Nauk SSSR: 290: 1730174.
Denne, W.A., Small, R.W.H. (1971) A refinement of the structure of rhombohedral acetamide. Acta Crystallographica: B27: 1094-1098. http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/openurl?genre=article&issn=0108-7681&volume=27&spage=1094
Wong, M.W., Wiberg, K.B. (1992) Structure of acetamide: Planar or nonplanar? Journal of Physical Chemistry: 96: 668-671.
Jeffrey G A, Ruble J R, McMullan R K, DeFrees D J, Binkley J S, Pople J A (1980) Neutron diffraction at 23 K and ab initio molecular-orbital studies of molecular structure of acetamide. Acta Crystallographica B36, 2292-2299 http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/openurl?genre=article&issn=0108-7681&volume=36&spage=2292

Internet Links for AcetamideHide

Localities for AcetamideHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Poland
 
  • Upper Silesia (Śląskie)
    • Upper Silesian Coal Basin
      • Rybnik Coal Area
        • Radlin
Łukasz Kruszewski (2012) Unique chloride assemblage of exhalative origin from burning coal-mining dump in Radlin (Rybnik Coal Area, S Poland). Mineralogical Society of Poland Special Papers 40
Ukraine (TL)
 
  • L'viv Oblast' (Lviv Oblast'; Lwiw Oblast')
    • L'viv-Volynskii Coal Basin (L'vov-Volynskii Coal Basin)
      • Chervonograd
[ZVMO 104 (1975), 326; Clark, 1993 - "Hey's Mineral Index, 3rd Edition"]; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
USA
 
  • Pennsylvania
    • Northumberland Co.
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