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Dravite

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Dravite Type Locality

Dobrova, Dravograd, Slovenia
Formula:
Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Colour:
Pale brown to dark-brown to brownish-black, also dark-yellow, blue.
Lustre:
Vitreous, Resinous
Hardness:
7
Specific Gravity:
3.03 - 3.18
Crystal System:
Trigonal
Name:
Named in 1883 by Gustav Tschermak for the river Drau (in Latin, Drave), on which the type locality is situated.
A very common member of the Tourmaline Group.
Dravite-Elbaite Series, Dravite-Schorl Series.

The OH analogue of Fluor-dravite.

Green-to-red color change in Cr-bearing dravite is caused by the Usambara effect (see tourmaline for details), which is similar to the alexandrite effect.

Dravite from Syros, Greece, is the first example of Mg-rich tourmaline with significant admixture of tetrahedral boron (beside the dominant triangular-coordination form). The one from a pegmatite at Forshammar, Sweden, has the highest amount of REE for a pegmatitic tourmaline, although this is still a trace amount (≤ 1200 ppm).

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Dravite.


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Classification of DraviteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
9.CK.05

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
C : Cyclosilicates
K : [Si6O18]12- 6-membered single rings, with insular complex anions
Dana 7th ed.:
61.3.1.11
61.3.1.9

61 : CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
3 : Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
17.5.27

17 : Silicates Containing other Anions
5 : Borosilicates

Pronounciation of DraviteHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of DraviteHide

Vitreous, Resinous
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Pale brown to dark-brown to brownish-black, also dark-yellow, blue.
Streak:
Light brown, rarely white.
Hardness:
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Poor/Indistinct
Very poor {1120} {1011}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density:
3.03 - 3.18 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.038 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of DraviteHide

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.634 - 1.661 nε = 1.612 - 1.632
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.022 - 0.029
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Pleochroism:
Strong
Comments:
O= pale yellow
E= colorless, yellowish, greenish, brownish

Chemical Properties of DraviteHide

Formula:
Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
IMA Formula:
NaMg3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Common Impurities:
Fe,Mn,Ti,Ca,Cr,V,K,F

Crystallography of DraviteHide

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3m - Ditrigonal Pyramidal
Space Group:
R3m
Cell Parameters:
a = 15.96(2) Å, c = 7.21(2) Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 0.452
Unit Cell V:
1,590.49 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
3
Morphology:
Equant to short to long prismatic
Twinning:
Rare on {1011} {4041}

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Type Occurrence of DraviteHide

Synonyms of DraviteHide

Other Language Names for DraviteHide

Varieties of DraviteHide

Chromian DraviteA chrome-rich variety of Dravite.
Lime-DraviteAn end-member of the Tourmaline group
Soda-DraviteA tourmaline group end-member

Relationship of Dravite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
AdachiiteCaFe3Al6(Si5AlO18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
BosiiteNaFe3+3(Al4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
Chromium-draviteNa(Mg3)Cr3+6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig.
Chromo-alumino-povondraiteNa(Cr3)(Al4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
DarrellhenryiteNa(LiAl2)Al6(BO3)3Si6O18(OH)3O Trig. 3m : R3m
ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
FeruviteCa(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
Fluor-buergeriteNa(Fe3+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3FTrig. 3m : R3m
Fluor-draviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
Fluor-elbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
Fluor-feruviteCa(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Fluor-liddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
Fluor-schorlNa(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
Fluor-tsilaisiteNa(Mn2+)3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
Fluor-uviteCa(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
Foitite(□,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OHTrig. 3m : R3m
LiddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
LucchesiiteCaFe2+3 Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
Luinaite-(OH)Na(Fe2+)3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Mon. m : Bm
Magnesio-foitite(□,Na)(Mg2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig.
MaruyamaiteK(MgAl2)(Al5Mg)(BO3)3(Si6O18)(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
OleniteNa(Al3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3(OH)Trig.
Oxy-chromium-draviteNa(Cr)3(Cr4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O Trig. 3m : R3m
Oxy-draviteNa(MgAl2)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
Oxy-foitite□(Fe2+Al2)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
Oxy-rossmanite☐(LiAl2)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
Oxy-schorlNa(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
Oxy-uviteCaMg3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
Oxy-vanadium-draviteNa(V)3(V4Mg2)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
PovondraiteNaFe3+3(Mg2Fe3+4)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig.
Rossmanite☐(LiAl2)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
SchorlNa(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
TsilaisiteNa(Mn2+)3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
UM2000-64-SiO:BFeHKMgK, Mg, Fe, Si, B, O, H
Unnamed (Pb-dominant Tourmaline)(Pb,Na)(Li,Al)3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F,OH)
Uvite SeriesCa(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F/OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
Vanadio-oxy-chromium-draviteNa(V)3(Cr4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O Trig. 3m : R3m
Vanadio-oxy-draviteNaV3(Al4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Quartz55 photos of Dravite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Muscovite21 photos of Dravite associated with Muscovite on mindat.org.
Calcite9 photos of Dravite associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Magnesite9 photos of Dravite associated with Magnesite on mindat.org.
Phlogopite9 photos of Dravite associated with Phlogopite on mindat.org.
Albite8 photos of Dravite associated with Albite on mindat.org.
Corundum8 photos of Dravite associated with Corundum on mindat.org.
Anatase6 photos of Dravite associated with Anatase on mindat.org.
Mica Group6 photos of Dravite associated with Mica Group on mindat.org.
Pyrite6 photos of Dravite associated with Pyrite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.CK.Fluor-schorlNa(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.DarrellhenryiteNa(LiAl2)Al6(BO3)3Si6O18(OH)3O Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.AdachiiteCaFe3Al6(Si5AlO18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Fluor-buergeriteNa(Fe3+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3FTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Chromium-draviteNa(Mg3)Cr3+6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig.
9.CK.05ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05FeruviteCa(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Foitite(□,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OHTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05LiddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05OleniteNa(Al3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3(OH)Trig.
9.CK.05PovondraiteNaFe3+3(Mg2Fe3+4)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig.
9.CK.05SchorlNa(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Magnesio-foitite(□,Na)(Mg2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig.
9.CK.05Rossmanite☐(LiAl2)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Oxy-vanadium-draviteNa(V)3(V4Mg2)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Oxy-draviteNa(MgAl2)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Oxy-rossmanite☐(LiAl2)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
9.CK.05Chromo-alumino-povondraiteNa(Cr3)(Al4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Fluor-draviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Fluor-uviteCa(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.10Abenakiite-(Ce)Na26Ce6(Si6O18)(PO4)6(CO3)6(SO2)OTrig. 3 : R3
9.CK.15ScawtiteCa7(Si3O9)2CO3 · 2H2OMon. 2/m
9.CK.20Steenstrupine-(Ce)Na14Mn2+2(Fe3+,Mn3+)2Ce6(Zr,Th)(Si6O18)2(PO4)6(HPO4)(OH)2 · 2H2OTrig.
9.CK.20Thorosteenstrupine(Ca,Th,Mn)3Si4O11F · 6H2O

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

61.3.1.1Foitite(□,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OHTrig. 3m : R3m
61.3.1.2LiddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
61.3.1.3Uvite SeriesCa(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F/OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
61.3.1.3Fluor-uviteCa(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
61.3.1.4FeruviteCa(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
61.3.1.5Fluor-buergeriteNa(Fe3+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3FTrig. 3m : R3m
61.3.1.6PovondraiteNaFe3+3(Mg2Fe3+4)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig.
61.3.1.7OleniteNa(Al3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3(OH)Trig.
61.3.1.8ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
61.3.1.10SchorlNa(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
61.3.1.11Chromium-draviteNa(Mg3)Cr3+6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

17.5.1ManandoniteLi2Al4(Si2AlB)O10(OH)8Orth.
17.5.2ReedmergneriteNaBSi3O8Tric.
17.5.3SearlesiteNa(H2BSi2O7)Mon. 2 : P21
17.5.4OleniteNa(Al3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3(OH)Trig.
17.5.5ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.6KalborsiteK6Al4BSi6O20(OH)4ClTet.
17.5.7BoromuscoviteKAl2(BSi3O10)(OH)2Mon.
17.5.8PoudretteiteKNa2B3Si12O30Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
17.5.9LiddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.10DatoliteCa(HBSiO5)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.5.11DanburiteCaB2Si2O8Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
17.5.12HowliteCa2B5SiO9(OH)5Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.5.13BakeriteCa4(H5B5Si3O20)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.5.14OyeliteCa10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2OOrth.
17.5.15KornerupineMg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)Orth.
17.5.16HarkeriteCa12Mg4Al(BO3)3(SiO4)4(CO3)5 · H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
17.5.17SerendibiteCa4[Mg6Al6]O4[Si6B3Al3O36]Tric. 1 : P1
17.5.18Stillwellite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Ca)BSiO5
17.5.19Tadzhikite-(Ce)Ca4Ce3+2Ti◻(B4Si4O22)(OH)2Mon.
17.5.20Melanocerite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4,BO4)3(OH,0)Hex.
17.5.21Okanoganite-(Y)(Na,Ca)3(Y,Ce)12Si6B2O27F14
17.5.22Tritomite-(Ce)Ce5(SiO4,BO4)3(OH,O)
17.5.23Tritomite-(Y)Y5(SiO4,BO4)3(O,OH,F)
17.5.24Cappelenite-(Y)Ba(Y,Ce)6Si3B6O24F2Trig. 3 : P3
17.5.25Dumortierite(Al,Fe3+)7(SiO4)3(BO3)O3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
17.5.26Holtite(Ta0.60.4)Al6BSi3O18(O,OH)2.25Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
17.5.28 FerridraviteNaFe3+3(Mg2Fe3+4)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
17.5.29Axinite-(Mg)Ca2MgAl2BSi4O15OHTric.
17.5.30Uvite SeriesCa(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F/OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.31GarrelsiteBa3NaSi2B7O16(OH)4Mon.
17.5.32TienshaniteKNa3Na6Ca2Ba6Mn6(Ti4+,Nb)6B12Si36O114(O,OH,F)11Hex. 6/m : P6/m
17.5.33LeucospheniteBaNa4Ti2B2Si10O30Mon.
17.5.34TaramelliteBa4(Fe3+,Ti,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2ClxOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmn
17.5.35TitantaramelliteBa4(Ti,Fe3+,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2ClxOrth.
17.5.36NagashimaliteBa4(V,Ti)4B2Si8O27(O,OH)2ClOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmn
17.5.37Chromium-draviteNa(Mg3)Cr3+6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig.
17.5.38WawayandaiteCa6Mn2BBe9Si6O23(OH,Cl)15Mon.
17.5.39Werdingite(Mg,Fe)2Al14Si4B4O37Tric.
17.5.40Axinite-(Mn)Ca2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)Tric. 1 : P1
17.5.41AxiniteTric.
17.5.42TinzeniteCa2Mn2+4Al4[B2Si8O30](OH)2Tric.
17.5.44SchorlNa(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.45Fluor-buergeriteNa(Fe3+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3FTrig. 3m : R3m
17.5.46FeruviteCa(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.47Axinite-(Fe)Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OHTric. 1 : P1
17.5.48HomiliteCa2(Fe2+,Mg)B2Si2O10Mon.
17.5.49Grandidierite(Mg,Fe2+)(Al,Fe3+)3(SiO4)(BO3)O2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
17.5.50Hyalotekite(Pb,Ba,K)4(Ca,Y)2(B,Be)2(Si,B)2Si8O28(F,Cl)Tric. 1 : P1
17.5.51Hellandite-(Y)(Ca,REE)4Y2Al◻2(B4Si4O22) (OH)2Mon.

Other InformationHide

Electrical:
Pyroelectric, piezoelectric
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for DraviteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Barsanov, G.P., Yakovleva, M.E. (1964) Tourmalines of dravite composition. Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Mineralogicheshkii Muzei, Moscow: 15: 39-80.
Manning, P.G. (1969) An optical absorption study of the origin of colour and pleochroism in pink and brown tourmalines. The Canadian Mineralogist 9: 678-690.
Dunn, P.J. (1977) Chromium in dravite. Mineralogical Magazine: 41: 408-410.
Povondra, P. (1981) The crystal chemistry of tourmalines of the schorl-dravite series. Acta Univ. Carol., Geol. 3: 223-264.
Foit, F.F., Jr. (1992) X-ray and optical data for a vanadium-rich dravite from Silver Knob, Mariposa County, California, U.S.A. Powder Diffraction 7: 236-238.
Hawthorne, F.C., D.J. MacDonald, Burns, C. (1993) Reassignment of cation site-occupancies in tourmaline: Al-Mg disorder in the crystal structure of dravite. American Mineralogist 78: 265-270.
Grew, E.S., Anovitz, L.M. (1996) BORON: Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, second edition, as revised (2002).
Novák, M. (1998) Blue dravite as an indicator of fluid composition during subsolidus replacement processes in Li-poor granitic pegmatites in the Modanubicum, Czech Republic. Journal of the Czech Geological Society 43: 24-30.
Bloodaxe, E.S. Hughes, J.M. Dyar, M.D. Grew, E.S., Guidotti, C.V. (1999) Linking structure and chemistry in the schorl-dravite series. American Mineralogist 84: 922-928.
Ertl, A., Pertlik, F., Bernhardt, H.-J. (2001) Ein hell-blauer Olenit-Schörl-Dravit Mischkristall von Ebersdorf, Niederösterreich: Strukturanalyse und Chemie. Mitt. Österr. Mineral. Ges.: 146: 75-77. (in German)
Bosi, F., Lucchesi, S. (2004) Crystal chemistry of the schorl-dravite series. European Journal of Mineralogy: 16: 335-344.
Marschall, H.R., Ertl, A., Hughes, J.M., McCammon, C. (2004): Metamorphic Na- and OH-rich disordered dravite with tetrahedral boron, associated with omphacite, from Syros, Greece: chemistry and structure. European Journal of Mineralogy: 16: 817-823; http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=212 (2016)
Ertl, A. (2007) Über die Typlokalität und die Nomenklatur des Minerals Dravit. Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Mineralogischen Gesellschaft, 153, 265-271. [http://www.uibk.ac.at/mineralogie/oemg/bd_153/153_265-271x.pdf]
Ertl, A., Mali, H., Schuster, R., Körner, W., Hughes, J.M., Brandstätter, F., Tillmanns, E. (2010) Li-bearing, disordered Mg-rich tourmalines from the pegmatite-marble contact from the Austroalpine basement units (Styria, Austria). Mineral. Petrol.: 99: 89-104. [Li-bearing dravite]
Hughes, J.M., Rakovan, J., Ertl, A., Rossman, G.R., Baksheev, I., Bernhardt, H.-J. (2011) Dissymetrization in tourmaline: The atomic arrangement of sectorally zoned triclinic Ni-bearing dravite. The Canadian Mineralogist: 49: 29-40.
Bačík, P., Uher, P., Ertl, A., Jonsson, E., Nysten, P., Kanický, V., Vaculovič, T. (2012): Zoned REE-enriched dravite from a granitic pegmatite in Forshammar Bergslagen Province, Sweden: An EMPA, XRD and LA-ICP-MS study, The Canadian Mineralogist: 50: 825-841.
Fantini, C., Tavares, M.C., Krambrock, K., Moreira, R.L., and Righi, A. (2014): Raman and infrared study of hydroxyl sites in natural uvite, fluor-uvite, magnesio-foitite, dravite and elbaite tourmalines. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 41, 247-254.
Bačík, P. (2015): Cation ordering at octahedral sites in schorl-dravite series tourmalines. The Canadian Mineralogist, 53, 571-590.
Bosi, F., Skogby, H., Balić-Žunić, T. (2016): Thermal stability of extended clusters in dravite: a combined EMP, SREF and FTIR study. Phys. Chem. Minerals 43, 395-407.
Taran, M.N. and Naumenko, I.V. (2016): Usambara effect in tourmaline: optical spectroscopy and colourimetric studies. Mineralogical Magazine 80, 705-717.
Berryman, E.J., Wunder, B., Ertl, A., Koch-Müller, M., Rhede, D., Scheidl, K., Giester, G., and Heinrich, W. (2016): Influence of the X-site composition on tourmaline’s crystal structure: investigation of synthetic K-dravite, dravite, oxy-uvite, and magnesio-foitite using SREF and Raman spectroscopy. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 43, 83-102.

Internet Links for DraviteHide

Localities for DraviteHide

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