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Dravite Type Locality

Dobrova, Dravograd, Slovenia
Pale brown to dark-brown to brownish-black, also dark-yellow, blue.
Vitreous, Resinous
Specific Gravity:
3.03 - 3.18
Crystal System:
Named in 1883 by Gustav Tschermak for the river Drau (in Latin, Drave), on which the type locality is situated.
A very common member of the Tourmaline Group.
Dravite-Elbaite Series, Dravite-Schorl Series.

The OH analogue of Fluor-dravite.

Green-to-red color change in Cr-bearing dravite is caused by the Usambara effect (see tourmaline for details), which is similar to the alexandrite effect.

Dravite from Syros, Greece, is the first example of Mg-rich tourmaline with significant admixture of tetrahedral boron (beside the dominant triangular-coordination form). The one from a pegmatite at Forshammar, Sweden, has the highest amount of REE for a pegmatitic tourmaline, although this is still a trace amount (≤ 1200 ppm).

Visit for gemological information about Dravite.

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Classification of DraviteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
C : Cyclosilicates
K : [Si6O18]12- 6-membered single rings, with insular complex anions
Dana 7th ed.:

61 : CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
3 : Six-Membered Rings with borate groups

17 : Silicates Containing other Anions
5 : Borosilicates

Pronounciation of DraviteHide

PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of DraviteHide

Vitreous, Resinous
Transparent, Translucent
Pale brown to dark-brown to brownish-black, also dark-yellow, blue.
Light brown, rarely white.
Very poor {1120} {1011}
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
3.03 - 3.18 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.038 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of DraviteHide

Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.634 - 1.661 nε = 1.612 - 1.632
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.022 - 0.029
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
O= pale yellow
E= colorless, yellowish, greenish, brownish

Chemical Properties of DraviteHide

IMA Formula:
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of DraviteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
3m - Ditrigonal Pyramidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 15.96(2) Å, c = 7.21(2) Å
a:c = 1 : 0.452
Unit Cell V:
1,590.49 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Equant to short to long prismatic
Rare on {1011} {4041}

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Type Occurrence of DraviteHide

Synonyms of DraviteHide

Other Language Names for DraviteHide

Varieties of DraviteHide

Chromian DraviteA chrome-rich variety of Dravite.
Lime-DraviteAn end-member of the Tourmaline group
Soda-DraviteA tourmaline group end-member

Relationship of Dravite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
AdachiiteCaFe3Al6(Si5AlO18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
BosiiteNaFe3+3(Al4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
Chromo-alumino-povondraiteNa(Cr3)(Al4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
DarrellhenryiteNa(LiAl2)Al6(BO3)3Si6O18(OH)3O Trig. 3m : R3m
ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
FeruviteCa(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
Fluor-buergeriteNa(Fe3+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3FTrig. 3m : R3m
Fluor-draviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
Fluor-elbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
Fluor-liddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
Fluor-schorlNa(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
Fluor-tsilaisiteNa(Mn2+)3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
Fluor-uviteCa(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
Foitite(□,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OHTrig. 3m : R3m
LiddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
LucchesiiteCaFe2+3 Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
Luinaite-(OH)Na(Fe2+)3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Mon. m : Bm
MaruyamaiteK(MgAl2)(Al5Mg)(BO3)3(Si6O18)(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
Oxy-chromium-draviteNa(Cr)3(Cr4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O Trig. 3m : R3m
Oxy-draviteNa(MgAl2)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
Oxy-foitite□(Fe2+Al2)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
Oxy-schorlNa(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
Oxy-vanadium-draviteNa(V)3(V4Mg2)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
Rossmanite☐(LiAl2)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
SchorlNa(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
TsilaisiteNa(Mn2+)3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
UM2000-64-SiO:BFeHKMgK, Mg, Fe, Si, B, O, H
Unnamed (Pb-dominant Tourmaline)(Pb,Na)(Li,Al)3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F,OH)
Uvite SeriesCa(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F/OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
Vanadio-oxy-chromium-draviteNa(V)3(Cr4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O Trig. 3m : R3m
Vanadio-oxy-draviteNaV3(Al4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Quartz55 photos of Dravite associated with Quartz on
Muscovite21 photos of Dravite associated with Muscovite on
Calcite9 photos of Dravite associated with Calcite on
Magnesite9 photos of Dravite associated with Magnesite on
Phlogopite9 photos of Dravite associated with Phlogopite on
Albite8 photos of Dravite associated with Albite on
Corundum8 photos of Dravite associated with Corundum on
Anatase6 photos of Dravite associated with Anatase on
Mica Group6 photos of Dravite associated with Mica Group on
Pyrite6 photos of Dravite associated with Pyrite on

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.CK.Fluor-schorlNa(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.DarrellhenryiteNa(LiAl2)Al6(BO3)3Si6O18(OH)3O Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.AdachiiteCaFe3Al6(Si5AlO18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Fluor-buergeriteNa(Fe3+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3FTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05FeruviteCa(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Foitite(□,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OHTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05LiddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05SchorlNa(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Rossmanite☐(LiAl2)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Oxy-vanadium-draviteNa(V)3(V4Mg2)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Oxy-draviteNa(MgAl2)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Chromo-alumino-povondraiteNa(Cr3)(Al4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Fluor-draviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Fluor-uviteCa(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.10Abenakiite-(Ce)Na26Ce6(Si6O18)(PO4)6(CO3)6(SO2)OTrig. 3 : R3
9.CK.15ScawtiteCa7(Si3O9)2CO3 · 2H2OMon. 2/m
9.CK.20Steenstrupine-(Ce)Na14Mn2+2(Fe3+,Mn3+)2Ce6(Zr,Th)(Si6O18)2(PO4)6(HPO4)(OH)2 · 2H2OTrig.
9.CK.20Thorosteenstrupine(Ca,Th,Mn)3Si4O11F · 6H2O

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide□,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OHTrig. 3m : R3m 3m : R3m SeriesCa(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F/OH)Trig. 3m : R3m 3m : R3m 3m : R3m 3m : R3m 3m : R3m 3m : R3m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

17.5.3SearlesiteNa(H2BSi2O7)Mon. 2 : P21
17.5.5ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.8PoudretteiteKNa2B3Si12O30Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
17.5.9LiddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.10DatoliteCa(HBSiO5)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.5.11DanburiteCaB2Si2O8Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
17.5.12HowliteCa2B5SiO9(OH)5Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.5.13BakeriteCa4(H5B5Si3O20)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.5.14OyeliteCa10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2OOrth.
17.5.16HarkeriteCa12Mg4Al(BO3)3(SiO4)4(CO3)5 · H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
17.5.17SerendibiteCa4[Mg6Al6]O4[Si6B3Al3O36]Tric. 1 : P1
17.5.24Cappelenite-(Y)Ba(Y,Ce)6Si3B6O24F2Trig. 3 : P3
17.5.25Dumortierite(Al,Fe3+)7(SiO4)3(BO3)O3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
17.5.26Holtite(Ta0.60.4)Al6BSi3O18(O,OH)2.25Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
17.5.28 FerridraviteNaFe3+3(Mg2Fe3+4)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
17.5.30Uvite SeriesCa(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F/OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.32TienshaniteKNa3Na6Ca2Ba6Mn6(Ti4+,Nb)6B12Si36O114(O,OH,F)11Hex. 6/m : P6/m
17.5.34TaramelliteBa4(Fe3+,Ti,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2ClxOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmn
17.5.36NagashimaliteBa4(V,Ti)4B2Si8O27(O,OH)2ClOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmn
17.5.40Axinite-(Mn)Ca2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)Tric. 1 : P1
17.5.44SchorlNa(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.45Fluor-buergeriteNa(Fe3+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3FTrig. 3m : R3m
17.5.46FeruviteCa(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.47Axinite-(Fe)Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OHTric. 1 : P1
17.5.49Grandidierite(Mg,Fe2+)(Al,Fe3+)3(SiO4)(BO3)O2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
17.5.50Hyalotekite(Pb,Ba,K)4(Ca,Y)2(B,Be)2(Si,B)2Si8O28(F,Cl)Tric. 1 : P1
17.5.51Hellandite-(Y)(Ca,REE)4Y2Al◻2(B4Si4O22) (OH)2Mon.

Other InformationHide

Pyroelectric, piezoelectric
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for DraviteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Barsanov, G.P., Yakovleva, M.E. (1964) Tourmalines of dravite composition. Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Mineralogicheshkii Muzei, Moscow: 15: 39-80.
Manning, P.G. (1969) An optical absorption study of the origin of colour and pleochroism in pink and brown tourmalines. The Canadian Mineralogist 9: 678-690.
Dunn, P.J. (1977) Chromium in dravite. Mineralogical Magazine: 41: 408-410.
Povondra, P. (1981) The crystal chemistry of tourmalines of the schorl-dravite series. Acta Univ. Carol., Geol. 3: 223-264.
Foit, F.F., Jr. (1992) X-ray and optical data for a vanadium-rich dravite from Silver Knob, Mariposa County, California, U.S.A. Powder Diffraction 7: 236-238.
Hawthorne, F.C., D.J. MacDonald, Burns, C. (1993) Reassignment of cation site-occupancies in tourmaline: Al-Mg disorder in the crystal structure of dravite. American Mineralogist 78: 265-270.
Grew, E.S., Anovitz, L.M. (1996) BORON: Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, second edition, as revised (2002).
Novák, M. (1998) Blue dravite as an indicator of fluid composition during subsolidus replacement processes in Li-poor granitic pegmatites in the Modanubicum, Czech Republic. Journal of the Czech Geological Society 43: 24-30.
Bloodaxe, E.S. Hughes, J.M. Dyar, M.D. Grew, E.S., Guidotti, C.V. (1999) Linking structure and chemistry in the schorl-dravite series. American Mineralogist 84: 922-928.
Ertl, A., Pertlik, F., Bernhardt, H.-J. (2001) Ein hell-blauer Olenit-Schörl-Dravit Mischkristall von Ebersdorf, Niederösterreich: Strukturanalyse und Chemie. Mitt. Österr. Mineral. Ges.: 146: 75-77. (in German)
Bosi, F., Lucchesi, S. (2004) Crystal chemistry of the schorl-dravite series. European Journal of Mineralogy: 16: 335-344.
Marschall, H.R., Ertl, A., Hughes, J.M., McCammon, C. (2004): Metamorphic Na- and OH-rich disordered dravite with tetrahedral boron, associated with omphacite, from Syros, Greece: chemistry and structure. European Journal of Mineralogy: 16: 817-823; (2016)
Ertl, A. (2007) Über die Typlokalität und die Nomenklatur des Minerals Dravit. Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Mineralogischen Gesellschaft, 153, 265-271. []
Ertl, A., Mali, H., Schuster, R., Körner, W., Hughes, J.M., Brandstätter, F., Tillmanns, E. (2010) Li-bearing, disordered Mg-rich tourmalines from the pegmatite-marble contact from the Austroalpine basement units (Styria, Austria). Mineral. Petrol.: 99: 89-104. [Li-bearing dravite]
Hughes, J.M., Rakovan, J., Ertl, A., Rossman, G.R., Baksheev, I., Bernhardt, H.-J. (2011) Dissymetrization in tourmaline: The atomic arrangement of sectorally zoned triclinic Ni-bearing dravite. The Canadian Mineralogist: 49: 29-40.
Bačík, P., Uher, P., Ertl, A., Jonsson, E., Nysten, P., Kanický, V., Vaculovič, T. (2012): Zoned REE-enriched dravite from a granitic pegmatite in Forshammar Bergslagen Province, Sweden: An EMPA, XRD and LA-ICP-MS study, The Canadian Mineralogist: 50: 825-841.
Fantini, C., Tavares, M.C., Krambrock, K., Moreira, R.L., and Righi, A. (2014): Raman and infrared study of hydroxyl sites in natural uvite, fluor-uvite, magnesio-foitite, dravite and elbaite tourmalines. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 41, 247-254.
Bačík, P. (2015): Cation ordering at octahedral sites in schorl-dravite series tourmalines. The Canadian Mineralogist, 53, 571-590.
Bosi, F., Skogby, H., Balić-Žunić, T. (2016): Thermal stability of extended clusters in dravite: a combined EMP, SREF and FTIR study. Phys. Chem. Minerals 43, 395-407.
Taran, M.N. and Naumenko, I.V. (2016): Usambara effect in tourmaline: optical spectroscopy and colourimetric studies. Mineralogical Magazine 80, 705-717.
Berryman, E.J., Wunder, B., Ertl, A., Koch-Müller, M., Rhede, D., Scheidl, K., Giester, G., and Heinrich, W. (2016): Influence of the X-site composition on tourmaline’s crystal structure: investigation of synthetic K-dravite, dravite, oxy-uvite, and magnesio-foitite using SREF and Raman spectroscopy. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 43, 83-102.

Internet Links for DraviteHide

Localities for DraviteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListShow

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