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About DufréniteHide

Ours-Pierre-Armand Petit-Dufrénoy
Ca0.5Fe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O
Dark green, olive-green, olive-brown, black; olive-brown to reddish brown with oxidation; bluish green to reddish brown or yellow in transmitted light.
Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Silky
3½ - 4½
Specific Gravity:
3.1 - 3.34
Crystal System:
Named in 1833 by Alexandre Brongniart in honor of Ours Pierre Armand Petit Dufrenoy [September 5, 1792 - March 20, 1857), Professor of Mineralogy in the École des Mines, Paris, France. (Because of many look-alike species in the environments where dufrénite occurred, species such as rockbridgeite, etc. were called by that name.)
The mineral dufrénoysite is also named in his honor.
A secondary mineral occurring with limonite in gossan of veins and in iron ore deposits.

See also natrodufrénite which appears to be much more common than presently thought (Henry Barwood, unpubl. results).
A (formally) vacancy- and Mn2+-dominant member was reported by Sejkora et al. (2006).

Note: dufrénite is the correct spelling, not dufrenite (Burke, 2008).

There are some dufrenite-like species, e.g., 'UM1949-01-PO:Fe'.

Classification of DufréniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

D : Phosphates, etc. with additional anions, with H2O
K : With large and medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 > 1:1 and < 2:1

9 : (AB)7(XO4)4Zq·xH2O

19 : Phosphates
13 : Phosphates of Fe alone

Physical Properties of DufréniteHide

Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Silky
Translucent, Opaque
Silky in cross-section of botryoids
Dark green, olive-green, olive-brown, black; olive-brown to reddish brown with oxidation; bluish green to reddish brown or yellow in transmitted light.
3½ - 4½ on Mohs scale
One perfect, a second cleavage good and both parallel to the fibre direction, with traces of a poor third cleavage at right angles to the other two.
3.1 - 3.34 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.41 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of DufréniteHide

Biaxial (+/-)
RI values:
nα = 1.820 - 1.842 nβ = 1.830 - 1.850 nγ = 1.875 - 1.925
Calculated: 38° to 52°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.055 - 0.083
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
rv relatively strong
X = Deep blue, light brown, light yellow-brown or deep bluish green
Y = Buff, brown, light brown, light yellow-brown
Z = Deep red-brown, dark brown, red-brown, deep olive-brown
(from localities: Rock Run, AL; Siegen, Westphalia; Wheal Phoenix; and Hirs

Chemical Properties of DufréniteHide

Ca0.5Fe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O
IMA Formula:
Ca0.5Fe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2O

Crystallography of DufréniteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 25.84(2) Å, b = 5.126(3) Å, c = 13.78(1) Å
β = 111.20(6)°
a:b:c = 5.041 : 1 : 2.688
Unit Cell V:
1,701.72 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals rare, indistinct, in subparallel or sheaf-like aggregates. Botryoidal masses or crusts with a radial-fibrous structure, common. The crusts are formed of drusy crystals with rounded or exfoliated terminations at times.
SG C2/c

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
12.00 (9)
5.002 (9)
4.410 (5)
3.393 (7)
3.151 (10)
2.860 (6)
2.101 (5)
Close to natrodufrénite.

Type Occurrence of DufréniteHide

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Iron ore deposit
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of DufréniteHide

Other Language Names for DufréniteHide

Relationship of Dufrénite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
BurangaiteNaFe2+Al5(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
GayiteNaMn2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
MatioliiteNaMgAl5(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
NatrodufréniteNaFe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2OMon.

Common AssociatesHide

CacoxeniteFe3+24AlO6(PO4)17(OH)12 · 75H2O
StrengiteFePO4 · 2H2O
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Leucophosphite42 photos of Dufrénite associated with Leucophosphite on
Cyrilovite27 photos of Dufrénite associated with Cyrilovite on
Kidwellite24 photos of Dufrénite associated with Kidwellite on
Strengite24 photos of Dufrénite associated with Strengite on
Bariopharmacosiderite21 photos of Dufrénite associated with Bariopharmacosiderite on
Cacoxenite18 photos of Dufrénite associated with Cacoxenite on
Beraunite16 photos of Dufrénite associated with Beraunite on
Chalcosiderite15 photos of Dufrénite associated with Chalcosiderite on
Rockbridgeite9 photos of Dufrénite associated with Rockbridgeite on
Goethite8 photos of Dufrénite associated with Goethite on

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

8.DK.RichelsdorfiteCa2Cu5Sb(AsO4)4(OH)6Cl · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
8.DK.10BariopharmacosideriteBa0.5Fe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 5H2OTet. 4 2m : P4 2m
8.DK.10PharmacosideriteKFe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2OIso. 4 3m : P4 3m
8.DK.10Natropharmacosiderite(Na,K)Fe3+4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6-7H2OIso. 4 3m : P4 3m
8.DK.10Hydroniumpharmacosiderite(H3O)Fe4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 4H2OIso. 4 3m : P4 3m
8.DK.12PharmacoalumiteKAl4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 6.5H2OIso. 4 3m : P4 3m
8.DK.12NatropharmacoalumiteNaAl4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 4H2OIso. 4 3m : P4 3m
8.DK.12BariopharmacoalumiteBa0.5Al4(AsO4)3(OH)4 · 4H2OIso. 4 3m : P4 3m
8.DK.15BurangaiteNaFe2+Al5(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
8.DK.15NatrodufréniteNaFe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2OMon.
8.DK.15MatioliiteNaMgAl5(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
8.DK.15GayiteNaMn2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
8.DK.20KidwelliteNaFe3+9+x(PO4)6(OH)11 · 3H2O, x = 0.33Mon. 2/m : P2/b
8.DK.30Matulaite(Fe3+,Al)Al7(PO4)4(PO3OH)2(OH)8(H2O)8 · 8H2OMon.
8.DK.35KrasnoviteBa(Al,Mg)(PO4,CO3)(OH)2 · H2OOrth.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide · 2H2OMon. 2/m : B2/béniteNaFe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)6 · 2H2OMon. · 2H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

19.13.1BarbosaliteFe2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
19.13.2StrengiteFePO4 · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
19.13.3PhosphosideriteFePO4 · 2H2OMon. 2/m
19.13.5GiniiteFe2+Fe3+4(PO4)3(OH)5 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P2/b
19.13.6WhitmoreiteFe2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
19.13.7TinticiteFe3+5.34(PO4)3.62(VO4)0.38(OH)4 · 6.7H2OTric. 1 : P1
19.13.8FerristrunziteFe3+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)3 · 5H2OTric.
19.13.9FerrostrunziteFe2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2OTric.
19.13.10BerauniteFe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
19.13.11VivianiteFe2+3(PO4)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
19.13.12MetavivianiteFe2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2OTric. 1 : P1

Fluorescence of DufréniteHide

Not Fluorescent in UV

Other InformationHide

Soluble in dilute acids.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for DufréniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Jordan (1803) Min. Reisebem.: 243 (as Strahlstein).
Ullmann, J.C. (1814) Systematisch-Tabellarische Uebersicht der min.-einfachen Fossilien. Cassel and Marburg: 152. (as Grüneisenstein, strahlicher, ochrichter)
Haüy, R.J. (1822) Traité de minéralogie. second edition, 4 volumes, with fol. Atlas: 4: 106. (as Fer oxidé, terreaux, jaune verdâtre)
Brongniart, A. (1833) Dufrénite. in Tableau de la distribution méthodique des espèces minérales suivie dans le cours de minèralogie fait au Musèum Royal d'Histoire Naturelle en 1833, A la Librairie Encyclopèdique de Roret (Paris), 48pp., 8vo: 20.
Breithaupt, A. (1841) Vollständige Handbuch der Mineralogie: 2: 152. (as Kraurit)
Streng, A. (1881) Ueber die Phosphate von Waldgirmes. Neues Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie,Geologie und Palaeontologie: 1: 101-119. (in German)
Kinch, E., Butler, F.H. (1886) On a new variety of mineral from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine: 7: 65-70.
Kinch, E. (1888) On Dufrenite from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine: 8: 112-115.
Hintze, C. (1889) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [4B]: 1122.
Clarke (1910) USGS Bull. 419: 303.
Simpson, E.S. (1911) Journal of the Natural History Society of Western Australia: 4: 3.
Frondel, C. (1949) The dufrenite problem. American Mineralogist: 34: 513-540.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 873-875.
van der Westhuizen, W.A., de Bruiyn, H., Beukes, G.J. (1990) Dufrenite in iron-formation on the Kangnas farm, Aggeneys district, Bushmanland, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine: 54: 419-424.
Sejkora, J., Škoda, R., Ondruš, P., Beran, P., Susser, C. (2006) Mineralogy of phosphate accumulations in the Huber stock, Krásno ore district, Slavkovský les area, Czech Republic. Journal of the Czech Geological Society: 51: 103-147.
Burke, E.A.J. (2008) Tidying up Mineral Names: An IMA scheme for Suffixes, Hyphens and Diacritical Marks. Mineralogical Record: 39: 131-135.
Dyar, M.D., Jawin, E.R., Breves, E., Marchand, G., Nelms, M., Lane, M.D., Mertzman, S.A., Bish, D.L., Bishop, J.L. (2014) Mössbauer parameters of iron in phosphate minerals: Implications for interpretation of martian data. American Mineralogist: 99: 914-942.

Internet Links for DufréniteHide

Localities for DufréniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Córdoba Province
    • Punilla Department
      • Tanti
Dina, H. (1993). Hentschelita en Cerro Blanco, Tanti, Córdoba. Informacion Tecnologica, 48(3-4), 277-282.
Demartin F, Gay H D, Gramaccioli C M, Pilati T (1997) Benyacarite, a new titanium-bearing phosphate mineral species from Cerro Blanco, Argentina. The Canadian Mineralogist 35, 707-712
    • San Alberto Department
      • Pampa de Achala
Milka K. de Brodtkorb (2006) Las Especies Minerales de la Republica Argentina, Vol. 2, p 428 (Asociación Mineralógica Argentina)
  • San Luis Province
    • Coronel Pringles Department
      • Totoral pegmatitic field
        • La Florida
OYARZABAL, J. and GALLISKI, M.A.. Hureaulite, Mn+25(H2O)4[PO3(OH)]2[PO4]2, from different deposits of the Totoral pegmatitic field, San Luis. Rev. Asoc. Geol. Argent. [online]. 2007, vol.62, n.2, pp. 210-216.; Galliski, M. A., Zavalia, M. F. M., de Upton, I. L., & Oyarzabal, J. C. (1998). Mitridatite from the San Luis granitic pegmatite, La Florida, Argentina. The Canadian Mineralogist, 36(2), 395-397.
    • San Martín department
      • Las Aguadas
Roda-Robles, E., Galliski, M. A., Roquet, M. B., Hatert, F., & de Paeseval, P. (2012). Phosphate nodules containing two distinct assemblages in the Cema granitic pegmatite, San Luis province, Argentina: Paragenesis, composition and significance. The Canadian Mineralogist, 50(4), 913-931.
  • New South Wales
    • Yancowinna Co.
      • Broken Hill district
        • Broken Hill
Australian Min. 3:1 (1997)
          • Broken Hill South Mine (BHS Mine; South Mine)
Australian Mineralogist (1997): 3: 1.
[UKJMM 19:28]
  • Northern Territory
    • Victoria-Daly Region
      • Pine Creek
Stuart Mills
  • South Australia
    • Eyre peninsula
      • Middleback Range
        • Iron Duke Complex
Francis, G.L., 2010. Minerals from the South Middleback Range deposits 2003-2008. (self published) 44pp.
Francis, G.L., 2010. Minerals from the South Middleback Range deposits 2003-2008. (self published) 44pp.
Francis, G.L., 2010. Minerals from the South Middleback Range deposits 2003-2008. (self published) 44pp.
        • Iron Knob
No reference listed
    • Flinders Ranges
      • South Flinders Ranges
        • Gladstone
Steve Sorrell Collection
        • Wilmington
Australian Journal of Mineralogy. Vol 5. No. 2. 1999. 55-62
    • Mt Lofty Ranges
      • North Mt Lofty Ranges
        • Barossa Valley
          • Angaston
Harrowfield, I.R., Segnit, E.R., Watts, J.A. (1981) Aldermanite, a new magnesium aluminium phosphate. Mineralogical Magazine, 44:333, 59-62.
        • Kapunda
Frost, R.L., S.J. Mills, and K.L. Erickson, (2004), Thermal decomposition of peisleyite: a thermogravimetry and hot stage Raman spectroscopic study. Thermochimica Acta, 419(1-2): p. 109-114.
        • Robertstown
Noble R.J., Just J. and Johnson J. E., (1983), Catalogue of South Australian Minerals-1983, Government Printer, Adelaide, South Australia.
  • Victoria
    • Rural City of Wangaratta
      • Whitfield
W. D. Birch and D. A. Henry in Phosphate Minerals of Victoria, p.83-90.
  • Western Australia
    • Dandaragan Shire
      • Dandaragan
Sue Koepke collection
Collection of NHM, Vienna
    • Gingin Shire
Simpson, E. S. (1920): Gearksutite at Gingin, Western Australia. Mineralogical Magazine 19, 23-39.
    • Meekatharra Shire
      • Milgun Station
Peter Downes, WA Museum
    • Port Hedland Shire
      • Strelley Station
Calderwood, M.A., Grguric, B.A., Jacobson, M.I., (2007) Guidebook to the Pegmatites of Western Australia. Hesperian Press, Carlisle, Western Australia.
  • Minas Gerais
    • Conselheiro Pena
      • Ferruginha
sergio varvello collection
    • Divino das Laranjeiras
      • Linópolis
Cassedanne, J.P. (1983): Famous mineral localities: The Córrego Frio mine and vicinity, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Mineralogical Record, 14 (4): 227-237
    • Galiléia
      • Sapucaia do Norte
Cassedanne, J.P. & Baptista, A. (1999): Famous Mineral Localities: The Sapucaia Pegmatite Minas Gerais, Brazil. Mineralogical Record, 30: 347-360 + 365
  • Paraíba
    • Borborema mineral province
      • Picuí
Sergio Varvello collection
  • Ontario
    • Hastings Co.
      • Madoc area
        • Madoc Township
Ontario Mineral deposit Inventory MDI31C12SE00022
Czech Republic
  • Central Bohemian Region
    • Beroun District
      • Svatá Dobrotivá (St Benigna)
A. Tomwek
    • Kutná Hora District
Povondra, P., Pivec, E. (eds.) et al.: Přibyslavice peraluminuous granite. Acta universitatis carolinae, Geologica, 1987, no. 3, s . 183 – 283.
  • Karlovy Vary Region
    • Cheb District
      • Lázně Kynžvart
Černý, P., Veselovský, F.: Pegmatit Bílý kámen (Weisser Stein) u Kynžvartu. Minerál, 2000, roč. 8, č. 1, s. 10-16.
  • Liberec Region
    • Semily District
      • Jilemnice
Škoda, R., Rus, P.: Revize dufrenitu z Poniklé. Minerál, 2010, roč. 18, č. 2, s. 119-123.
  • Pardubice Region
    • Pardubice District
Prachař, I.: Současný stav výskytu nerostů ve Chvaleticích. Acta musei Reginaehradecensis, série A: vědy přírodní, 1981, roč. XVI., s. 99-102.
  • Plzeň Region
    • Domažlice District
Weber, A.: Fosfáty z pegmatitů jz. Čech. Rozpravy II. třídy České akademie, 1948, roč. 58, č. 1.
    • Rokycany District
Janouš, F.: Minerály z Kněží hory u Těškova (okres Rokycany), Minerál, 1995, roč. 3, č. 6, s. 367-369.
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Allier
      • Ébreuil
        • Échassières
          • Beauvoir quarry
Chollet Pascal collection
Pierre Le Roch & Jean-Marc Johannet collections
Walenta, K. & Binder, W. (1980): Kidwellit und Dufrenit aus den Mines de Montmins bei Echassiéres (französisches Zentralmassiv). Aufschluss 31, 51-54.; Le Règne Minéral, (33), 5-25.
  • Brittany
    • Finistère
      • Scaër
Chauris, L. (2014): Minéraux de Bretagne, Les Editions du Piat, 85.
    • Morbihan
      • Plumelin
Pierre Le Roc'h & Jean-Marc Johannet collections
  • Nouvelle-Aquitaine
    • Creuse
      • Soumans
        • Montebras
Patureau, J., Chiappero, P-J. & Lebocey, J. (2011): Mines et minéraux de Montebras, Soumans, Creuse. Le Règne Minéral. 99, 5-33
    • Deux-Sèvres
      • La Chapelle Largeau
Le Cahier des micromonteurs, 2002, N°75, pp 8-25 / Johannet J.-M. (2006) Belles découvertes de dufrénite en Deux-Sèvres. Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 93, 72-76. (in French)
      • Le Temple
Le Cahier des micromonteurs, 2002, N°75, pp 8-25
    • Haute-Vienne
Brongniart A: Tab. Espèces Min.(1833) p. 20
      • Bessines-sur-Gartempe
      • Razès
        • Chanteloube
          • Vilatte Quarries (La Vilate)
Boisson, J. M. (1988) - Les monts d'Ambazac, Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, (2), 3-33. F-X Chatenet, J.M. Boisson, F.Husson, J.Patureau, J.Lebocey. Minéralogie des pegmatites des Monts d'Ambazac. Le Règne Minéral HS 2008
Guide geologique de la Haute Vienne, musee municipal de Limoges, Limoges, 1967
      • Saint-Sylvestre
  • Occitanie
    • Pyrénées-Orientales
Berbain,C., Riley, T., Favreau, G., (2012): Phosphates des pegmatites du massif des Albères (Pyrénées-Orientales). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs. 117, 121-172
        • Collioure (Cotlliure)
BERBAIN. C, RILEY. T, FAVREAU. G, (2012) Phosphates des pegmatites du massif des Albères. Ed Association Française de Microminéralogie
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Freiburg
      • Ortenaukreis
        • Oberwolfach
          • Rankach valley
Walenta, K. (1992): Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 336 pp. (in German)
  • Bavaria
    • Lower Bavaria
      • Regen
        • Zwiesel
          • Rabenstein
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 721; Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Upper Franconia
      • Wunsiedel in Fichtelgebirge
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Amberg-Sulzbach
        • Auerbach in der Oberpfalz
Stanjek, H. (1983): Auerbach/Oberpfalz. Phosphatmineralien aus der Grube Leonie. Lapis 8 (3), 9-18; 42. (in German); Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
          • Nitzlbuch (Nitzelbuch)
Dana 7:II:772,803,960.
      • Neustadt an der Waldnaab
        • Pleystein
Dill, H.G., Weber, B. (2009), Pleystein-City on Pegmatite, 4th International Symposium on Granitic Pegmatites, Recife, Brazil.
        • Waidhaus
          • Hagendorf
      • Tirschenreuth
        • Bärnau
Laubmann, H., and Steinmetz, H. (1920): Zeitschrift für Krystallographie und Mineralogie 55, 523-586
  • Hesse
    • Lahn-Dill
      • Wetzlar
        • Waldgirmes
Dana 6: 797, 823; Dana 7:II:874, 960.
        • Weilburg
          • Essershausen
Blaß, G. (2002): Eine neue Phosphatmineralien-Paragenese von der Grube Mark bei Essershausen, mittleres Lahngebiet, Taunus. Mineralien-Welt, 13 (6), 18-43. (in German)
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Arnsberg
      • Siegen-Wittgenstein
        • Siegen
          • Eiserfeld
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
      • Soest
        • Warstein
          • Hirschberg
D. Pawlowski: "Mineralfundstellen im Sauerland", Weise (Munich), 1991
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Altenkirchen
      • Bürdenbach
Weiss: "Mineralienfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
      • Herdorf
        • Dermbach
Hucko, S. (2010): Phosphatparagenesen auf Brauneisensteingängen am Windhahn. Mineralien-Welt 21 (2), 14-25.
S. Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990; Overkott, T. & Reinhardt, M. (2007): Dufrenit vom Hollerter Zug im Siegerland. Lapis 32 (11), 42.
      • Kirchen
        • Brachbach
Hucko, S. (2010): Phosphatparagenesen auf Brauneisensteingängen am Windhahn. Mineralien-Welt 21 (2), 14-25.
    • Bernkastel-Wittlich
      • Bernkastel-Kues
        • Kleinich
Marcus Voigt Collection
    • Westerwaldkreis
      • Linz am Rhein
        • Rheinbreitbach
Weiss: "Mineralienfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Harz
      • Blankenburg
        • Hüttenrode
Schaarschmidt, H. (2014). Bergbau Hüttenrode, Harz: Kristalldrusen im Eisenerz. Lapis, vol.39, H.4, pp.19-23.
  • Saxony
    • Görlitz
      • Rengersdorf
T. Witzke & T. Giesler (1993): Dufrenit und Opal von Rengersdorf/Lausitz.- Mineralien-Welt 4 (5), 14
    • Vogtland
      • Oelsnitz
        • Hartmannsgrün
Pestel, S., Graichen, R. (2012) Die Dufrénite der Thekla-Fundgrube zu Hauptmannsgrün. Mineralienwelt, 23(5), 18-23.
      • Reichenbach
        • Neumark
          • Hauptmannsgrün
U. Ludwig, Chemnitz
  • Thuringia
    • Saale-Orla-Kreis
      • Bad Lobenstein
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
Germany/Czech Republic
  • Vogtland
    • Hirschberg
      • Ullersreuth
Witzke, T., Rüger, F., Martin, M., Graf, J., and Baum, M. (2001): Ullersreuth, ein traditionelles thüringisches Bergbaugebiet. Lapis 26(12), 13-27.
Witzke, T., Rüger, F., Martin, M., Graf, J., and Baum, M. (2001): Ullersreuth, ein traditionelles thüringisches Bergbaugebiet. Lapis 26(12), 13-27.
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
Kolitsch, U., Rieck, B., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fabritz, K. H., Blaß, G. & Gröbner, J. (2014): Neufunde aus dem altem Bergbau und den Schlacken von Lavrion (I). Mineralien-Welt 25 (1), 60-75 (in German).
          • Agios Konstantinos [St Constantine] (Kamariza)
  • Heves County
    • Mátra Mts
      • Gyöngyössolymos
Körmendy Regina (2011): A Cseternás-bérci és Szén-pataki ércesedés nyomon követése (2011. augusztusi, októberi és novemberi kutatások eredményei). Lelőhely 2011/VII. p.8-18
  • Sardinia
    • Carbonia-Iglesias Province
      • Domusnovas
        • Oridda
Stara P., Rizzo R. and Tanca G. (1996): Iglesiente e Arburese. Miniere e minerali. E.M.Sa. Ed., pagg. 105-106.
    • South Sardinia Province
      • Fluminimaggiore
        • Oridda Valley
Fadda, A.F.(1989): Sardegna pietre dure e minerali. CO.EDI.SAR. Cagliari
  • Ibaraki
    • Kasumigaura City
      • Chiyoda-machi
Matsubara, S. & Kato, A. (1980) Koubutsugaku Zasshi, 14, 269-286.
  • Amoron'i Mania
    • Ambatofinandrahana
      • Mandrosonoro
Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la Minéralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive, p.32
  • Durango
    • Rodeo Municipality
      • Rodeo
        • Abasolo
Michael Shannon specimens
  • Drâa-Tafilalet
    • Ouarzazate Province
      • Tazenakht
GAUDEFROY, C. (1955) Description provisoire des espèces minérales du Maroc - IV. Notes Serv. géol. Maroc, 125, 154-155
  • Marrakesh-Safi
    • Rehamna Province
      • Jebilet Mtn (Djebilet Mtn)
Fontan, F. (1978) : Etude minéralogique et essais expérimentaux sur les phosphates de fer et de manganèse des pegmatites des Jebilet (Maroc) et des Pyrénées (France), PhD thesis, Toulouse, 272 p.
  • Erongo Region
    • Dâures
Von Bezing, L., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern. 409 (in English).
Der Aufschluss 36:117-119
    • Karibib
      • Okatjimukuju Farm 55 (Friedrichsfelde Farm)
P. Keller and O. von Knorring, Eur. J. Mineral. , 1989, 1, pp. 567-593.
  • Oshikoto Region
    • Tsumeb
  • Lower Silesian Voivodeship
    • Świdnica Co.
      • Gmina Świdnica
Włodek, A., Grochowina, A., Gołębiowska, B., Pieczka, A. (2015): A phosphate-bearing pegmatite from Lutomia and its relationships to other pegmatites of the Góry Sowie Block, southwestern Poland. Journal of Geosciences: 60: 45-72
        • Michałkowa pegmatites
Pieczka, A., Włodek, A., Gołębiowska, B., Szełęg, E., Szuszkiewicz, A., Ilnicki, S., Nejbert, K., Turniak, K. (2015): Phosphate-bearing pegmatites in the Góry Sowie Block and adjacent areas, Sudetes, SW Poland. 7th International Symposium on Granitic Pegmatites, PEG 2015 Książ, Poland. Abstracts: 77-78
  • Guarda
    • Gouveia
      • Folgosinho
Alves, P (2016). Folgosinho: Fosfatos secundarios de la mina Sitio do Castelo. Revista de Minerales 2015/2, 6-27. (in Spanish).
  • Viana do Castelo
    • Ponte de Lima
      • Cabração
Pedro Alves collection
    • Viana do Castelo
BELLO, A. d'O. (1909-1913) Mineraux portugais. Bull. Soc. Portugaise Sci. Nat., 2, 272-280; 4, 68-78; 6, 90-103; Mineral samples in the Collection of the IST (Instituto Superior Técnico); Pedro Alves, collection and in situ observations.
  • Vila Real
Martins, T., Lima, A., Simmons, W.B. Falster, A.U. & Noronha, F. (2011): Geochemical fractionation of Nb-Ta oxides in Li-bearing pegmatites from the Barroso-Alvão pegmatite field, Northern Portugal. Canadian Mineralogist. 49, 777-791
  • Viseu
    • Mangualde
Rewitzer, C. and Röschl, N. (1984) Portugal. Lapis, 9(12).; van den Berg, W. (1992) Enkele vermaarde mineralenvindplaatsen in Midden-Portugal. Gea, 1992(1), 38-39 (in Dutch).
    • São Pedro do Sul
      • Manhouce
Pedro Alves collection and/or information
Pedro Alves collection
  • Brașov
    • Racoş Commune
Szakáll, S., Kristály, F., 2010. Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Sfântu Gheorghe-Miercurea Ciuc-Târgu Mureş. 2010.
  • Harghita
    • Odorheiu Secuiesc (Székelyudvarhely; Oderhellen)
      • Racoş (Racoşu de Jos)
Szakáll, S. & Kristály, F., Eds. (2010): Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Csík County Nature and Conservation Society, Miercurea-Ciuc, Romania, 321 pp.
Szakáll, S. & Kristály, F., Eds. (2010): Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Csík County Nature and Conservation Society, Miercurea-Ciuc, Romania, 321 pp
  • Southern Province
    • Gitarama
Royal Museum for Central Africa, Belgium Collection, # 9915
  • Western Province
    • Ngororero District
      • Gatumba
Daltry, V.D.C. and von Knorring, O. (1998) Type-mineralogy of Rwanda with particular reference to the Buranga pegmatite. Geologica Belgica: 1: 9-15.
South Africa
  • Northern Cape
    • Namakwa District (Namaqualand)
Minerals of South Africa
  • Western Cape
    • Cape Town
      • Hout Bay
Minerals of South Africa
  • Castile-La Mancha
    • Ciudad Real
      • Minas de Horcajo
Sáinz de Baranda, B., Palero, F.J., García, G. (2004): El Horcajo, las piromorfitas más famosas del mundo. Bocamina, 13, 32-68.
  • Castile and Leon
    • Salamanca
      • Golpejas-Vega de Tirados
        • Golpejas Mining group
Calvo, M. (2015): Minerales y Minas de España. Vol. VII, Fosfatos, arseniatos y vanadatos. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas de Madrid - Fundación Gómez Pardo. 479 pp.
  • Catalonia
    • Barcelona
      • Baix Llobregat
Camprubí, A., Costa, F., Melgarejo, J.C., 1994. Mineralizaciones de fosfatos férrico-alumínicos de Gavà (Catalunya): tipología. Boletín Geológico y Minero, v. 105-5, p. 444-453.
          • Bruguers
Tritlla, J. (1987) “Sobre la presencia de dufrenita en las minas de Bruguers (Prov. de Barcelona)”. Mineralogistes de Catalunya, Vol.III, n.8, pp.208-209
  • Norrbotten County
    • Kiruna
      • Kiruna district
        • Svappavaara
No reference listed
      • Kiruna town
No reference listed
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • Linkinhorne
        • Minions
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 802, 874, 950.; Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Kinch, E., Butler, F.H., and Miers, H.A. (1886) On a new variety of mineral from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 7, n° 33, 65-70.; Kinch, E. (1888) On dufrenite from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 8, n° 37, 112-115.; Frondel, C. (1949) The dufrenite problem. American Mineralogist, vol. 34, p. 513-540.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. (1957) Rockbridgeite from Cornwall and Devon. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 31, n° 236, 429-430.
P D Trebilcock.
      • Treverbyn
        • Stenalees
Elton, N. J. (1998): Barbosalite, frondelite and other phosphates from Gunheath China Clay Pit, St Austell, Cornwall, England. Journal of the Russell Society 7, 15-18. ; Mineralogical Magazine 1996 60 : 517-518.
    • Cumbria
      • Allerdale
        • Caldbeck
          • Coombe Height
Hartley, J. (1984) A list of minerals associated with the ore deposits of the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria. Transactions of the Leeds Geological Association, 10(3), 22-39.; Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. Natural History Museum Publications, London, 160 pp. (referring to Hartley, 1984).
Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1991) Famous Mineral Localities: Pyromorphite Group Minerals from the Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Mineralogical Record, 22(2), 105-121.
    • Devon
      • West Devon
        • Gulworthy
Kingsbury, A.W.G. (1957) Rockbridgeite from Cornwall and Devon. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 31, n° 236, 429-430.
  • Alabama
    • Cherokee Co.
Rob Lavinsky
Barwood, H. & Hajek, B. (1978): Notes of Some New Occurences in Alabama. Mineralogical Record. 9: 388-391; Min.Rec.:20(5):361.
Mineralogy of Alabama Geol Surv Ala. Bull 120
      • Rock Run
        • Wolfden Mountain
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 874; Rocks & Minerals: 70(5): 320-333.; Barwood, H. & Hajek, B. (1978): Notes of Some New Occurences in Alabama. Mineralogical Record. 9: 388-391
Rocks & Min 70:5 pp 320-333
  • Arkansas
    • Polk Co.
Rocks and Minerals, (1988) 63:104-125
      • Shady
Rocks & Min.:64:297-298.
      • Three Oaks Gap
Rocks & Minerals: 63: 120.
  • Georgia
    • Burke Co.
      • Girard District
Jason Smith & M.E. Ciriotti (2005) []
    • Polk Co.
Rocks & Minerals 54:4 pp161-165
  • Missouri
    • Crawford Co.
      • Missouri Brown Iron Belt
Dana 6: 1083.
      • Steelville
Sherwood, M. D., & Williams, G. A. (1998). Missouri mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 73(2), 98-117.
  • Nevada
    • Humboldt Co.
      • Buffalo Mountain Mining District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Rocks & Minerals, Nov. 1999
    • Pershing Co.
      • Humboldt Range
        • Willard Mining District
[MinRec 32:297]
  • New Hampshire
    • Grafton Co.
      • Alexandria
Rocks & Min.: 17:250.; Rocks & Minerals (2005) 80:242-261 New Hampshire Mineral Locality Index
      • Groton
Meyers & Stewart (1956) Geology of New Hampshire, part III.
Rocks & Min.: 16:208-211.; Mineralogical Record (1973) 4:103-130; USGS Prof Paper 255; USGS Prof Paper 353
    • Hillsborough Co.
      • Deering
Meyers & Stewart,1956. Geology of NH, part III.; Rocks & Minerals (2005) 80:242-261 New Hampshire Mineral Locality Index
  • New Jersey
    • Monmouth Co.
      • Holmdel
The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull. Vil. 3, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 81.
  • New Mexico
    • Grant Co.
Northrup, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
        • Santa Rita
Min Rec 26:5 p483; Mineralogical Magazine 60:787-793.; Rocks & Minerals 84:492-500
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • Sandoval Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
  • North Carolina
Genth,F.A and Kerr,W.C,1881,Minerals and Mineral Localities of North Carolina,Geologic Survey
    • Cleveland Co.
      • Kings Mountain Mining District
Wilson,W.F and Mckenzie,B.J ,1978, Mineral Collecting Sites in North Carolina,Information Circular 24
Jason Smith collection, Steve Adams collection Kesler,T.L.,1942,The Tin-Spodumene Belt Of The Carolinas:USGS Bulletion No.936-J
  • South Dakota
    • Custer Co.
      • Custer Mining District
        • Custer
Loomis, T. (2011), "News from the Black Hills, South Dakota", Mineral News, in press
        • Fourmile
Rocks & Minerals: 60: 117.
    • Lawrence Co.
      • Bald Mountain Mining District (Portland Mining District)
Loomis, T. (2011), "News from the Black Hills, South Dakota", Mineral News, in press
    • Pennington Co.
      • Hill City Mining District
USGS Bull 380D
      • Keystone Mining District
        • Keystone
Rocks & Minerals: 67(6): 380-388.
USGS Prof Paper 297B
  • Tennessee
    • Wayne Co.
      • Iron City
Travis A. Paris (2011) Tennessee mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 86, #4, 300-328.
  • Texas
Edwin B, Eckel (1938) The Brown Iron Ores of East Texas. USGS Bull. 902: 127-128 Arthur E. Smith (2009) The Mineralogy of Texas. Unpublished manuscript.
  • Virginia
    • Rockbridge Co.
      • Lyndhurst-Vesuvius Mining District
Kearns, L. E. and Penick, D. A. (1989): The Dixie Mine, Rockbridge County, Virginia. Rocks and Minerals, 64, 42-45. (also see Rocks & Min.:57:20-22 & 60:168); Watson(1907).
      • Midvale
        • South Mountain
Rocks&Min. 47:594 (1972)
Cannon, B. (1975): Minerals of Washington, p.83
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