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Arthur Earland
Ca3[CH2(COO)-CHOH(COO)-CH2(COO)]2 · 4H2O
White, pale yellow
Specific Gravity:
1.80 - 1.95
Crystal System:
Named in honor of Arthur Earland (3 November 1866, Lewisham, London, England, UK - 27 March 1958), British oceanographer and foraminifera specialist. He studied sediments from the Weddell Sea near Antarctica returned by the ship Scotia, and identified grains of the new mineral.
Chemically identical to calcium citrate tetrahydrate - a citric acid salt.

Occurs in unconsolidated ocean floor sediment at 2,580 meters in depth.

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Classification of EarlanditeHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
First Published:

A : Salts of organic acids
C : Benzine Salts

2 : Mellitates, Citrates, Cyanates, Acetates and Formates

31 : Oxalates, Citrates, Mellitates and Acetates
2 : Citrates

Physical Properties of EarlanditeHide

White, pale yellow
Hardness not determined.
1.80 - 1.95 g/cm3 (Measured)    1.96 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of EarlanditeHide

Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.515 nβ = 1.530 nγ = 1.580
Measured: 60° , Calculated: 50°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.065
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
r > v

Chemical Properties of EarlanditeHide

Ca3[CH2(COO)-CHOH(COO)-CH2(COO)]2 · 4H2O
IMA Formula:
Ca3(C6H5O7)2 · 4H2O

Crystallography of EarlanditeHide

Crystal System:
Cell Parameters:
a = 30.94 Å, b = 5.93 Å, c = 10.56 Å
β = 93.74°
a:b:c = 5.218 : 1 : 1.781
Unit Cell V:
1,933.36 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Veruginous, fine-grained nodules.
Crystal System determination based on observations on synthetic material. Class and Space Group not determined.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
15.5 Å(100)
8.5 Å(4)
7.7 Å(50)
6.4 Å(4)
5.2 Å(35)
3.09 Å(6)
4.74 Å(4)

Type Occurrence of EarlanditeHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Warty,fine-grained nodules.
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
The Natural History Museum, London, England: #1936,978, 1936,979. Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: #134573.U.S. National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C., USA: #105859, 162618.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Unconsolidated ocean sediments.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:
Bannister, F.A., Hey, M.H. (1936) Report on some crystalline components of the Weddell Sea deposits. Discovery Reports: 13: 60-69.

Other Language Names for EarlanditeHide


Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

10.AC.05MelliteAl2[C6(COO)6] · 16H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
10.AC.15PigotiteAl4C6H5O10 · 13H2O (?)

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for EarlanditeHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Bannister, F.A., Hey, M.H. (1936) Report on some crystalline components of the Weddell Sea deposits. Discovery Reports: 13: 60-69.
Foshag, W.F. (1937) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 22: 70-72.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 1105–1106.
Pogainis, E.M., E.H. Shaw (1957) The unit cell dimensions of tricalcium citrate tetrahydrate. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science: 36: 56–59.
Herdtweck, E., Kornprobst, T., Sieber, R., Straver, L., Plank, J. (2011) Crystal structure, synthesis, and properties of tri-calcium di-citrate
tetra-hydrate [Ca3(C6H5O7)2(H2O)2]·2H2O. Zeitschrift für Anorganische und Allgemeine Chemie: 637: 655–659.
Echigo, T., Kimata, M. (2010) Crystal chemistry and genesis of organic minerals: A review of oxalate and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon minerals. The Canadian Mineralogist: 48: 1329-1358.

Internet Links for EarlanditeHide

Localities for EarlanditeHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Antarctica (TL)
  • Western Antarctica
    • Weddell Sea
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1106.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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