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Elbaite

This page kindly sponsored by Henry Minot
Formula:
Na(Al1.5Li1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
System:
Trigonal
Colour:
Green, red to pink, ...
Lustre:
Vitreous, Resinous
Hardness:
Name:
Named after the type locality, the island of Elba, Italy

Classification of Elbaite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
9.CK.05

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
C : Cyclosilicates
K : [Si6O18]12- 6-membered single rings, with insular complex anions
Dana 7th ed.:
61.3.1.10
61.3.1.8

61 : CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
3 : Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
17.5.5

17 : Silicates Containing other Anions
5 : Borosilicates

Physical Properties of Elbaite

Vitreous, Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Green, red to pink, blue, orange, yellow, colourless
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Poor/Indistinct
on {1120} and {1011}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density:
2.9 - 3.1 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.069 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Elbaite

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.633 - 1.651 nε = 1.615 - 1.630
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.018 - 0.021
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
O- Pink, pale green, pale to deep blue
E- Colourless, yellow, olive-green, purplish

Chemical Properties of Elbaite

IMA Formula:
Na(Al1.5Li1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Fe,Mn,Cu,Ti,Ca,F

Crystallography of Elbaite

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3m - Ditrigonal Pyramidal
Space Group:
R3m
Cell Parameters:
a = 15.86(6) Å, c = 7.11(2) Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 0.448
Unit Cell Volume:
V 1,548.84 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
3
Morphology:
Prismatic to acicular
Twinning:
Rare on {1011}{4041}

Crystal Structure

Structure
Reference
Bosi F Agrosi G Lucchesi S Melchiorre G Scandale E (2005) Mn-tourmaline from island of Elba (Italy): Crystal chemistry. Sample: Elb2rim. American Mineralogist 90:1661-1668.

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More Crystal Structures
Click here to view more crystal structures at the American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Occurrences of Elbaite

Type Occurrence of Elbaite

Relationship of Elbaite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Dravite (see here)
Forms a series with Schorl (see here)
Forms a series with Liddicoatite (see here)
Other Members of Group:
AdachiiteCaFe3Al6(Si5AlO18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
BosiiteNaFe33+(Al4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
Chromium-draviteNa(Mg3)Cr63+(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Chromo-alumino-povondraiteNa(Cr3)(Al4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
DarrellhenryiteNa(LiAl2)Al6(BO3)3Si6O18(OH)3O
DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
FeruviteCa(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Fluor-buergeriteNa(Fe33+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3F
Fluor-draviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Fluor-elbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Fluor-feruviteCa(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Fluor-liddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Fluor-schorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Fluor-tsilaisiteNa(Mn2+)3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Fluor-uviteCa(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
LiddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
LucchesiiteCaFe32+ Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
Luinaite-(OH)Na(Fe2+)3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Magnesio-foitite(□,Na)(Mg2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
MaruyamaiteK(MgAl2)(Al5Mg)(BO3)3(Si6O18)(OH)3O
OleniteNa(Al3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3(OH)
Oxy-chromium-draviteNa(Cr)3(Cr4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
Oxy-draviteNa(MgAl2)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
Oxy-foitite□(Fe2+Al2)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
Oxy-rossmanite☐(LiAl2)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
Oxy-schorlNa(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
Oxy-uviteCaMg3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
Oxy-vanadium-draviteNa(V)3(V4Mg2)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3O
PovondraiteNaFe33+(Mg2Fe43+)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
Rossmanite☐(LiAl2)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
TsilaisiteNa(Mn2+)3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
UM2000-64-SiO:BFeHKMgK, Mg, Fe, Si, B, O, H
Unnamed (Pb-dominant Tourmaline)(Pb,Na)(Li,Al)3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F,OH)
UviteCa(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F/OH)
Vanadio-oxy-chromium-draviteNa(V)3(Cr4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
Vanadio-oxy-draviteNaV3(Al4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
9.CK.Fluor-schorlNaFe32+Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
9.CK.DarrellhenryiteNaLiAl2Al6(BO3)3Si6O18(OH)3O
9.CK.AdachiiteCaFe32+Al6(Si5AlO18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
9.CK.05Fluor-buergeriteNaFe33+Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3F
9.CK.05Chromium-draviteNa(Mg3)Cr63+(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
9.CK.05DraviteNaMg3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
9.CK.05FeruviteCaFe32+(Al5Mg)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
9.CK.05Foitite◻(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
9.CK.05LiddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
9.CK.05OleniteNaAl3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(O3)OH
9.CK.05PovondraiteNaFe33+(Fe43+Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
9.CK.05SchorlNaFe32+Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
9.CK.05Magnesio-foitite◻(Mg2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
9.CK.05Rossmanite◻(LiAl2)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
9.CK.05Oxy-vanadium-draviteNa(V)3(V4Mg2)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3O
9.CK.05Oxy-draviteNa(Al2Mg)(Al5Mg)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
9.CK.05Oxy-rossmanite☐(LiAl2)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
9.CK.05Chromo-alumino-povondraiteNaCr3(Al4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
9.CK.05Fluor-draviteNaMg3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
9.CK.05Fluor-uviteCaMg3(Al5Mg)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
9.CK.10Abenakiite-(Ce)Na26Ce6(SiO3)6(PO4)6(CO3)6(SO2)O
9.CK.15ScawtiteCa7(Si3O9)2(CO3) · 2H2O
9.CK.20Steenstrupine-(Ce)Na14Ce6Mn22+Fe23+Zr(PO4)7Si12O36(OH)2 · 3H2O
9.CK.20Thorosteenstrupine(Ca,Th,Mn)3Si4O11F · 6H2O
17.5.1ManandoniteLi2Al4(Si2AlB)O10(OH)8
17.5.2ReedmergneriteNaBSi3O8
17.5.3SearlesiteNaBSi2O5(OH)2
17.5.4OleniteNaAl3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(O3)OH
17.5.6KalborsiteK6Al4BSi6O20(OH)4Cl
17.5.7BoromuscoviteKAl2(Si3B)O10(OH)2
17.5.8PoudretteiteKNa2(B3Si12)O30
17.5.9LiddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
17.5.10DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
17.5.11DanburiteCaB2Si2O8
17.5.12HowliteCa2B5SiO9(OH)5
17.5.13BakeriteCa4(H5B5Si3O20)
17.5.14OyeliteCa10B2Si8O29 · 12H2O
17.5.15Kornerupine(Mg,Fe2+,Al,◻)10(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH,F)
17.5.16HarkeriteCa12Mg4Al(SiO4)4(BO3)3(CO3)5 · H2O
17.5.17SerendibiteCa4(Mg6Al6)O4[Si6B3Al3O36]
17.5.18Stillwellite-(Ce)CeBSiO5
17.5.19Tadzhikite-(Ce)
17.5.20Melanocerite-(Ce)Ce5(SiO4,BO4)3(OH,O)
17.5.21Okanoganite-(Y)(Y,REE,Ca,Na,Th)16(Fe3+,Ti)(Si,B,P)10(O,OH)38F10
17.5.22Tritomite-(Ce)Ce5(SiO4,BO4)3(OH,O)
17.5.23Tritomite-(Y)Y5(SiO4,BO4)3(O,OH,F)
17.5.24Cappelenite-(Y)BaY6B6Si3O24F2
17.5.25DumortieriteAlAl6BSi3O18
17.5.26Holtite(Ta0.60.4)Al6BSi3O18
17.5.27DraviteNaMg3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
17.5.28 FerridraviteNaFe33+(Mg2Fe43+)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
17.5.29Axinite-(Mg)Ca4Mg2Al4[B2Si8O30](OH)2
17.5.30UviteCa(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F/OH)
17.5.31GarrelsiteNaBa3B7Si2O16(OH)4
17.5.32TienshaniteK(Na,K,◻)9Ca2Ba6Mn62+Ti6B12Si36O114(O,OH,F)11
17.5.33LeucospheniteNa4BaTi2B2Si10O30
17.5.34TaramelliteBa4(Fe3+,Ti)4O2[B2Si8O27]Clx; x = 0 to 1
17.5.35TitantaramelliteBa4(Ti,Fe3+,Mg)4(O,OH)2[B2Si8O27]Clx
17.5.36NagashimaliteBa4(V3+,Ti)4(O,OH)2[B2Si8O27]Cl
17.5.37Chromium-draviteNa(Mg3)Cr63+(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
17.5.38WawayandaiteCa6Be9Mn22+BSi6O23(OH,Cl)15
17.5.39WerdingiteMg2Al14Si4B4O37
17.5.40Axinite-(Mn)Ca4Mn22+Al4[B2Si8O30](OH)2
17.5.41Axinite
17.5.42TinzeniteCa2Mn42+Al4[B2Si8O30](OH)2
17.5.44SchorlNaFe32+Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
17.5.45Fluor-buergeriteNaFe33+Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3F
17.5.46FeruviteCaFe32+(Al5Mg)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
17.5.47Axinite-(Fe)Ca4Fe22+Al4[B2Si8O30](OH)2
17.5.48HomiliteCa2Fe2+B2(SiO4)2O2
17.5.49GrandidieriteMgAl3O2(BO3)SiO4
17.5.50Hyalotekite(Ba,Pb,K)4(Ca,Y)2(B,Be)2(Si,B)2Si8O28F
17.5.51Hellandite-(Y)(Ca,REE)4Y2Al(Be,Li)2-xB4Si4O22(OH)2
61.3.1.1Foitite◻(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
61.3.1.2Magnesio-foitite◻(Mg2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
61.3.1.3Rossmanite◻(LiAl2)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
61.3.1.4LiddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
61.3.1.5UviteCa(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F/OH)
61.3.1.5Fluor-uviteCaMg3(Al5Mg)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
61.3.1.6FeruviteCaFe32+(Al5Mg)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
61.3.1.7Fluor-buergeriteNaFe33+Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3F
61.3.1.8PovondraiteNaFe33+(Fe43+Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
61.3.1.9OleniteNaAl3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(O3)OH
61.3.1.11DraviteNaMg3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
61.3.1.12SchorlNaFe32+Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
61.3.1.13Chromium-draviteNa(Mg3)Cr63+(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
61.3.1.14Oxy-vanadium-draviteNa(V)3(V4Mg2)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3O

Other Names for Elbaite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Elbait
Simplified Chinese:锂电气石
Spanish:Elbaita

Other Information

Electrical:
Pyroelectric, piezoelectric
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
Gemstone

References for Elbaite

Reference List:
Klaproth, M.H. (1810) Untersuchung des Rubellites aus Mähren, Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper, Fünfter Band, Rottmann Berlin, 86-90

Bradley, J.E.S. & O. Bradley (1955) Observations on the colouring of pink and green zoned tourmaline. Mineralogical Magazine: 30: 26-38.

Barsanov, G.P. and Yakovleva, M.E. (1966) Elbaite and certain rare varieties of tourmaline. Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Mineralogicheshkii Muzei, Moscow: 17: 3-25.

Manning, P.G. (1969) An optical absorption study of the origin of colour and pleochroism in pink and brown tourmalines. Canadian Mineralogist: 9: 678-690.

Donnay, Gabrielle & R. Barton (1972) Refinement of the crystal structure of elbaite and the mechanism of tourmaline solid solution: Tschermaks Mineral. Petrogr. Mitt.: 18: 273-286.

Gorskaya, M.G., Frank-Kamenetskaya, O.V., Rozhdestvenskaya, I.V., and Frank-Kamenetskii, V.A. (1982) Refinement of the crystal structure of Al-rich elbaite, and some aspects of the crystal chemistry of tourmalines. Soviet Physics: Crystallography: 27: 63-66.

Grew, E.S., and Anovitz, L.M. (1996) BORON: Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, second edition, as revised (2002).

Agrosì, G., Bosi, F., Lucchesi, S., Melchiorre, G., and Scandale, E. (2006) Mn-tourmaline crystals from island of Elba (Italy): Growth history and growth marks. American Mineralogist: 91: 944-952.

Ertl., A. (2008) About the nomenclature and the type locality of elbaite. Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Mineralogischen Gesellschaft, 154, 35-44. [http://www.uibk.ac.at/mineralogie/oemg/bd_154/154_035-044.pdf]

Fantini, C., Tavares, M.C., Krambrock, K., Moreira, R.L., and Righi, A. (2014): Raman and infrared study of hydroxyl sites in natural uvite, fluor-uvite, magnesio-foitite, dravite and elbaite tourmalines. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 41, 247-254.

Internet Links for Elbaite

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https://www.mindat.org/min-1364.html
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Specimens:
The following Elbaite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Elbaite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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