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Emerald

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Formula:
Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Crystal System:
Hexagonal
Name:
Emerald has priority over beryl as a mineral name. Emerald was known in antiquity and was prized as a gem. In the 1790s, Louis Nicolas Vauquelin, the discoverer of chromium, demonstrated that emerald and beryl were essentially the same chemical compound and that emeralds, sensu strictu, contained chromium. Nonetheless, emerald continued to be listed as the preferred species name for many decades and emerald finally began to be used as a variety name for beryl by the 1830s. New emerald reports referring to ordinary green or even blue beryl persisted in the amateur literature into the twentieth century. In the latter twentieth century, it was discovered that some emeralds contain more vanadium than chromium.
A variety of Beryl

A green gem variety of Beryl, highly sought after as a precious gem stone. The majority of the world's gem quality Emeralds come from the Muzo area of Colombia.

The colour in Emerald is caused by trace amounts of a chromophore such as Chromium or Vanadium.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Emerald.


Hide all sections | Show all sections

Chemical Properties of EmeraldHide

Formula:
Be3Al2(Si6O18)

Crystallography of EmeraldHide

Crystal System:
Hexagonal

Synonyms of EmeraldHide

Other Language Names for EmeraldHide

Arabic:زمرد
Bulgarian:Изумруд
Catalan:Maragda
Czech:Smaragd
Danish:Smaragd
Dutch:Smaragd
Esperanto:Smeraldo
Finnish:Smaragdi
French:Émeraude
German:Smaragd
Indonesian:Zamrud
Italian:Smeraldo
Lithuanian:Smaragdas
Norwegian (Bokmål):Smaragd
Polish:Szmaragd
Portuguese:Esmeralda
Romanian:Smarald
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Смарагд
Simplified Chinese:绿宝石
祖母绿
Slovak:Smaragd
Slovenian:Smaragd
Spanish:Esmeralda
Swedish:Smaragd

Varieties of EmeraldHide

Trapiche emeraldVariety showing six-spoked growth features.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Calcite150 photos of Emerald associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Quartz83 photos of Emerald associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Pyrite62 photos of Emerald associated with Pyrite on mindat.org.
Biotite18 photos of Emerald associated with Biotite on mindat.org.
Schorl15 photos of Emerald associated with Schorl on mindat.org.
Rutile14 photos of Emerald associated with Rutile on mindat.org.
Molybdenite12 photos of Emerald associated with Molybdenite on mindat.org.
Beryl11 photos of Emerald associated with Beryl on mindat.org.
Phenakite9 photos of Emerald associated with Phenakite on mindat.org.
Feldspar Group8 photos of Emerald associated with Feldspar Group on mindat.org.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for EmeraldHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Sinkankas (1981) "Emeralds and other Beryls".
Extra Lapis English No. 2 "Emeralds of the world"
Extra Lapis No. 22 (in German)
Le, T.-T. H. (2008): Microscopic, chemical and spectroscopic investigations on emeralds of various origins. Dissertation, Universität Mainz, Germany, 113 pp. [http://ubm.opus.hbz-nrw.de/volltexte/2008/1673/pdf/diss.pdf]
Ringsrud, R. (2009): Emeralds, a passionate guide. Green View Press, 250 pp.

Internet Links for EmeraldHide

Localities for EmeraldHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Afghanistan
 
  • Badakhshan Province (Badakshan Province; Badahsan Province)
    • Jurm District
Rob Lavinsky
  • Konar Province (Kunar Province; Konarh Province; Konarha Province; Nuristan)
    • Narang District
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
  • Laghman Province (Lagman Province; Nuristan)
    • Dawlat Shah District
Shigley, J.E., Laurs, B.M., Janse, A.J.A., Elen, S., and Dirlam, D.M. (2010): Gems & Gemmology 46(3), 188-216
  • Nuristan Province (Nurestan Province; Nooristan Province; Nuristan)
    • Nurgaram District
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
  • Panjsher Province (Panjsheer Province; Panjshir Province; Panjsher Valley; Panjshir Valley)
    • Bazarak District
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp61-62 ; Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Sabot B, Cheilletz A, de Donato P, Banks D, Levresse G, Barrès O, 2000. Afghan emeralds face Colombian cousins. Chronique de la Recherche Minière, 541, 111-114.
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
    • Khinj District
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Argentina
 
  • Tucumán
    • Tafí del Valle Department
      • Cerro Pichao
Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry´s collection.
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Arrawatta Co.
Brown R.E., Brownlow J.W. and Stroud W.J. (1997) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Inverell Metallogenic Map (SH/56-5). Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
    • Clive Co.
      • Torrington
Personal collection Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
        • Fielders Hill
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
    • Gough Co.
      • Emmaville (Vegetable Creek)
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
      • Strathbogie
Brown R.E., Brownlow J.W. and Stroud W.J. (1997) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Inverell Metallogenic Map (SH/56-5). Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
      • Torrington district
Barnes R.G., Brown R.E., Brownlow J.W., Henley H.F., and Stroud W.J. (2001) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7). Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Barnes R.G., Brown R.E., Brownlow J.W., Henley H.F., and Stroud W.J. (2001) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7). Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Barnes, R.G., Brown, R.E., Brownlow, J.W., Henley, H.F., and Stroud, W.J. (2001) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7). Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Barnes R.G., Brown R.E., Brownlow J.W., Henley H.F., and Stroud W.J. (2001) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7). Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-10, SH/56-11), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
Barnes R.G., Brown R.E., Brownlow J.W., Henley H.F., and Stroud W.J. (2001) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7). Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
    • Selwyn Co.
      • Tumbarumba
Wagga Wagga Mine Data Sheets, 1982
  • Tasmania
    • Break O'Day municipality
      • St Helens district
Bottrill, R.S. & Baker, W.E. (2008) A Catalogue of the Minerals of Tasmania. Bull. 73. Minerals Resources Tasmania
  • Western Australia
    • Coolgardie Shire
      • Coolgardie
R Bottrill collection
      • Gibraltar Goldfield
Min News 21:7 p 8
    • Cue Shire
      • Meka Station
Pegmatites of Western Australia; M Jacobson, M Calderwood, B Grguric; Hesperian Press, Perth, 2007.
      • Poona
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Jacobson, M., Calderwood, M., Grguric, B.(2007): Pegmatites of Western Australia
Jacobson, M., Calderwood, M., Grguric, B.(2007): Pegmatites of Western Australia
Fetherston, J., Stocklmayer, S., Stocklmayer, V.(2013): Gemstones of WA, Geological Survey of WA
Fred Rose 2012
Jacobson, M., Calderwood, M., Grguric, B.(2007): Pematites of Western Australia
Jacobson, M., Calderwood, M., Grguric, B.(2007): Pegmatites of Western Australia
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Fetherston, J., Stocklmayer, S., Stocklmayer, V(2013): Gemstones of WA, Geological Survey of WA
Fetherston, J., Stocklmayer, S., Stocklmayer, V.(2013): Gemstones of WA, Geological Survey of WA
    • East Pilbara Shire
      • Shaw River District
Pegmatites of Western Australia; Mark I Jacobson, Mark A Calderwood, Benjamin A Grguric; Hesperian Press, Perth, 2007
    • Menzies Shire
      • Riverina Station
; Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
    • Port Hedland Shire
      • Abydos Station
        • Wodgina
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
      • Wallareenya Station
        • Pilgangoora (Pilgangoora MIning Centre; Lynas Find; McPhees Patch; Mount York)
Pegmatites of Western Australia; M Jacobson, M Calderwood, B Grguric; Hesperian Press, Perth, 2007.
    • Yalgoo Shire
      • Noongal Station
Pegmatites of Western Australia; M Jacobson, M Calderwood, B Grguric,; Hesperian Press, Perth, 2007.
Simpson, E.S. (1948), Minerals of Western Australia, Vol 1, p225
Austria
 
  • Salzburg
    • Hohe Tauern
      • Felben valley
        • Scheelite deposit
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
      • Habach valley
        • Breitfuß - Großer Finagl area
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
        • Nasenkopf
          • Leckbachgraben (Leckbachrinne)
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
Harjo Neutkens collection
E. Y. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of Gems, 84
      • Hollersbach valley
        • Scharnbachgraben
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
      • Untersulzbach valley
        • Ascham Alp - Breitfuß - Sonntagskopf area
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
G. Grundmann et al.: Lapis 16(2):37-45 (1991)
Brazil
 
  • Bahia
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Mineralogical Record (1977) 8:382-387
Mineralogical Record (1977) 8:382-387
    • Brumado (Bom Jesus dos Meiras)
      • Serra das Éguas
Cassedanne, J.P. & Cassedanne, J.O. (1978): Famous mineral localities: The Brumado district, Bahia , Brazil. Mineralogical Record 9 : 196-205; Rob Lavinsky.
[www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]
    • Campo Formoso ultramafic complex
      • Campo Formoso
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
      • Pindobaçu
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 90
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 91
    • Pilão Arcado
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
  • Ceará
    • Tauá
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
  • Goiás
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 90
    • Pirenópolis
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
    • Porangatu
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 92
    • Santa Terezinha de Goiás district
      • Campos Verdes
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
  • Minas Gerais
    • Antônio Dias
      • Hematita
    • Conceição do Mato Dentro
      • São José de Brejaúba
Guimar˜aes, C.P. (1941) Djalmaite, a new radioactive mineral. Amer. Mineral., 26, 343–346.
    • Iron Quadrangle
      • Itabira
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Kanis, J. (2002): Piteiras, Brasilien: Erfolgreiche Smaragdsuche mit modernsten Methoden. Lapis 27 (3), 13-18; Lynch, E.P., Costanzo, A., Feely, M., Blamey, N.J.F., Pironon, J. & Lavin, P. (2014): The Piteiras emerald mine, Minas Gerais, Brazil: fluid-inclusion and gemmological perspectives. Mineralogical Magazine, 78, 1571-1587
Da Silva Lopes, P.H., Cesar-Mendes, J., Roeser, H. (2008): Ein neues Smaragdvorkommen in Brasilien – Die Rocha Mineracao Mine in Minas Gerais, Der Aufschluss, Vol. 59, 301-315
      • Nova Era
Morteani, G., Preinfalk, C., and Horn, A.H. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 638-655.
Groat, L.A., Giuliani, G., Marshall, D.D., and Turner, D. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 87-112.
  • Rio Grande do Norte
    • Borborema mineral province
      • Caiçara do Rio do Vento
Neto, M. T. D. O. C., & Barbosa, R. V. N. (2008). As Esmeraldas De Lajes, Caiçara Do Rio Dos Ventos E São Tomé/rn. Holos-ISSN 1807-1600, 2, 92-104.
Neto, M. T. D. O. C., & Barbosa, R. V. N. (2008). As Esmeraldas De Lajes, Caiçara Do Rio Dos Ventos E São Tomé/rn. Holos-ISSN 1807-1600, 2, 92-104.
Neto, M. T. D. O. C., & Barbosa, R. V. N. (2008). As Esmeraldas De Lajes, Caiçara Do Rio Dos Ventos E São Tomé/rn. Holos-ISSN 1807-1600, 2, 92-104. J. C. (Hanco) Zwaan, Dorrit E. Jacob, Tobias Häger, Mário T. O. Cavalcanti Neto, and Jan Kanis EMERALDS FROM THE FAZENDA BONFIM REGION, RIO GRANDE DO NORTE, BRAZIL Gems & Gemology Spring 2012
      • São Tomé
Neto, M. T. D. O. C., & Barbosa, R. V. N. (2008). As Esmeraldas De Lajes, Caiçara Do Rio Dos Ventos E São Tomé/rn. Holos-ISSN 1807-1600, 2, 92-104.
Neto, M. T. D. O. C., & Barbosa, R. V. N. (2008). As Esmeraldas De Lajes, Caiçara Do Rio Dos Ventos E São Tomé/rn. Holos-ISSN 1807-1600, 2, 92-104.
  • Tocantins
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Bulgaria
 
  • Kyustendil Oblast
E.Ya. Kievlenko, Geology of gems, 2003, p. 85
American Mineralogist, Volume 94, pages 1283–1286, 2009
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Canada
 
  • British Columbia
    • Skeena Mining Division
      • Stewart
Can.Rockhound v.3, no.1
  • Northwest Territories
    • Mackenzie District
      • Mackenzie Mts
Mercier, M. et al (2008) 35th Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, Abstracts of contributed papers, 15.
    • Tungsten
Groat, L.A., Giuliani, G., Marshall, D.D., and Turner, D. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 87-112.
  • Ontario
    • Kenora District
      • Brownridge Township
Groat, L.A., Giuliani, G., Marshall, D.D., and Turner, D. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 87-112.
CanRockhound Vol.7, No. 2 (2003)
Brand, Allison A., Groat, Lee A., Linnen, Robert L., Garland, Mary I., Btraks, Frederick W., and Giuliani, Gaston, 2009, Emerald Lake Mineralization Associated with the Mavis Lake Pegmatite Group, near Dryden, Ontario, Canadian Mineralogist, v 47, p. 315-336.
  • Yukon
    • Watson Lake Mining District
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35 ; Can Min (2002) 40, 1313-1338
China
 
  • Hunan Province
    • Yueyang Prefecture
      • Pingjiang Co.
No reference listed
  • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
    • Kashi Prefecture (Kashgar Prefecture; Qeshqer Prefecture)
      • Tashiku'ergan Co. (Taxkorgan Co.; Tashqurqan Co.)
Blauwet, D., Quinn, E.P., and Muhlmeister, S. (2005): Gems and Gemology 41, 56–57
    • Yili Hasake Autonomous Prefecture (Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Aletai Prefecture (Altay Prefecture)
        • Fuhai Co. (Burultokay Co.)
Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
        • Qinghe Co. (Qinggil Co.; Chinggil Co.)
Yinlin Feng and Xiaopo Jiang (1987): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 6(4), 344-351; Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
  • Yunnan Province
    • Wenshan Autonomous Prefecture
      • Malipo Co.
Ottens, B. (2006): Lapis 31(4), 13-20; Xue, G., Marshall, D., Zhang, S., Ullrich, T.D., Bishop, T., Groat, L.A., Thorkelson, D.J., Giuliani, G., and Fallick, A.E. (2010): Economic Geology 105, 339-349
Colombia
 
  • Boyacá Department
    • Guavió-Guatéque Mining District
      • Mun. de Chivor
Morris, N. (2005) Diamonds and other gems. Appleseed Editions, East Sussex.; English extraLapis Vol. 2 (2002) Emeralds of the World. pp 36-45.
Banks, D.A., Giuliani, G., Yardley, B.W.D., and Cheilletz, A. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 699-713.
Banks, D.A., Giuliani, G., Yardley, B.W.D., and Cheilletz, A. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 699-713.
      • Mun. de Macanal
Banks, D.A., Giuliani, G., Yardley, B.W.D., and Cheilletz, A. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 699-713.
    • Vasquez-Yacopí Mining District
      • Mun. de Maripí
        • La Pita
Jordi Fabre
Kevin Ward - The Mineral Gallery
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp36-45
Pogue, J. E. (1916). Emerald Deposits of Muzo, Colombia. Transactions of the AIME, 50:910-934.
Banks, D.A., Giuliani, G., Yardley, B.W.D., and Cheilletz, A. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 699-713.
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp36-45
Dr Carlos A. Ortiz P. collection
Morris, N. (2005) Diamonds and other gems. Appleseed Editions, East Sussex.; Mineralogical Record 20(5): 394.
Banks, D.A., Giuliani, G., Yardley, B.W.D., and Cheilletz, A. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 699-713.
Banks, D.A., Giuliani, G., Yardley, B.W.D., and Cheilletz, A. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 699-713.
      • Mun. de Otanche
        • La Glorieta
Banks, D.A., Giuliani, G., Yardley, B.W.D., and Cheilletz, A. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 699-713.
      • Mun. de San Pablo de Borbur
Natural History Museum Vienna collection; Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002, 36-45
  • Cundinamarca Department
    • Guavió-Guatéque Mining District
Groat, L.A., Giuliani, G., Marshall, D.D., and Turner, D. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 87-112.
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp36-45
      • Mun. de Ubalá
Emerald and Other Beryls, John Sinkankas p426
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Liberec Region
      • Jizerské Mtn (Iser Mtn)
geological prospecting, 2008 - 2009, Czech geological Organization
    • South Bohemia Region
      • Písek
Egypt
 
  • Red Sea Governorate
    • Eastern Desert
      • Sikait-Zabara region
Hassan, M.A., El Shatoury, H.M. (1976): Beryl occurrences in Egypt. Mining Geology, 26, 253-262; Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35; Grundmann, G., Morteani, G. (2008): Multi-stage emerald formation during Pan-African regional metamorphism: The Zabara, Sikait, Umm Kabo deposits, South Eastern desert of Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 50, 2, 168-187.
Ethiopia
 
  • Oromia Region (Oromiya Region)
    • Kenticha pegmatite field
Pavel M. Kartashov data
From miners as sold at Tucson 2017
France
 
  • Normandy
    • Orne
      • Alençon
http://www.arehn.asso.fr/centredoc/livres/deboodt/complement.php
  • Nouvelle-Aquitaine
    • Haute-Vienne
      • Limoges
http://pujol.chez.tiscali.fr/ident/beryl.html
Germany
 
  • Schleswig-Holstein
    • Kiel
      • Schönberg in Holstein
A. Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", Schweizerbart (Stuttgart), 2001
Greenland
 
  • Sermersooq
    • Nuuk (Godthåb)
Bøggild, O.B. (1953): The Mineralogy of Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland, Bd. 149. Nr. 3. 445 pages [p.257]
India
 
  • Jharkhand
    • Singhbhum District
SHREERAM, S. S., SAHENDRA, S. and JYOTI, S. S. (2014), Genesis of Emerald Occurrences and Their Exploration Implications within Singhbhum Shear Zones, Eastern Indian Craton. Acta Geologica Sinica, 88: 1481–1482.
  • Rajasthan (Rajputana)
    • Ajmer Division
      • Ajmer District
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
E. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 86
  • Tamil Nadu
    • Salem District
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Italy
 
  • Piedmont
    • Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province
      • Ossola Valley
        • Vigezzo Valley
          • Trontano
            • Pizzo Marcio
Boscardin, M., Demichele, V., Mattioli, V. (1976): Lo smeraldo della Val Vigezzo. La Gemmologia, 2, 21-26; Mattioli, V. (1979 a): I minerali di Pizzo Marcio in Valle Vigezzo. Riv. Mineral. Ital., 3 [1, serie 2], 2 (2-1979), 30-36; Mattioli, V. (1979 b): Minerali Ossolani. Ed. Arti Grafiche Medesi, Milano, 268 pp.; Appiani, R., Cini, V., Gentile, P., Mattioli, V., Preite, D., Vignola, P. (1995): Val Vigezzo - I minerali delle albititi. Ed. Linea Due S.r.l., Marnate (Varese), 90 pp.; Albertini, C. (1996): Das Valle Vigezzo (Verbano-Cusio-Ossola) in Piemont, Italien. Eine klassische Mineralfundstelle in den Alpen. Mineralien-Welt, 7, 2, 16-54; Grundmann, G. (2001): Die Smaragd-Vorkommen der Welt. ExtraLapis, 21, 26-37; Guastoni, A., Diella, V., Pezzotta, F., Demartin, F. (2007): Vigezzite and associated Nb-Ta oxides of emerald pegmatitic deposits of Vigezzo Valley (Western Alps, Italy). Crystallization Processes in Granitic Pegmatites - International Meeting. Cavoli, Elba Island, Italy, 23rd-29th May 2005. Abstracts; http://www.minsocam.org/msa/Special/Pig/PIG_Articles/Elba%20Abstracts%2010%20Guastoni.pdf; Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" di Alba, Ed., Alba, 607 pp.; Guastoni, A., Diella, V., Pezzotta, F. (2008): Vigezzite and associated oxides of Nb–Ta from emerald-bearing pegmatites of the Vigezzo valley, Western Alps, Italy. Canadian Mineralogist, 46, 619-633; Guastoni, A. (2012): LCT (lithium, cesium, tantalum) and NYF (niobium, yttrium, fluorine) pegmatites in the Central Alps. Proxies of exhumation history of the Alpine nappe stack in the Lepontine Dome. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Padova, Dept. of Geosciences, 159 pp.; Boscardin, M., Mattioli, V., Rocchetti, I. (2013): Minerali della Valle Vigezzo. Litotipografia Alcione, Lavis (Trento), 229 pp.
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Elba Island
        • Campo nell'Elba
          • San Piero in Campo
P. Orlandi, F. Pezzotta (1996) - Minerali dell’Isola d’Elba - Ed. Novecento Grafico, Bergamo, 245 pp.
    • Lucca Province
      • Apuan Alps
        • Stazzema
          • Ponte Stazzemese
Duchi G., Franzini M., Giamello M., Orlandi P., Riccobono F., 1993. The iron-rich beryls of Alpi Apuane. Mineralogy, chemistry and fluid inclusion. N. Jb. Mineral. Mh.: 193-207
          • Sant'Anna di Stazzema
Duchi G., Franzini M., Giamello M., Orlandi P., Riccobono F., 1993. The iron-rich beryls of Alpi Apuane. Mineralogy, chemistry and fluid inclusion. N. Jb. Mineral. Mh.: 193-207
  • Veneto
    • Vicenza Province
      • Lugo of Vicenza
Negri G.B. (1886-87): Zircone di Lonedo. Atti R. Ist. Ven. Sci. Lett. Arti, ser. 6, 5, 651-658; Panebianco R. (1886-87): Berillo e altre gemme di Lonedo. Atti R. Ist. Ven. Sci. Lett. Arti, ser. 6, 5, 387-396; Boscardin M., Girardi A., Violati Tescari O. (1975): Minerali nel Vicentino. Club Alpino Italiano, Sezione di Vicenza, 144 pp.; Boscardin M., Violati Tescari O. (1996): Gemme del Vicentino. Comune di Montecchio Maggiore, Museo Civico "G. Zannato", Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), 114 pp.; Zordan A. (2014): Provincia di Vicenza. In: Zorzi F., Boscardin M. (eds.), Minerali del Veneto. Alla scoperta dei tesori della nostra regione. Museo di Storia Naturale e Archeologia di Montebelluna - Treviso, Cierre Edizioni, Sommacampagna, 173-246.
Kazakhstan
 
  • Eastern Kazakhstan Province (Shyghys Qazaqstan Oblysy; Vostochno-Kazakhstanskaya Oblast')
Gavrilenko et al. (2006): Emeralds from the Delbegetey deposit (Kazakhstan): mineralogical characteristics and fluid-inclusion study. Mineralogical Magazine, 70, 159-173.
  • Karagandy Province (Qaragandy Oblysy; Karaganda Oblast')
Gavrilenko et al. (2006): Emeralds from the Delbegetey deposit (Kazakhstan): mineralogical characteristics and fluid-inclusion study. Mineralogical Magazine, 70, 159-173. ; Groat, L.A., Giuliani, G., Marshall, D.D., and Turner, D. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 87-112.
  • Kostanay Province (Qostanay Oblysy; Kostanai Oblast')
E. Y. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of Gems, 84
Madagascar
 
  • Fianarantsoa Province
    • Vatovavy-Fitovinany Region
      • Mananjary District
Grundmann, G. (2001): Die Smaragde der Welt. ExtraLapis 21: 26-37 [german version]
          • North Zone
Kanis, J. & Schwartz, D. (2001): Smaragde aus Afrika. ExtraLapis no. 21, p.62 [in german]
Grundmann, G. (2001): Die Smaragde der Welt. ExtraLapis 21: 26-37 [german version] ; Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Grundmann, G. (2001): Die Smaragde der Welt. ExtraLapis 21: 26-37 [german version] ; Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
          • South Zone
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Kanis, J. & Schwartz, D. (2001): Smaragde aus Afrika. ExtraLapis no. 21, p.62 [in german]
Vapnik, Ye., Moroz, I. Roth, M. and Eliezri, I. (2006): Formation of emeralds at pegmatite-ultramafic contacts based on fluid inclusions in Kianjavato emerald, Mananjary deposits, Madagascar. Mineralogical Magazine 70: 141-158
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Hänni, H. A. and Klein, H. H (1982): Ein Smaragdvorkommen in Madagascar. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gemmologischen Geschellschaft, 31 : 71-77
  • Mahajanga Province (Majunga)
    • Betsiboka Region
      • Tsaratanàna District
        • Andriamena Commune
Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
  • Tuléar Province (Toliara)
    • Southwestern Region
      • Benenitra District
        • Ianapera Commune
Marchand, P.(1995): Situation géologique des émeraudes de Ianapera, province de Tuléar (Madagascar. Revue de Gemmologie AFG. 124:13–16
Mozambique
 
  • Zambezia Province
    • Alto Ligonha District
Dias, M. Bettencourt and Wilson, W. E., 2000, Mineralogical Record, 31:459-497.
Dias, M. Bettencourt and Wilson, W. E., 2000, Mineralogical Record, 31:459-497.
    • Gilé District
      • Gilé
Groat, L.A., Giuliani, G., Marshall, D.D., and Turner, D. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 87-112.
Groat, L.A., Giuliani, G., Marshall, D.D., and Turner, D. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 87-112.
    • Uape
Namibia
 
  • Hardap Region
    • Maltahöhe District
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35. Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 51.
Nigeria
 
  • Kaduna State
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
    • Nandu Village
Labeled Emerald specimen from the Nandu mine is in the Mario Pauwels collection
  • Nassarawa State (Nasarawa State)
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp52-59
  • Plateau State
Groat, L.A., Giuliani, G., Marshall, D.D., and Turner, D. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 87-112.
Norway
 
  • Akershus
    • Eidsvoll (Eidsvold)
      • Minnesund
Nordrum, F.S., Raade, G. (2006): The emerald deposit at Byrud, Eidsvoll, S. Norway. Norsk Bergverkmuseums Skrift. 33, 9-16
  • Nordland
    • Bodø
Kristiansen, R. (1999): Berylliummineraler i Norge. STEIN 26 (2),8-23
Rekstad, J. (1917): III.Kyststrøket mellem Bodø og Folden. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse.79, 1-31 (p.16)
  • Telemark
    • Kragerø
      • Kragerø Archipelago
Larsen, A.O., Nordrum, F.S. & Langhof, J. (2017): Berylliummineraler fra Langøy, Kragerø. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2017: 5-15.
Pakistan
 
  • Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA)
    • Bajaur Agency
[Emeralds of the World - extraLapis nr2 - p24]
    • Mohmand Agency
      • Warsak (Warzak)
        • Ganadao (Gandahab; Ghandahab valley)
[Emeralds of the World - p24 English extraLapis Vol2 2002]
  • Gilgit-Baltistan (Northern Areas)
    • Baltistan
      • Skardu District
        • Basha Valley (Basha Nala; Basna)
Ikram Mineralogy
    • Gilgit District
      • Haramosh Mts.
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
  • Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (North-West Frontier Province)
    • Swat District (Swat Valley)
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35 ; Arif, M., & Moon, C. J. (1996). Chemistry of tourmaline from the emerald-hosting rocks in Swat, NW Pakistan. Geological Bulletin University of Peshawar, 29, 81-89.; Arif, M., Henry, D. J., & Moon, C. J. (2011). Host rock characteristics and source of chromium and beryllium for emerald mineralization in the ophiolitic rocks of the Indus Suture Zone in Swat, NW Pakistan. Ore Geology Reviews, 39(1), 1-20.
[Emeralds of the World - p24 English extraLapis Vol2 2002]; Econ Geol (1986) 81:2022-2028; Arif, M. & Moon, C. J. (2007) Nickel-rich chromian muscovite from the Indus suture ophiolite, NW Pakistan: Implications for emerald genesis and exploration. Geochemical Journal, 41:475-482
Econ Geol (1986) 81:2022-2028
Econ Geol (1986) 81:2022-2028
Econ Geol (1986) 81:2022-2028
Econ Geol (1986) 81:2022-2028
Zarek Rocks
Peru
 
  • Cuzco Department
    • Chuquibamba (Janac Chuquibamba)
Petersen, G.G. (1970) Minería y metalurgía en el antiguo Peru. Arqueologicas, 12 140pp. (Museo Nacional de Antropologia y Arqueologia, Lima)
Portugal
 
  • Viana do Castelo District
    • Ponte de Lima
      • Estorãos
Pedro Alves collection. Hydrothermal tungstates from Serra de Arga, North Portugal - Their relation with Be mineralizations. VIII CIGEOQ. 2011 C. Leal Gomes, P. Alves, P. Dias, R. Alves, G. Verduzco
Russia
 
  • Urals Region
    • Middle Urals
      • Adui
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 109
E. Y. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of Gems, 82-83
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 109
      • Kamenka massif
E. Y. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of Gems, 82-83
E. Y. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of Gems, 82-83
      • Sverdlovskaya Oblast'
        • Ekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk)
          • Malyshevo
            • Izumrudnye Kopi area
Avdonin V.N., Polenov Yu.A. (2004) Essays on Uralian minerals, - UGGA press, p. 419 (in Rus.).
E. Y. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of Gems, 82-83
Dan Weinrich
E. Y. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of Gems, 82-83
Avdonin V.N., Polenov Yu.A. (2004) Essays on Uralian minerals, - UGGA press, p. 419 (in Rus.).
E. Y. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of Gems, 82-83
E. Y. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of Gems, 82-83
        • Sarapulka District (Murzinka)
E. Y. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of Gems, 82-83
Somaliland
 
Thomas R. Yager (2002) The Mineral Industries Of Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, And Somalia — 2002. U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Yearbook
  • Awdal
    • Borama District
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
  • Hargeisa (Hargeysa)
The 1995 ICA World Gemstone Mining Report/Part 1 ICA Gazette
Thomas R. Yager (2002) The Mineral Industries Of Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, And Somalia — 2002. U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Yearbook
South Africa
 
  • Limpopo Province
    • Mopani District
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 89
Werner, A.B.T., Sinclair, W.D., and Amey, E.B. (1998): US Geological Survey Circular 930-O.
    • Murchison Range
      • Gravelotte
        • Gravelotte Emerald Mine
Minerals of South Africa
        • Willie Farm 787 LT
Minerals of South Africa
  • North West Province
    • Dr Ruth Segomotsi Mompati District
      • Schweizer-Reneke
Minerals of South Africa
Spain
 
  • Galicia
    • Pontevedra
      • A Cañiza
[Mineralogical Record 28:497]
Sri Lanka
 
  • Sabaragamuwa Province
    • Ratnapura District
      • Ratnapura
Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Switzerland
 
  • Wallis (Valais)
    • Binn Valley
Schweizer Strahler 2003 Nr. 4
Tanzania
 
  • Arusha Region
    • Dumbawanga District
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp52-59
    • Lake Manyara
Journal of Gemology, Volume 26, No. 2 - Mineral Inclusions in Emeralds from Different Sources
  • Rukwa Region
    • Sumbawanga District
USGS (2003) Minerals Yearbook - Tanzania.
Ukraine
 
  • Zaporozhskaya Oblast' (Zaporiz'ka; Zaporozh'e)
    • Priazovie
      • Middle Berda River
        • Rodionovskoe pegmatite field
E. Y. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of Gems, 84
USA
 
  • California
    • Trinity Co.
      • Klamath Mts
        • Coffee District (Coffee Creek District)
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 104.
  • Connecticut
    • Fairfield Co.
www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com
        • Long Hill
  • Maine
    • Sagadahoc Co.
E.Ya. Kievlenko ( 2003) Geology of gems, p. 79
  • Montana
Christopher N. Wentzell; 'Sinkankas, John (1997) Gemstones of North America, Vol 3 (Geoscience Press, Yucson AZ); page 47.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Sinkankas, John (1997) Gemstones of North America, Vol 3 (Geoscience Press, Tucson AZ); page 47.
  • Nevada
    • Pershing Co.
      • Rye Patch District
MacFall, 1951. Gem Hunter's Guide, 1st ed.
  • New Mexico
    • Taos Co.
      • Sangre de Cristo Mts
New Mexico Bureau of Geology & Mineral Resources Museum No 17419
  • North Carolina
    • Alexander Co.
USGS , Mineral Resources On-Line Spatial Data, 2005; Mineralogical Record (2002) 33:263
U.S Bureau of Mines/Spatial Data from the Minerals System/Mineral Industry Location System (Mars/Mils)CD-Rom,Sep,1995
      • Hiddenite
Rocks & Min.:60:84.
Rocks & Min.: 60: 65.; Rocks & Min. (2007) 82:243; Mertie, John Beaver, Jr. (1959) Quartz crystal deposits of southwestern Virginia and western North Carolina. USGS Bulletin: 1072-D
Kunz, G. F. 1907. History of the Gems found in North Carolina: Beryl Gems and Spodumene (Hiddenite). North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey, Bulletin No. 12. Chapter 6, pages 37-48.
Mineral Commodity Files ,Asheville Regional Office , North Carolina Geological Survey
Mineral Commodity Files, Asheville Regional Office, North Carolina Geological Survey
    • Burke Co.
      • South Mountain District
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    • Clay Co.
      • Buck Creek
Mineral Commodity Files, Asheville Regional Office, North Carolina Geological Survey
    • Cleveland Co.
      • Gaffney
U.S. Geological Survey,2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey,Reston,Virginia
U.S. Geological Survey,2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey,Reston,Virginia
      • Kings Mountain District
Freed,Hilton (2000) "Forgotton Emeralds?: Mineralogical Record Vol.31,Nov-Dec 2000,p.518
      • Lawndale
MacFall, 1951. Gem Hunter's Guide, 1st ed.; :American Mineralogist,Vol.18,No.4,April,1933 pp 148-159; USGS Bull 1042G
      • Shelby
Rocks & Min.: 60:88.
    • Gaston Co.
Mineral Commodity Files,Asheville Regional Office,North Carolina Geological Survey
Mineral Commodity Files,Asheville Regional Office,North Carolina Geological Survey
Mineral Commodity Files,Asheville Regional Office,North Carolina Geological Survey
    • Mitchell Co.
      • Grassy Creek
Brobst,Donald A.,(1962) Geology of the Spruce Pine District Avery, Mitchell,and Yancey Counties North Carolina:Geological Survey Bulletion 1122-A
Brobst,Donald A.,(1962) Geology of the Spruce Pine District Avery, Mitchell, and Yancey Counties North Carolina:Geological Survey Bulletion 1122-A
      • Spruce Pine District
E.Ya.Kievlenko, Geology of gems, 2003, p. 77
        • Spruce Pine
Rocks & Min.:60:92.; American Mineralogist,Vol.18,No.4,April,1933 pp 148-159
    • Swain Co.
Mineral Commodity Files,Asheville Regional Office,North Carolina Geological Survey
      • Bryson City Feldspar District
Mineral Commodity Files,Asheville Regional Office,North Carolina Geological Survey
Mineral Commodity Files,Asheville Regional Office,North Carolina Geological Survey
Mineral Commodity Files,Asheville Regional Office,North Carolina Geological Survey
  • South Carolina
Gems and Minerals of America-Jay Ellis Ransom-1974
Zambia
 
  • Copperbelt Province
    • Ndola District
      • Ndola
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Zwaan, J. C.; Seifert, A. V.; Vrana, S.; Laurs, B. M.; Anckar, B.; Simmons, W. B.; Falster, A. U.; Lustenhouwer, W. J.; Muhlmeister, S.; Koivula, J. I.; Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005): Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Zwaan, J. C.; Seifert, A. V.; Vrana, S.; Laurs, B. M.; Anckar, B.; Simmons, W. B.; Falster, A. U.; Lustenhouwer, W. J.; Muhlmeister, S.; Koivula, J. I.; Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005): Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Zwaan, J. C.; Seifert, A. V.; Vrana, S.; Laurs, B. M.; Anckar, B.; Simmons, W. B.; Falster, A. U.; Lustenhouwer, W. J.; Muhlmeister, S.; Koivula, J. I.; Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005): Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Zwaan, J. C.; Seifert, A. V.; Vrana, S.; Laurs, B. M.; Anckar, B.; Simmons, W. B.; Falster, A. U.; Lustenhouwer, W. J.; Muhlmeister, S.; Koivula, J. I.; Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005): Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Zwaan, J. C.; Seifert, A. V.; Vrana, S.; Laurs, B. M.; Anckar, B.; Simmons, W. B.; Falster, A. U.; Lustenhouwer, W. J.; Muhlmeister, S.; Koivula, J. I.; Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005): Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Behling, S. & Wilson, W.E. (2010) The Kagem Emerald Mine, Kafubu Area, Zambia. Mineralogical Record, 41: 59-67
Zwaan, J. C.; Seifert, A. V.; Vrana, S.; Laurs, B. M.; Anckar, B.; Simmons, W. B.; Falster, A. U.; Lustenhouwer, W. J.; Muhlmeister, S.; Koivula, J. I.; Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005): Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Zwaan, J. C.; Seifert, A. V.; Vrana, S.; Laurs, B. M.; Anckar, B.; Simmons, W. B.; Falster, A. U.; Lustenhouwer, W. J.; Muhlmeister, S.; Koivula, J. I.; Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005): Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Zwaan, J. C.; Seifert, A. V.; Vrana, S.; Laurs, B. M.; Anckar, B.; Simmons, W. B.; Falster, A. U.; Lustenhouwer, W. J.; Muhlmeister, S.; Koivula, J. I.; Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005): Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Zwaan, J. C.; Seifert, A. V.; Vrana, S.; Laurs, B. M.; Anckar, B.; Simmons, W. B.; Falster, A. U.; Lustenhouwer, W. J.; Muhlmeister, S.; Koivula, J. I.; Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005): Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Seifert, A. V., Žáček, V., Vrána, S., Pecina, V., Zachariáš, J., & Zwaan, J. C. (2004). Emerald mineralization in the Kafubu area, Zambia. Bulletin of Geosciences, 79(1), 1-40.
Zwaan, J. C.; Seifert, A. V.; Vrana, S.; Laurs, B. M.; Anckar, B.; Simmons, W. B.; Falster, A. U.; Lustenhouwer, W. J.; Muhlmeister, S.; Koivula, J. I.; Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005): Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Zwaan, J. C.; Seifert, A. V.; Vrana, S.; Laurs, B. M.; Anckar, B.; Simmons, W. B.; Falster, A. U.; Lustenhouwer, W. J.; Muhlmeister, S.; Koivula, J. I.; Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005): Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Zwaan, J. C.; Seifert, A. V.; Vrana, S.; Laurs, B. M.; Anckar, B.; Simmons, W. B.; Falster, A. U.; Lustenhouwer, W. J.; Muhlmeister, S.; Koivula, J. I.; Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005): Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Zwaan, J. C.; Seifert, A. V.; Vrana, S.; Laurs, B. M.; Anckar, B.; Simmons, W. B.; Falster, A. U.; Lustenhouwer, W. J.; Muhlmeister, S.; Koivula, J. I.; Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005): Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Zwaan, J. C.; Seifert, A. V.; Vrana, S.; Laurs, B. M.; Anckar, B.; Simmons, W. B.; Falster, A. U.; Lustenhouwer, W. J.; Muhlmeister, S.; Koivula, J. I.; Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005): Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Zwaan, J. C.; Seifert, A. V.; Vrana, S.; Laurs, B. M.; Anckar, B.; Simmons, W. B.; Falster, A. U.; Lustenhouwer, W. J.; Muhlmeister, S.; Koivula, J. I.; Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005): Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Collection of Martin Slama
Collection of Martin Slama
Zwaan, J. C.; Seifert, A. V.; Vrana, S.; Laurs, B. M.; Anckar, B.; Simmons, W. B.; Falster, A. U.; Lustenhouwer, W. J.; Muhlmeister, S.; Koivula, J. I.; Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005): Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Zwaan, J. C.; Seifert, A. V.; Vrana, S.; Laurs, B. M.; Anckar, B.; Simmons, W. B.; Falster, A. U.; Lustenhouwer, W. J.; Muhlmeister, S.; Koivula, J. I.; Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005): Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
  • North-Western Province
    • Solwezi District
Zwaan, J. C.; Seifert, A. V.; Vrana, S.; Laurs, B. M.; Anckar, B.; Simmons, W. B.; Falster, A. U.; Lustenhouwer, W. J.; Muhlmeister, S.; Koivula, J. I.; Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005): Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Zwaan, J. C.; Seifert, A. V.; Vrana, S.; Laurs, B. M.; Anckar, B.; Simmons, W. B.; Falster, A. U.; Lustenhouwer, W. J.; Muhlmeister, S.; Koivula, J. I.; Garcia-Guillerminet, H. (2005): Emeralds from the Kafubu area, Zambia. Gems and Gemology 41, 116-148.
Zimbabwe
 
  • Manicaland
    • Buhera District
Van King
Van King
Van King
    • Mutare District (Umtali District)
Susanne Schmid (2001) The Geology & Genesis of the ‘Kandemwa’ Emerald Deposit in Zimbabwe, Africa. in European Union of Geosciences Conference XI (OS6)
  • Mashonaland West
    • Karoi District (Urungwe; Hurungwe District)
Bartholomew, D. S. (1990). Base metal and industrial mineral deposits of Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Geological Survey, Mineral Resources Survey No. 22
  • Masvingo
    • Bikita Area
Bruce Cairncross (2004) Field Guide to Rocks and Minerals of Southern Africa
    • Masvingo (Fort Victoria)
Bartholomew, D. S. (1990). Base metal and industrial mineral deposits of Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Geological Survey, Mineral Resources Survey No. 22
Bartholomew, D. S. (1990). Base metal and industrial mineral deposits of Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Geological Survey, Mineral Resources Survey No. 22
  • Matabeleland South
    • Gwanda - Filabusi District
      • Filabusi (Filibusi)
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 89
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 89
    • Insiza District
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 51.
    • Mweza Range (Wedja)
      • Sandawana-Belingwe District
Mining Annual Review (1985): 427.; Sminia, T., & Zwaan, J. C. (2006) Gemmology, geology and origin of the Sandawana emerald deposits, Zimbabwe. Scripta Geol., 131
  • Midlands
    • Gweru District (Gwelo District)
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 90.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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