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Enargite

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Formula:
Cu3AsS4
Colour:
Greyish-black to black, grey/rose-brown in reflected light.
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
3
Specific Gravity:
4.4 - 4.5
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
From the Greek έναργής for "distinct," referring to its cleavage.
Dimorph of:
Typically found as dark-grey to black massive material; crystals usually thick tabular, but may also be prismatic.

May contain minor Sb (Springer, 1969). The most Sb-rich enargite was found to have the composition Cu3As0.8Sb0.2S4 (Pósfai & Buseck, 1998).

Chemically similar to tennantite which, however, has no cleavage.


Classification of Enargite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
2.KA.05

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
K : Sulfarsenates, Sulfantimonates
A : Sulfarsenates with (As,Sb)S4 tetrahedra
Dana 7th ed.:
3.2.1.1
3.2.1.1

3 : SULFOSALTS
2 : ø = 4
6.3.1

6 : Sulphosalts - Sulphostannates, Sulphogermanates,Sulpharsenates, Sulphantimonates, Sulphovanadates and Sulphohalides
3 : Sulpharsenates and sulphantimonates

Physical Properties of Enargite

Metallic
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
Greyish-black to black, grey/rose-brown in reflected light.
Streak:
Black.
Hardness:
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect on {110}, imperfect on {100} and {010}, indistinct {001}.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
4.4 - 4.5 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.40 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Enargite

Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Strong dark violet red or olive green
Colour in reflected light:
Grey to light pink brown
Internal Reflections:
Deep red
Pleochroism:
Weak

Chemical Properties of Enargite

Formula:
Cu3AsS4
Common Impurities:
Sb,Fe,Pb,Zn,Ag,Ge

Crystallography of Enargite

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mm2 - Pyramidal
Space Group:
Pmn21
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.407(1) Å, b = 6.436(1) Å, c = 6.154(1) Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.151 : 1 : 0.956
Unit Cell V:
293.37 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Crystals tabular on {001}, or prismatic. May be striated parallel to "c." Also found as massive material, may be granular.
Twinning:
Common on {320}, sometimes as star-shaped cyclic trillings.

Crystallographic forms of Enargite

Crystal Atlas:
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Click on an icon to view
Enargite no.11 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Enargite - Tabular {001}
Enargite - {110}, {001}, modified
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

Toggle
Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

X-Ray Powder Diffraction

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.22(40)
3.21(80)
3.07(90)
2.84(80)
1.85(60)
1.73(100)
1.59(50)
1.26(40)

Type Occurrence of Enargite

Synonyms of Enargite

Other Language Names for Enargite

Varieties of Enargite

Argentian Enargite

A silver-bearing variety of enargite.

Compare also keutschite.

Stannoenargite

Sn-bearing enargite.

Common Associates

BaryteBaSO4
BorniteCu5FeS4
ChalcociteCu2S
CovelliteCuS
GalenaPbS
PyriteFeS2
QuartzSiO2
SphaleriteZnS
TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13
TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Pyrite218 photos of Enargite associated with Pyrite on mindat.org.
Quartz106 photos of Enargite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Tennantite24 photos of Enargite associated with Tennantite on mindat.org.
Luzonite19 photos of Enargite associated with Luzonite on mindat.org.
Covellite18 photos of Enargite associated with Covellite on mindat.org.
Orpiment18 photos of Enargite associated with Orpiment on mindat.org.
Baryte15 photos of Enargite associated with Baryte on mindat.org.
Tetrahedrite14 photos of Enargite associated with Tetrahedrite on mindat.org.
Sphalerite14 photos of Enargite associated with Sphalerite on mindat.org.
Bornite14 photos of Enargite associated with Bornite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping

2.KA.05Petrukite(Cu,Fe,Zn,Ag)3(Sn,In)S4
2.KA.10BriartiteCu2(Fe,Zn)GeS4
2.KA.10FamatiniteCu3SbS4
2.KA.10LuzoniteCu3AsS4
2.KA.10PermingeatiteCu3SbSe4
2.KA.10BarquilliteCu2CdGeS4
2.KA.15FangiteTl3AsS4

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals Grouping

6.3.2LuzoniteCu3AsS4
6.3.3FamatiniteCu3SbS4

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
Occasionally found in large enough volumes to be mined as an ore of copper.

References for Enargite

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Breithaupt (1850), Ann. Phys.: 80: 383.
Field (1859), American Journal of Science: 27: 52.
Sandberger (1874), Jb. Min.: 960.
Sandberger (1875). Jb. Min.: 382.
Semmons (1884), Mineralogical Magazine: 5: xxvi.
Semmons (1884), Mineralogical Magazine: 6: 49, 124.
Pauling and Weinbaum (1934).
Graton and Bowditch (1936), Economic Geology: 31: 696.
Harcourt (1937), American Mineralogist: 22: 517.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 389-392.
Springer, G. (1969): Compositional variations in enargite and luzonite. Mineralium Deposita, 4, 72-74.
Tanelli G. (1970) - Ricerche sui minerali del gruppo dell'enargite (enargite, stibioenargite, luzonite, famatinite, stibioluzonite). Periodico di mineralogia – Roma, pp. 561-583.
Adiwidjaja, G. and Löhn, J. (1970): Strukturverfeinerung von Enargit, Cu3AsS4. Acta Crystallogr., 26, 1878-1879 (in German with English abs.).
Gaines, Richard V., H. Catherine, W. Skinner, Eugene E. Foord, Brian Mason, Abraham Rosenzweig, Vandall T. King (1997, Dana's New Mineralogy : The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana: 155.
Mémoires du Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières: 54: 99-124.
Pósfai, M. & Sundberg, M. (1998): Stacking disorder and polytypism in enargite and luzonite. American Mineralogist, 83, 365-372.
Pósfai, M. & Buseck, P. (1998): Relationships between microstructure and composition in enargite and luzonite. American Mineralogist, 83, 373–382. [http://www.minsocam.org/msa/ammin/toc/Articles_Free/1998/Posfai_p373-382_98.pdf]
Deyell, C.L. and Hedenquist, J.W. (2011): Trace element geochemistry of enargite in the Mankayan district, Philippines. Economic Geology 106, 1465-1478.

Internet Links for Enargite

mindat.org URL:
https://www.mindat.org/min-1380.html
Please feel free to link to this page.
Specimens:
The following Enargite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Enargite

Mineral and/or Locality  
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