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Erlichmanite

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Formula:
OsS2
Colour:
Gray
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
4½ - 5½
Specific Gravity:
8.28
Crystal System:
Isometric
Member of:
Name:
Named in honor of Jozef Erlichman (1935 - ), electron microprobe analyst for the Planetology Branch, NASA-Ames Research Center, employee of Applied Space Products, Palo Alto, California. He identified or worked on several new minerals.
Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of ErlichmaniteHide

Approved
2/D.17-110
2.EB.05a

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
E : Metal Sulfides, M: S <= 1:2
B : M:S = 1:2, with Fe, Co, Ni, PGE, etc.
2.12.1.16

2 : SULFIDES
12 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
3.12.57

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
12 : Sulphides etc. of the platinum metals

Physical Properties of ErlichmaniteHide

Metallic
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
Gray
Hardness:
4½ - 5½ on Mohs scale
Hardness:
VHN100=1730 - 1950 kg/mm2 - Vickers
Density:
8.28 g/cm3 (Measured)    9.59 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of ErlichmaniteHide

Type:
Isotropic
Reflectivity:
400nmR=44.4%
420nmR=44.2%
440nmR=44.0%
460nmR=43.8%
580nmR=43.4%
500nmR=43.0%
520nmR=42.7%
540nmR=42.2%
560nmR=41.7%
580nmR=41.3%
600nmR=40.9%
620nmR=40.4%
640nmR=40.0%
660nmR=39.4%
680nmR=38.8%
700nmR=38.2%

Reflectance graph
Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Top of box is 100%. Peak reflectance is 44.4%.
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of ErlichmaniteHide

Formula:
OsS2
Common Impurities:
Ir,Rh,Ru,Pd

Crystallography of ErlichmaniteHide

Crystal System:
Isometric
Class (H-M):
m3 (2/m 3) - Diploidal
Space Group:
Pa3
Setting:
Pa3
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.6196(3) Å
Unit Cell V:
177.47 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Pyritohedral crystals, grains
Comment:
Synthetic

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.24 (100)
2.810 (85)
1.987 (55)
1.694 (85)
1.081 (30)
0.787 (55)
0.780 (65)

Type Occurrence of ErlichmaniteHide

Synonyms of ErlichmaniteHide

Other Language Names for ErlichmaniteHide

Simplified Chinese:硫锇矿
Spanish:Erlichmanita
Traditional Chinese:硫鋨礦

Relationship of Erlichmanite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
AurostibiteAuSb2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
CattieriteCoS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
DzharkeniteFeSe2Iso.
FukuchiliteCu3FeS8Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
GaotaiiteIr3Te8Iso.
GeversitePtSb2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
HaueriteMnS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
InsizwaitePt(Bi,Sb)2
Krut'aiteCuSe2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
LauriteRuS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
Penroseite(Ni,Co,Cu)Se2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
PyriteFeS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
SperrylitePtAs2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
TrogtaliteCoSe2
VaesiteNiS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
Villamaninite(Cu,Ni,Co,Fe)S2
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

Hollingworthite(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsS
Irarsite(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsS
LauriteRuS2
PlatinumPt

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.EB.05aAurostibiteAuSb2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.05bBambollaiteCu(Se,Te)2Tet.
2.EB.05aCattieriteCoS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.05aFukuchiliteCu3FeS8Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.05aGeversitePtSb2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.05aHaueriteMnS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.05aInsizwaitePt(Bi,Sb)2
2.EB.05aKrut'aiteCuSe2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.05aLauriteRuS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.05aPenroseite(Ni,Co,Cu)Se2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.05aPyriteFeS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.05aSperrylitePtAs2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.05aTrogtaliteCoSe2
2.EB.05aVaesiteNiS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.05aVillamaninite(Cu,Ni,Co,Fe)S2
2.EB.05aDzharkeniteFeSe2Iso.
2.EB.05aGaotaiiteIr3Te8Iso.
2.EB.10bAlloclasiteCo1-xFexAsSMon. 2 : P21
2.EB.10dCostibiteCoSbSOrth. mm2 : Pmn21
2.EB.10aFerroseliteFeSe2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
2.EB.10aFrohbergiteFeTe2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
2.EB.10cGlaucodot(Co0.50Fe0.50)AsSOrth. mm2 : Pmn21
2.EB.10aKulleruditeNiSe2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
2.EB.10aMarcasiteFeS2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
2.EB.10aMattagamiteCoTe2Orth.
2.EB.10eParacostibiteCoSbSOrth.
2.EB.10ePararammelsbergiteNiAs2Orth.
2.EB.10fOeniteCoSbAsOrth.
2.EB.15aAnduoite(Ru,Os)As2Orth.
2.EB.15aClinosaffloriteCoAs2Mon. 2/m : P21/m
2.EB.15aLöllingiteFeAs2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
2.EB.15aNisbiteNiSb2Orth.
2.EB.15aOmeiite(Os,Ru)As2Orth.
2.EB.15cPaxiteCuAs2Mon.
2.EB.15aRammelsbergiteNiAs2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
2.EB.15aSafflorite(Co,Ni,Fe)As2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
2.EB.15bSeinäjokite(Fe,Ni)(Sb,As)2Orth.
2.EB.20ArsenopyriteFeAsSMon. 2/m : P21/b
2.EB.20GudmunditeFeSbSMon. 2/m : P21/b
2.EB.20Osarsite(Os,Ru)AsSMon.
2.EB.20Ruarsite(Ru,Os)AsSMon.
2.EB.25CobaltiteCoAsSOrth. mm2 : Pca21
2.EB.25GersdorffiteNiAsSIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.25Hollingworthite(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsSIso. m3 (2/m 3)
2.EB.25Irarsite(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsSIso.
2.EB.25JolliffeiteNiAsSeIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.25KrutoviteNiAs2Iso.
2.EB.25MaslovitePtBiTe
2.EB.25MicheneritePdBiTe
2.EB.25PadmaitePdBiSeIso.
2.EB.25PlatarsitePtAsSIso.
2.EB.25TestibiopalladitePdTe(Sb,Te)Iso.
2.EB.25TolovkiteIrSbSIso.
2.EB.25UllmanniteNiSbSIso. 2 3 : P21 3
2.EB.25Willyamite(Co,Ni)SbS
2.EB.25ChangchengiteIrBiSIso.
2.EB.25MayingiteIrBiTeIso.
2.EB.25Hollingsworthite(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsS
2.EB.25KalungaitePdAsSeIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.25MilotaitePdSbSeIso. 2 3 : P21 3
2.EB.30UrvantsevitePd(Bi,Pb)2Tet.
2.EB.35RheniiteReS2Tric.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

2.12.1.1PyriteFeS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.12.1.2VaesiteNiS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.12.1.3CattieriteCoS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.12.1.4Penroseite(Ni,Co,Cu)Se2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.12.1.5TrogtaliteCoSe2
2.12.1.6Villamaninite(Cu,Ni,Co,Fe)S2
2.12.1.7FukuchiliteCu3FeS8Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.12.1.8Krut'aiteCuSe2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.12.1.9HaueriteMnS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.12.1.10LauriteRuS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.12.1.11AurostibiteAuSb2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.12.1.12KrutoviteNiAs2Iso.
2.12.1.13SperrylitePtAs2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.12.1.14GeversitePtSb2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.12.1.15InsizwaitePt(Bi,Sb)2
2.12.1.17DzharkeniteFeSe2Iso.
2.12.1.18GaotaiiteIr3Te8Iso.
2.12.1.19MayingiteIrBiTeIso.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

3.12.1Seinäjokite(Fe,Ni)(Sb,As)2Orth.
3.12.2LauriteRuS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.12.3Ruthenarsenite(Ru,Ni)AsOrth.
3.12.4Anduoite(Ru,Os)As2Orth.
3.12.5Ruarsite(Ru,Os)AsSMon.
3.12.6Xingzhongite(Pb,Cu,Fe)(Ir,Pt,Rh)2S4Iso.
3.12.7RhodplumsiteRh3Pb2S2Trig.
3.12.8Cuprorhodsite(Cu,Fe)Rh2S4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
3.12.9KonderiteCu3Pb(Rh,Pt,Ir)8S16Hex. 6/m : P6/m
3.12.10Bowieite(Rh,Ir,Pt)2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.12.11CherepanoviteRhAsOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.12.12Hollingworthite(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsSIso. m3 (2/m 3)
3.12.13Vysotskite(Pd,Ni)STet.
3.12.14Vasilite(Pd,Cu)16(S,Te)7
3.12.15PalladseitePd17Se15
3.12.16Oosterboschite(Pd,Cu)7Se5Orth.
3.12.17TelluropalladinitePd9Te4Mon.
3.12.18TemagamitePd3HgTe3Trig. 3m : P3m1
3.12.19SopcheiteAg4Pd3Te4Orth.
3.12.20MicheneritePdBiTe
3.12.21KotulskitePd(Te,Bi)Hex.
3.12.22Telargpalite(Pd,Ag)3(Te,Bi)Iso.
3.12.23Merenskyite(Pd,Pt)(Te,Bi)2Trig. 3m : P3m1
3.12.24PalladoarsenidePd2AsMon. 2/m : P2/m
3.12.25StillwateritePd8As3Trig.
3.12.26AtheneitePd2As0.75Hg0.25Hex. 6 m2 : P62m
3.12.27MajakitePdNiAsHex.
3.12.28PalarstanidePd5(Sn,As)2Hex.
3.12.29ArsenopalladinitePd8(As,Sb)3Tric. 1 : P1
3.12.30VincentitePd3AsTet.
3.12.31PalladobismutharsenidePd2(As,Bi)Orth.
3.12.32StibiopalladinitePd5Sb2Hex.
3.12.33Hexatestibiopanickelite(Pd,Ni)(Sb,Te)Hex.
3.12.34Sudburyite(Pd,Ni)SbHex.
3.12.35TestibiopalladitePdTe(Sb,Te)Iso.
3.12.36BorovskitePd3SbTe4Iso.
3.12.37IsomertieitePd11Sb2As2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
3.12.38Mertieite-IPd11(Sb,As)4Hex.
3.12.39Mertieite-IIPd8Sb2.5As0.5Trig.
3.12.40SobolevskitePd(Bi,Te)Hex.
3.12.41Frooditeα-PdBi2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
3.12.42PolaritePd(Bi,Pb)Orth. mm2 : Cmc21
3.12.43UrvantsevitePd(Bi,Pb)2Tet.
3.12.44CooperitePtSTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mmc
3.12.45Braggite(Pt,Pd,Ni)STet.
3.12.46Kharaelakhite(Cu,Pt,Pb,Fe,Ni)9S8Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmm
3.12.47MalaniteCu(Pt3+,Ir3+)2S4Iso.
3.12.48Moncheite(Pt,Pd)(Te,Bi)2Trig.
3.12.49MaslovitePtBiTe
3.12.50SperrylitePtAs2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.12.51PlatarsitePtAsSIso.
3.12.52GeversitePtSb2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.12.53DaomaniteCuPtAsS2Orth.
3.12.54Genkinite(Pt,Pd,Rh)4Sb3Tet. 4 2 2
3.12.55StumpflitePt(Sb,Bi)Hex.
3.12.56InsizwaitePt(Bi,Sb)2
3.12.58Omeiite(Os,Ru)As2Orth.
3.12.59Osarsite(Os,Ru)AsSMon.
3.12.60Kashinite(Ir,Rh)2S3Orth.
3.12.61InaglyiteCu3Pb(Ir,Pt)8S16Hex.
3.12.62Cuproiridsite(Cu,Fe)Ir2S4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
3.12.63Iridarsenite(Ir,Ru)As2Mon.
3.12.64Irarsite(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsSIso.
3.12.65TolovkiteIrSbSIso.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for ErlichmaniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Oftedal, I. (1928) Über die Kristallstrukturen der verbindungen RuS2, OsS2, MnTe2 und AuSb2. Mit einem Anhang über die Gitterkonstant von Pyrit. Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie: 135: 291-299.
Snetsinger, K.G. (1971) Erlichmanite (OsS2), a new mineral. American Mineralogist: 56: 1501-1506.
Stingl, T., Mueller, B., Lutz, H.D. (1992) Crystal structure refinement of osmium(II) disulfide. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 202: 161-162.
González-Jiménez, J.M., Gervilla, F., Proenza, J.A., Kerestedjian, T., Augé, T., Bailly, L. (2009) Zoning of laurite (RuS2) - erlichmanite (OsS2): Implications for the origin of PGM in ophiolite chromitites. European Journal of Mineralogy: 21: 419-432.

Internet Links for ErlichmaniteHide

Localities for ErlichmaniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Algeria
 
  • Tamanghasset Province
Schulze, H. (1998) Meteoritics & Planetary Science 33 (4, Supplement): A139. (July 1998)
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Kennedy Co.
Webb, K. (2014). The age and tectonometallogenic setting of the Fifield “Alaskan-type” intrusive suite, Lachlan Orogen, NSW. NSW., Bachelor of Science (Honours), School of Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong.
5th International Platinum Symposium Bulletin of The Geological Society of Finland Number 61, Part 1,1989,1-64
Austria
 
  • Styria
    • Leoben
Min.& Pet. 73:247-277
Brazil
 
  • Bahia
33rd International Geological Congress (2008) session MPM-04 Platinum-group mineralogy: Diversity of Platinum group minerals (PGM) in chromitites from Brazil, preliminary results
  • Goiás
33rd International Geological Congress (2008) session MPM-04 Platinum-group mineralogy: Diversity of Platinum group minerals (PGM) in chromitites from Brazil, preliminary results
  • São Paulo
33rd International Geological Congress (2008) session MPM-04 Platinum-group mineralogy: Diversity of Platinum group minerals (PGM) in chromitites from Brazil, preliminary results
Bulgaria
 
  • Blagoevgrad Oblast
Цинцов, З. (1998). Състав, разпространение и транспорт на минералите на елементите от групата на платината в алувиалните седименти на Благоевградския грабен. Сп. БГД, 59(2), 59-65.
    • Gotse Delchev Obshtina
      • Rhodope Mts
Bul. Acad. Sci. (1998)
  • Burgas Oblast (Bourgas Oblast)
    • Kameno Obshtina
Atanasov, A. V. (1990). Vasilite,(Pd, Cu) 16 (S, Te) 7, a new mineral species from Novoseltsi, Bulgaria. The Canadian Mineralogist, 28(3), 687-689.
Canada
 
  • British Columbia
    • Similkameen Mining Division
Nixon, G.T., Cabri, L.J., and Laflamme, J.H.G. (1990) Platinum-group-element mineralizaton in lode and placer deposits associated with the Tulameen Alaskan-type complex, British Columbia. Canadian Mineralogist: 28, 503-535.
Nixon, G. T., Cabri, L. J., & Laflamme, J. G. (1990). Platinum-group-element mineralization in lode and placer deposits associated with the Tulameen Alaskan-type complex, British Columbia. The Canadian Mineralogist, 28(3), 503-535.
Nixon, G. T., Cabri, L. J., & Laflamme, J. G. (1990). Platinum-group-element mineralization in lode and placer deposits associated with the Tulameen Alaskan-type complex, British Columbia. The Canadian Mineralogist, 28(3), 503-535.
  • Québec
    • Chaudière-Appalaches
      • Les Appalaches RCM
http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2001NE/finalprogram/abstract_2302.htm.
Pagé et al. (2001) GSA 2001 NE program abstracts
  • Yukon
    • Watson Lake Mining District
Fedortchouk, Y., LeBarge, W., Barkov, A.Y., Fedele, L. and Bodnar, R.J., 2010. Major- and trace-element composition of platinum group minerals and their inclusions from several Yukon placers. In: Yukon Exploration and Geology 2009, K.E. MacFarlane, L.H. Weston and L.R. Blackburn (eds.), Yukon Geological Survey, p. 185-196.
    • Whitehorse Mining District
      • Kluane District
BARKOV, A.Y. & MARTIN, R.F. (2008) Grains of Pt-Fe alloy and inclusions in Pt-Fe alloy from Florence Creek, Yukon, Canada: Evidence for mobility of Os in a Na-H2O-Cl-rich fluid. Canadian Mineralogist 46, 343-360.
China
 
  • Hebei Province
    • Chengde Prefecture
      • Chengde Co.
        • Gaositai
Zuxiang Yu (1995): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 15(1), 1-4
Zuxiang Yu (1995): Acta Geologica Sinica 69(3), 215-220
  • Sichuan Province
    • Panzhihua Prefecture
      • Eastern District
      • Miyi Co.
  • Tibet Autonomous Region
    • Shannan Prefecture (Lhokha Prefecture; Lhoka Prefecture)
      • Nêdong Co. (Naidong Co.; Zedang Co.)
Guo, G., Yang, J., Robinson, P.T., Liu, X., Xu, X., Xiong, F. (2016): Platinum-group Mineral (PGM) and Base-metal Sulphide (BMS) Inclusions in Chromitites of the Zedang Ophiolite, Southern Tibet, China and their Petrogenetic Significance. Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition): 90: 900–912; http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=12863 (2016)
      • Qusum Co. (Qusong Co.)
Wenji Bai, Shufeng Tao, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Nicheng Shi and Guowu Li (2007): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 26(5), 418-428
Colombia
 
  • Cauca Department
    • Mun. de Guapí
Min Mag (1997) 61:367-375
  • Chocó Department
    • Mun. de Condoto
Stribrny, B., Wellmer, F.-W., Burgath, K.-P., Oberthür, T., Tarkian, M., and Pfeiffer, T. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 260-281.
Costa Rica
 
  • Guanacaste Province
Federica Zaccarini, Ronald J. Bakker, Giorgio Garuti, Thomas Aiglsperger, Oskar A. R. Thalhammer, Lolita Campos, Joaquin A. Proenza, John F. Lewis (2010) Platinum group minerals in chromitite bodies of the Santa Elena Nappe, Costa Rica: mineralogical characterization by electron microprobe and Raman–spectroscopy. Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana 62:161-171
Cuba
 
  • Holguín Province
    • Mayarí-Baracoa Belt
Gervilla, F., Proenza, J. A., Frei, R., González-Jiménez, J. M., Garrido, C. J., Melgarejo, J. C., ... & Lavaut, W. (2005). Distribution of platinum-group elements and Os isotopes in chromite ores from Mayarí-Baracoa Ophiolitic Belt (eastern Cuba). Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 150(6), 589-607.
Cyprus
 
  • Nicosia District (Lefkoşa District; Lefkosia District)
    • Troodos mountain range
Prichard, H. M. and Lord, R. A. (1990) 'Platinum and palladium in the Troodos ophiolite complex, Cyprus', Canadian Mineralogist, 28 (3), pp.607-617.
Ecuador
 
  • Esmeraldas Province
Weiser, T. and Schmidt-Thome, M. (1993) Platinum-group minerals from the Santiago river, Esmeraldas province, Ecuador. Canadian Mineralogist, 31, 61-73.
Ethiopia
 
  • Oromia Region (Oromiya Region)
    • Gimbi
Econ Geol (1986) 81:1278-1285
        • Bir Bir River
Cabri, L. J., Criddle, A. J., Laflamme, J. H. G., Bearne, G. S., & Harris, D. C. (1981). Mineralogical study of complex Pt-Fe nuggets from Ethiopia. Bulletin de Mineralogie, 104(4), 508-525.
Finland
 
  • Eastern Finland Region
No reference listed
Törnroos Ragnar, Johanson Bo, Kojonen Kari, 1998. Alluvial nuggets of platinum group minerals and alloys from Finnish Lapland. Geological survey of Finland, Special Paper
    • Inari
      • Ivalojoki
Kari Kojonen (2012) PGE ore potential in the southwestern granulite belt of Northern Finland. Geological Survey of Finland, Report of Investigation 207 pp 64-67
      • Lemmenjoki
33rd International Geological Congress (2008) session MPM-04 Platinum-group mineralogy: Pt-Pd selenides from river placers, northern Finland; Kari Kojonen (2012) PGE ore potential in the southwestern granulite belt of Northern Finland. Geological Survey of Finland, Report of Investigation 207 pp 64-67
Kojonen, K., Tarkian, M., Heidrich, S. & Johanson, B. (2014) Placer Platinum-group Minerals from Sotajoki River, Inari, Finland. 12th International Platinum Symposium p259
    • Kemi
Stanislav S. Gornostayev, Kauko V.O. Laajoki & Ossi Leinonen (2000) The platinum-group minerals in the Kemi chromite deposit, Finland: a case study of the Elijärvi ore body. In Abstract volume and Field trip Guidebook, 2nd annual GEODE-Fennoscandian shield field workshop on Palaeoproterozoic and Archean greenstone belts and VMS districts in the Fennoscandian Shield (Vol. 28).
    • Penikat complex
      • Sompujärvi Reef
Barkov, A., Halkoaho, T., Roberts, A., Criddle, A., Martin, R., Papunen, H. (1999) New Pd-Pb and Pb-V oxides frm a bonanza-type PGE-rich, nearly BMS-free deposit in the Penikat layered complex, Finland. Canadian Mineralogist, 37, 1507-1524.
    • Sodankylä
Gervilla, F., Kojonen, K. and Merkle, R.K.W., 2005. Platinum-group minerals in the Proterozoic Keivitsa mafic-ultramafic intrusion, Sodankylä, northern Finland. Extended Abstract, 10th International Platinum Symposium, Abstract volume
mutanen Tapani 1997. Geology and ore petrology of Akanvaara nd Koitelainen mafic layered intrusions and the Keivitsa -satovaara layered complex, Northern Finland. Geological Survey of Finland, bulletin 395. 233s.
Greece
 
  • Macedonia Department
    • Kozáni Prefecture
      • Kozáni and Grevena prefectures border area
        • Vourinos Mt ophiolite complex
          • Pontini and Chromion area
Kapsiotis, A., Grammatikopoulos, T. A., Zaccarini, F., Tsikouras, B., Garuti, G., & Hatzipanagiotou, K. (2006). Platinum-group mineral characterisation in concentrates from low-grade PGE chromitites from the Vourinos ophiolite complex, northern Greece. Applied Earth Science: Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy: Section B, 115(2), 49-57.
Kapsiotis, A., Grammatikopoulos, T. A., Zaccarini, F., Tsikouras, B., Garuti, G., & Hatzipanagiotou, K. (2006). Platinum-group mineral characterisation in concentrates from low-grade PGE chromitites from the Vourinos ophiolite complex, northern Greece. Applied Earth Science: Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy: Section B, 115(2), 49-57.
  • Sterea Hellas Department
    • Fthiótis Prefecture
      • Lamia
        • Othrys Mt ophiolite complex (Othris)
          • Domokós
Garuti, G., Zaccarini, F., and Economou-Eliopoulos, M. (1999): Mineralium Deposita 34, 312-319.
Garuti, G., Zaccarini, F., and Economou-Eliopoulos, M. (1999): Mineralium Deposita 34, 312-319.
          • Eretria
Garuti, G., Zaccarini, F., and Economou-Eliopoulos, M. (1999): Mineralium Deposita 34, 312-319.
Garuti, G., Zaccarini, F., and Economou-Eliopoulos, M. (1999): Mineralium Deposita 34, 312-319.
India
 
  • Karnataka
    • Shimoga schist belt
T. T. Alapieti, T. C. Devaraju, R. J. Kaukonen (2005) Sem-eds Study of the Platinum-group Minerals in the PGE mineralized Hanumalapura Segment of the Layeredmafic-ultramafic Complex of Channagiri, Davangere District, Karnataka. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, 65:745-752.
Indonesia
 
  • Kalimantan (Borneo)
    • Kalimantan Selatan Province (South Kalimantan Province)
Madagascar
 
  • Toamasina Province (Tamatave)
    • Eastern Region (Atsinanana Region)
      • Antanambao Manampotsy District
Legendre, O., and Augé, T. (1992): Alluvial platinum-group minerals from the Manampotsy area, east Madagascar. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 39, 389-404
      • Vatomandry District
        • Sahafary
Augé, T. & Legendre, O. (1992): Pt-Fe nuggets from alluvial deposits in eastern Madagascar. Canadian Mineralogist 30, 983-1004
Mexico
 
  • Baja California Sur (BC Sur)
    • Mun. de Mulegé
Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Core to Crust Fluid Systems Annual report 2012 p. 124
Mongolia
 
  • Dzavhan Aimag (Zavkhan Aimag)
    • Khan-Taishirin-Ula range
http://www.dmitrenkogg.narod.ru/Mongoliy.htm
New Caledonia
 
  • Northern Province
    • Kaala-Gomen Commune
Cassian, P. (2007). New Caledonia Geology and Mining. In ニューカレドニアの投資環境調査 2007 年 (p. 58).
    • Koumac Commune
      • Tiébaghi Massif
Augé, T. (1988). Platinum-Group Minerals in the Tiébaghi (New-Caledonia) and Vourinos (Greece) Ophiolites. In Geo-Platinum 87 (pp. 405-405). Springer Netherlands.
  • Southern Province
    • Mont-Dore Commune
      • Ouen Island
33rd International Geological Congress (2008) session MPM-04 Platinum-group mineralogy: Platinum-group minerals in chromitite schlieren from the ouen island, new caledonia ophiolite
    • Pirogues River
Jan Pasava (ed) Mineral Deposits: From Their Origin to Their Environmental Impacts pp89-92
Norway
 
  • Sør-Trøndelag
    • Røros
      • Feragen
Nilson, L. P. (1990): Platinum-group mineral inclusions in chromitite from the Osthammeren ultramafic tectonite body, South Central Norway. Mineralogy and Petrology 42: 249-263
Oman
 
  • Al Buraymi Governorate
    • Northern Oman Ophiolite
Ahmed, A. H., & Arai, S. (2003). Platinum-group minerals in podiform chromitites of the Oman ophiolite. The Canadian Mineralogist, 41(3), 597-616.
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
      • Aldan Shield
        • Aldan
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
A.Ya. Kochetkov (2006) Mesozoic Gold-Bearing Ore-Magmatic Systems Of Central Aldan. Russian Geology and Geophysics 47:850-864
Kochetkov A.Ya. (2006) Ore contents of alkaline massifs of Aldan shield: Ryabinovskoe copper-gold-porphyritic deposit,- Tikhookeanskaya Geologiya, v.25, N1, pp. 62-73 (in Russian)
    • Tuva Republic
      • Sayan Mts
        • Eastern Sayan
Alexander V. Dedeev et al (2002) The PGE-Bearing Sulphide Ores of the Kingash Mafic-Ultramafic Differentiated Intrusion and Ore Processing Characteristics, East Sajan, Russia. 9th annual platinum symposium
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Chukotskii Autonomous Okrug
      • Kolyma area
        • Bol'shoi Anyui River Basin
          • Baimka River
            • Aluchinskii Massif (Aluchin horst)
Gornostayev, S.S., Crocket, J.H., Mochalov, A.G., and Lajoki, K.V.O. (1999) The platinum-group minerals of the Baimka placer deposits, Aluchin horst, Russian Far East. Canadian Mineralogist: 37: 1117-1129.
    • Kamchatka Oblast'
      • Korf
        • Gal'moenan ultrabasic massif
Tolstykh N.D., Sidorov E.G., Kozlov A.P. (2004) Platinum-group minerals in lode and placier deposits associated with the Ural-Alaskan-type Gal'moenan complex, Koryak-Kamchatka Platinum Belt, Russia, - Canadian Mineralogist, v.42, p.2, pp. 619-630.
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow; Sidorov, E. G., Tolstykh, N. D., Podlipsky, M. Y., & Pakhomov, I. O. (2004). Placer PGE minerals from the Filippa clinopyroxenite-dunite massif (Kamchatka). Geologiya i Geofizika (Russian Geology and Geophysics), 45(9), 1128-1144.
Tolstykh, N., Sidorov, E., & Kozlov, A. (2009). Platinum-group Minerals from the Olkhovaya–1 Placers Related to the Karaginsky Ophiolite Complex, Kamchatskiy Mys Peninsula, Russia. The Canadian Mineralogist, 47(5), 1057-1074.
    • Khabarovskiy Kray
      • Ayan-Maya district
        • Aldan shield
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Cabri, L.J., Laflamme, H.H. Giles, (1997), Platinum Group Minerals from the Konder Massif, Russian Far East, Min Rec. 28, 97-106
    • Primorskiy Kray
      • Khanka lake
Shcheka G.G., Vrzhosek A.A., Lehmann B., Tolstykh N.D. (2004) Associations of platinum-group minerals from the Zolotaya gold placiers, Primorye, Russian Far East, - Canadian Mineralogist, v.42, pp. 583-599.
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaya Oblast'
Gabov, D. A. (2010). PGE and Au minerals from the low-sulfide ore of the Pana Tundra Pluton, Kola Peninsula. Geology of Ore Deposits, 52(7), 624-629.
Chashchin, V. V., & Petrov, S. V. (2013). Low-sulfide PGE ore in the Volchetundra gabbro-anorthosite pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia. Geology of Ore Deposits, 55(5), 357-382.
Chashchin, V. V., & Petrov, S. V. (2013). Low-sulfide PGE ore in the Volchetundra gabbro-anorthosite pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia. Geology of Ore Deposits, 55(5), 357-382.
  • Urals Region
    • Middle Urals
      • Sverdlovskaya Oblast'
        • Ekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk)
Zaccarini, F., Pushkarev, E., & Garuti, G. (2008). Platinum-group element mineralogy and geochemistry of chromitite of the Kluchevskoy ophiolite complex, central Urals (Russia). Ore Geology Reviews, 33(1), 20-30.
        • Kytlym
Garuti, G., Pushkarev, E.V., and Zaccarini, F. (2002) Composition and paragenesis of Pt alloys from chromitites of the Uralian-Alaskan-type Kytlym and Uktus complexes, northern and central Urals, Russia. Canadian Mineralogist: 40: 1127-1146.
        • Nizhnii Tagil
          • Solov'eva Mtn
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
9th International platinum symposium Chromite-PGE mineralization in the Uktus Alaskan-Type Complex (Central Urals,); Garuti, G., Pushkarev, E.V., and Zaccarini, F. (2002) Composition and paragenesis of Pt alloys from chromitites of the Uralian-Alaskan-type Kytlym and Uktus complexes, northern and central Urals, Russia. Canadian Mineralogist: 40: 1127-1146.
    • Southern Urals
      • Bashkortostan Republic (Bashkiria Republic)
F. Zaccarini et al. , The Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 42, pp. 545-562 (2004).
  • Western-Siberian Region
    • Polar Urals
      • Tyumenskaya Oblast'
        • Rai-Iz (Raiz)
Jan Pašava, Ilja Knésl, Anna Vymazalová, Ivan Vavřín, Ludmila Ivanovna Gurskaya, Leonid Ruslanovich Kolbantsev (2011) Geochemistry and mineralogy of platinum-group elements (PGE) in chromites from Centralnoye I, Polar Urals, Russia. Geoscience Frontiers 2:81-85
Jan Pašava, Ilja Knésl, Anna Vymazalová, Ivan Vavřín, Ludmila Ivanovna Gurskaya, Leonid Ruslanovich Kolbantsev (2011) Geochemistry and mineralogy of platinum-group elements (PGE) in chromites from Centralnoye I, Polar Urals, Russia. Geoscience Frontiers 2:81-85
Sierra Leone
 
  • Western Area
    • Guma Water
Econ Geol (1986) 81:1278-1285; Bowles, J.F.W. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 583-586.; John F.W. Bowles, Hazel M. Prichard and Peter C.Fisher (2002) Platinum-group minerals (PGM) in the Freetown Complex, Sierra Leone. 9th Platinum symposium
South Africa
 
  • Free State Province
Minerals of South Africa
  • Limpopo Province
    • Bushveld Complex
The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 43, pp. 1711-1734 (2005)
  • Mpumalanga Province
    • Witwatersrand field
http://www.unileoben.ac.at/~buero62/minpet/malitch/4IASMalitch.pdf
  • North West Province
    • Bojanala Platinum District
      • Western Bushveld Complex
Econ Geol (1989) 84:1651-1655
Econ Geol (1989) 84:1651-1655
Spain
 
  • Andalusia
    • Málaga
      • Ojén
Mineralogy and Petrology: 56: 25-50.
Turkey
 
  • Aegean Region
    • Muğla Province
      • Muğla ophiolite
Uysal, I., Sadiklar, M. B., Tarkian, M., Karsli, O., & Aydin, F. (2005). Mineralogy and composition of the chromitites and their platinum-group minerals from Ortaca (Muğla-SW Turkey): evidence for ophiolitic chromitite genesis. Mineralogy and petrology, 83(3-4), 219-242.; Uysal, İ., Tarkian, M., Sadiklar, M. B., Zaccarini, F., Meisel, T., Garuti, G., & Heidrich, S. (2009). Petrology of Al-and Cr-rich ophiolitic chromitites from the Muğla, SW Turkey: implications from composition of chromite, solid inclusions of platinum-group mineral, silicate, and base-metal mineral, and Os-isotope geochemistry. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 158(5), 659-674.
USA
 
  • Alaska
    • Bethel Borough
www.cannonmicroprobe.com/Mineral_Specimens.htm
        • Salmon River - Red Mountain District
Snetsinger, K.G. (1973): Chromian Aluminian Magnetite and Two Rhodium Alloys in a Platinum Nugget from Goodnews Bay, Alaska. American Mineralogist: 58: 189-194
USGS Open-File Report 01-269
    • Wrangell-Petersburg Borough
      • Ketchikan District
U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
  • California
    • Humboldt Co.
      • Klamath Mts
        • Willow Creek District
          • Willow Creek (China Flat)
Dana's New Mineralogy; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California: 63.; Snetsinger, K.G. (1971b) Erlichmanite (OsS2), a new mineral. American Mineralogist: 56: 1501-1506.
    • Sacramento Co.
      • Folsom District
        • Folsom
Sjoberg, J. and Gomes, J.M. (1980) Platinum-group minerals in California alluvial deposits. US Bureau of Mines, Reno Research Center, unpublished manuscript: 15, figure 1; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 64.
  • Montana
    • Sweet Grass Co.
      • Stillwater Complex
Bart Cannon analysis, Cannon Microprobe, #FP 51, January 11, 1995.
  • Pennsylvania
    • Chester Co.
      • State Line Chromite District
Smith, II, R. C. and Barnes, J. H. (2011)
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