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Ettringite

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About EttringiteHide

Formula:
Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
Colour:
Colourless; colourless in transmitted light.
Hardness:
2 - 2½
Specific Gravity:
1.77
Crystal System:
Trigonal
Name:
After the type locality at Ettringen, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Ettringite Group.

Although it is generally assumed that a solid solution series between ettringite and thaumasite exists, both species have different space groups and a possible discontinuity was identified, characterised by a gap in the a-dimension of the solid-solution phases (Barnett et al., 2000). Further work showed a miscibility gap in the solid solution (Barnett et al., 2003): ettringite can accept the replacement of 1/2 its Al by Si, while thaumasite tolerates little or no Al in its structure.

The Al analogue of bentorite. The S (sulfate) analogue of siwaqaite.

Well-known as a synthetic phase in concrete.
Has been discussed as a potential phase for immobilisation of toxic metals.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Ettringite.


Classification of EttringiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
7.DG.15

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
D : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, with H2O
G : With large and medium-sized cations; with NO3, CO3, B(OH)4, SiO4 or IO3
31.10.2.1

31 : HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
10 : Miscellaneous
25.4.13

25 : Sulphates
4 : Sulphates of Ca, Sr and Ba

Pronounciation of EttringiteHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of EttringiteHide

Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
Colourless; colourless in transmitted light.
Comment:
Turns white upon partial dehydration.
Hardness:
2 - 2½ on Mohs scale
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {10_10}, perfect.
Density:
1.77 g/cm3 (Measured)    1.76 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of EttringiteHide

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.491 nε = 1.470
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.021
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Comments:
Becomes uniaxial positive on dehydration.

Chemical Properties of EttringiteHide

Formula:
Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O

Crystallography of EttringiteHide

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3m - Ditrigonal Pyramidal
Space Group:
P3 1c
Cell Parameters:
a = 11.23 Å, c = 21.44 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 1.909
Unit Cell V:
2,341.61 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Crystals small and prismatic [0001], commonly without terminal faces.

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0020840EttringiteGatta G D, Halenius U, Bosi F, Canadillas-Delgado L, Fernandez-Diaz M T (2019) Minerals in cement chemistry: A single-crystal neutron diffraction study of ettringite, Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12?27H2O American Mineralogist 104 73-782019NChwaning mine, Kuruman, South Africa0293
0009368EttringiteMoore A E, Taylor H F W (1970) Crystal structure of ettringite Acta Crystallographica B26 386-3931970Scawt Hill, Northern Ireland0293
0012178EttringiteHartman M R, Berliner R (2006) Investigation of the structure of ettringite by time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction techniques Cement and Concrete Research 36 364-3702006synthetic0293
0014674EttringiteMoore A, Taylor H F W (1968) Crystal structure of ettringite Nature 218 1048-10491968Scawt Hill, Northern Ireland0293
0017886EttringiteGoetz-Neunhoeffer F, Neubauer J (2006) Refined ettringite (Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12*26H2O) structure for quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis Powder Diffraction 21 4-112006synthetic0293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

Type Occurrence of EttringiteHide

Geological Setting of Type Material:
In cavities of metamorphosed limestone inclusions in a leucite-nepheline-tephrite rock.

Synonyms of EttringiteHide

Other Language Names for EttringiteHide

Simplified Chinese:钙钒石
Spanish:Ettringita

Relationship of Ettringite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
BentoriteCa6(Cr3+,Al)2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
BuryatiteCa3(Si,Fe,Al)(SO4)[B(OH)4]O(OH)5 · 12H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
CarraraiteCa3(SO4)[Ge(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2OHex.
CharlesiteCa6(Al,Si)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH,O)12 · 26H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
ChiyokoiteCa3Si(CO3){[B(OH)4]0.5(AsO3)0.5}(OH)6 · 12H2OHex. 6 : P63
HielscheriteCa3Si(SO4)(SO3)(OH)6 · 11H2OHex. 6 : P63
ImayoshiiteCa3Al(CO3)[B(OH)4](OH)6 · 12H2OHex. 6 : P63
JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2OHex. 6 : P63
KottenheimiteCa 3Si(SO4)2(OH)6·12H2O Hex. 6/m : P63/m
Micheelsenite(Ca2Y)Al(PO3OH)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2OHex.
SiwaqaiteCa6Al2(CrO4)3(OH)12·26H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
TatarinoviteСа3Al(SO4)[B(OH)4](OH)6·12H2OHex. 6 : P63
ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2OHex. 6 : P63
UM2008-07-CO:AlBCaHSSiCa6(Al,Si)2(CO3,SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH,O)12•26H2O

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
60 photos of Ettringite associated with CalciteCaCO3
39 photos of Ettringite associated with OyeliteCa10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2O
19 photos of Ettringite associated with HematiteFe2O3
19 photos of Ettringite associated with HausmanniteMn2+Mn3+2O4
16 photos of Ettringite associated with ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
15 photos of Ettringite associated with GaudefroyiteCa4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3
12 photos of Ettringite associated with BaryteBaSO4
11 photos of Ettringite associated with BruciteMg(OH)2
9 photos of Ettringite associated with QuartzSiO2
8 photos of Ettringite associated with SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2O

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.DG.MathesiusiteK5(UO2)4(SO4)4(VO5)·4H2OTet. 4/m : P4/n
7.DG.05DarapskiteNa3(SO4)(NO3) · H2OMon. 2/m
7.DG.10Clinoungemachite(Na, K, Fe, SO4)Mon. 2/m
7.DG.10HumberstoniteNa7K3Mg2(SO4)6(NO3)2 · 6H2OTrig. 3 : R3
7.DG.10UngemachiteK3Na8Fe(SO4)6(NO3)2 · 6H2OTrig. 3 : R3
7.DG.15BentoriteCa6(Cr3+,Al)2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
7.DG.15CharlesiteCa6(Al,Si)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH,O)12 · 26H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
7.DG.15JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2OHex. 6 : P63
7.DG.15SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
7.DG.15ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2OHex. 6 : P63
7.DG.15CarraraiteCa3(SO4)[Ge(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2OHex.
7.DG.15BuryatiteCa3(Si,Fe,Al)(SO4)[B(OH)4]O(OH)5 · 12H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
7.DG.20RapidcreekiteCa2(SO4)(CO3) · 4H2OOrth.
7.DG.20KorkinoiteCa4(SO4)2(CO3)2 · 9(H2O)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmm
7.DG.25TatarskiteCa6Mg2(SO4)2(CO3)2(OH)4Cl4 · 7H2OOrth.
7.DG.30NakauriiteCu8(SO4)4(CO3)(OH)6 · 48H2OOrth.
7.DG.35Chessexite(Na,K)4Ca2(Mg,Zn)3Al8(SO4)10(SiO4)2 · 40H2OOrth.
7.DG.40CarlosruiziteK6(Na,K)4Na6Mg10(SeO4)12(IO3)12 · 12H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3c1
7.DG.40FuenzalidaiteK6(Na,K)4Na6Mg10(SO4)12(IO3)12 · 12H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3c1
7.DG.45Chelyabinskite(Ca,Mg)3(SO4,CO3)2[Si(OH)6] · 9H2O (?)Orth.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

31.10.2.2BentoriteCa6(Cr3+,Al)2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

25.4.1AnhydriteCaSO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
25.4.2BassaniteCa(SO4) · 0.5H2OMon. 2 : B2
25.4.3GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2OMon. 2/m
25.4.4GlauberiteNa2Ca(SO4)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
25.4.5CesaniteNa3Ca2(SO4)3(OH)Hex. 6 : P6
25.4.6EugsteriteNa4Ca(SO4)3 · 2H2OMon.
25.4.7HydroglauberiteNa10Ca3(SO4)8 · 6H2OMon.
25.4.8SyngeniteK2Ca(SO4)2 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
25.4.9GörgeyiteK2Ca5(SO4)6 · H2OMon.
25.4.10PolyhaliteK2Ca2Mg(SO4)4 · 2H2OTric. 1
25.4.11Koktaite(NH4)2Ca(SO4)2 · H2OMon.
25.4.12Ye'elimiteCa4Al6(SO4)O12Iso.
25.4.14BentoriteCa6(Cr3+,Al)2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
25.4.15CelestineSrSO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
25.4.16KalistrontiteK2Sr(SO4)2Trig.
25.4.17BaryteBaSO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Readily soluble in dilute acids. Partially decomposed by water, rendering an alkaline solution.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for EttringiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Vom Rath, G. (1873) Über ein neues Mineral (Chalkomorphit) auf einem Einschluß in der Lava von Niedermendig. Annalen der Chemie und Physik, Ergänzungsband VI: 376-378.
Lehmann, J. (1874) Untersuchungen über die Einwirkung eines feurig-flüssigen basaltischen Magmas auf Gesteins- und Mineraleinschlüsse. Verhandlungen des naturhistorischen Vereins der preußischen Rheinlande und Westfalens, in Kommission bei M. Cohen: 31: 1-40.
Lehmann, J. (1874) Über den Ettringit, ein neues Mineral in Kalkeinschlüssen der Lava von Ettringen (Laacher Gebiet). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie: 273-275.
Moses, A.J. (1893) Mineralogical notes. American Journal of Science: 45: 488-492.
Brauns, R.A. (1922) Die Mineralien der niederrheinischen Vulkangebiete. 225pp., 4to, Stuttgart: 173.
Bannister, M.A. (1936) Ettringite from Scawt Hill, Co. Antrim. Mineralogical Magazine: 24: 324-329.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 589-590.
Fleischer, M. (1959) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 44: 464-470.
Murdoch, J., Chalmers, R.A. (1960) Ettringite (“woodfordite”) from Crestmore, California. American Mineralogist: 45: 1275-1278.
McConnell, D., Murdoch, J. (1962) Crystal chemistry of ettringite. Mineralogical Magazine: 33: 59-64.
Carpenter, A.B. (1963) Oriented overgrowths of thaumasite on ettringite. American Mineralogist: 48: 1394–1396.
Moore, A., Taylor, H.F.W. (1968) Crystal structure of ettringite. Nature: 218: 1048-1049.
Moore, A.E., Taylor, H.F.W. (1970) Crystal structure of ettringite. Acta Crystallographica: B26: 386-393.
Taylor, H.F.W. (1973) Crystal structures of some double hydroxide minerals. Mineralogical Magazine: 39: 377-389.
Kumarathasan, P., McCarthy, G.J., Hassett, D.J., Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F. (1990) Oxyanion substituted ettringites: synthesis and characterization; and their potential role in immobilization of arsenic, boron, chromium, selenium and vanadium. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 178 (Fly Ash and Coal Conversion By-Products): 83-104.
McCarthy, G.J., Hassett, D.J., Bender, J.A. (1992) Synthesis, crystal chemistry and stability of ettringite, a material with potential applications in hazardous waste immobilization. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.: 245: 129-140.
Myneni, S.C.B., Traina, S.J., Waychunas, G.A., Logan, T.J. (1998) Vibrational spectroscopy of functional group chemistry and arsenate coordination in ettringite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 62: 3499-3514.
Barnett, S.J., Adam, C.D., Jackson, A.R.W. (2000) Solid solutions between ettringite, Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12·26H2O, and thaumasite, Ca3SiSO4CO3(OH)6·12H2O. Journal of Materials Science: 35: 4109-4114.
Barnett, S.J., Adam, C.D., Jackson, A.R.W. (2001) An XRPD profile fitting investigation of the solid solution between ettringite, Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12.26H2O and carbonate ettringite, Ca6Al2(CO3)3(OH)12.26H2O. Cement and Concrete Research: 31: 13-17.
Antao, S.M., Duane, M.J., Hassan, I. (2002) DTA, TG, and XRD studies of sturmanite and ettringite. The Canadian Mineralogist: 40: 1403-1409.
Grier, D.G., Jarabek, E.L., Peterson, R.B., Mergen, L.E., McCarthy, G.J. (2002) Rietveld structure refinement of carbonate and sulfite ettringite. Advances in X-ray Analysis: 45: 194-199.
Barnett, S.J., Macphee, D.E., Lachowski, E.E., Crammond, N.J. (2002) XRD, EDX and IR analysis of solid solutions between thaumasite and ettringite. Cement and Concrete Research: 32: 719-730.
Barnett, S.J., Macphee, D.E., Crammond, N.J. (2003) Extent of immiscibility in the ettringite–thaumasite system. Cement and Concrete Composites: 25: 851-855.
Zhou, Q., Lachowski, E.E., Glasser, F.P. (2004) Metaettringite, a decomposition product of ettringite. Cement and Concrete Research: 34: 703-710.
Goetz-Neunhoeffer, F., Neubauer, J. (2006) Refined ettringite (Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12•26H2O) structure for quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis. Powder Diffraction: 21: 4-11.
Hartman, M.R., Berliner, R. (2006) Investigation of the structure of ettringite by time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction techniques. Cement and Concrete Research: 36: 364-370.
Moschner, G., Lothenbach, B., Winnefeld, F., Ulrich, A., Figi, R., Kretzschmar, R. (2009) Solid solution between Al-ettringite and Fe-ettringite (Ca6[Al1-xFex(OH)6]2(SO4)3.26H2O). Cement and Concrete Research: 39: 482-489.
Sokol, E.V., Gaskova, O.L., Kokh, S.N., Kozmenko, O.A., Seryotkin, Y.V., Vapnik, Y., Murashko, M.N. (2011) Chromatite and its Cr3+- and Cr6+-bearing precursor minerals from the Nabi Musa Mottled Zone complex, Judean Desert. American Mineralogist: 96: 659-674. [with data on Cr(VI)-bearing ettringite]
Scholtzová, E., Kucková, L., Kožíšek, J., Tunega, D. (2015) Structural and spectroscopic characterization of ettringite mineral – combined DFT and experimental study. Journal of Molecular Structure: 1100: 215-224.
Skibsted, J., Pedersen, M.T., Holzinger, J. (2017) Resolution of the two aluminum sites in ettringite by 27Al MAS and MQMAS NMR at very high magnetic field (22.3 T). Journal of Physical Chemistry C: 121: 4011-4017.
Geng, G., Myers, R.J., Kilcoyne, A.L.D., Ha, J., Monteiro, P.J.M. (2017) Ca L2,3-edge near edge X-ray absorption fine structure of tricalcium aluminate, gypsum, and calcium (sulfo)aluminate hydrates. American Mineralogist: 102: 900-908.
Yurii V. Seryotkin, Ella V. Sokol, Svetlana N. Kokh, Mikhail N. Murashko (2018): Natural Cr3+-rich ettringite: occurrence, properties, and crystal structure. Phys. Chem. Minerals 45, 279-292. [Cr/(Cr + Al) ratios up to 0.40–0.50]
G. Diego Gatta, Ulf Hålenius, Ferdinando Bosi, Laura Cañadillas-Delgado, Maria Teresa Fernandez-Diaz (2019): Minerals in cement chemistry: A single-crystal neutron diffraction study of ettringite, Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12·27H2O. American Mineralogist 104, 73-78.

Internet Links for EttringiteHide

Localities for EttringiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Austria
 
  • Lower Austria
    • Melk District
      • Persenbeug-Gottsdorf
        • Loja
Löffler, E. & Kolitsch, U. (2011): Die Mineralien der Loja bei Persenbeug, Niederösterreich (II). Mineralien-Welt. 22 (4): 51-62
    • Neunkirchen District
      • Gloggnitz
Kolitsch, U., Auer, C., Slama, M. & Jakely, D. (2017): 2048) Aikinit, Arsenopyrit, Bismuthinit, Ettringit, Tennantit und Zálesíit sowie weitere Funde vom niederösterreichischen Anteil des Semmering-Basistunnels, Niederösterreich. Pp. 268-270 in Walter, F. et al. (2017): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXVI. Carinthia II, 207./127., 217-284.
  • Styria
    • Leoben District
      • Eisenerz
Kolitsch, U. (2016): 1989) Ettringit aus einer Schlacke von Eisenerz, Steiermark. Pp. 235-236 in Walter, F. et al. (2016): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXV. Carinthia II, 206./126., 203-250.
      • Leoben
        • Galgenberg
Annalen 1999, p.11-22
    • Murtal District
      • Weißkirchen in Steiermark
        • Kleinfeistritz
          • Kothgraben (Kotgraben)
C.Auer (2012)
    • Südoststeiermark District
      • Bad Gleichenberg
        • Wilhelmsdorf
Postl, W., Taucher, J. & Moser, B. (1996): Neue Mineralfunde im oststeirischen Vulkangebiet. Mitt. Abt. Miner. Landesmuseum Joanneum, 60/61, 3-76.
      • Klöch
Postl, W. & Walter, F. (1983); R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs, 1993
  • Tyrol
    • Kufstein District
      • Brixlegg
        • St Gertraudi
Lapis 19 (7/8):69 (1994)
  • Upper Austria
    • Steyr
      • Slag localities
G. Brandstetter collection
peter neschen collection
Belgium
 
  • Flanders
    • Limburg
      • Dilsen-Stokkem
        • Rotem
  • Wallonia
    • Namur
      • Andenne
No reference listed
France
 
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Loire
      • La Pacaudière
        • Le Crozet
Chollet, P. & Devouard, B. (2013): La mine de cuivre et de plomb des Rats, Le Crozet (Loire). Le Règne Minéral, 109, 7-46.
    • Puy-de-Dôme
      • Clermont-Ferrand
        • Beaumont
Grünhagen, H. and Mergoil, J. (1963) Découverte d'hydrocalumite et afwillite associées à l'ettringite dans les porcélanites de Boisséjour près Ceyrat (Puy de Dôme). Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie, 86, 149-157.; Belot, Victor R. (1978) Guide des minéraux, coquillages et fossiles: où les trouver en France, comment les reconnaître et les collectionner (Guides Horay). Pierre Horay (Ed.), 224 pp.
        • Ceyrat
  • Occitanie
    • Aveyron
      • Rodez
        • Espalion
Boutry C., Pelisson P., Pillard F. (1986), Les zéolites d'Espalion, Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°2, pp: 3-7
        • Sévérac-d'Aveyron
Eytier J.R. & Ch., Favreau G., Devouard B., Vigier J. (2004), Minéraux de pyrométamorphisme de Lapanouse-de Sévérac (Aveyron), Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°85, pp: 3-58
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Freiburg Region
      • Ortenaukreis
        • Oberwolfach
Walenta, K. (1992) Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes und ihre Fundstellan. Christian Weise Verlag, München, 336 pages [in German].
  • Bavaria
    • Lower Bavaria
      • Passau District
        • Untergriesbach
          • Kropfmühl-Untergriesbach graphite mining district
            • Kropfmühl
Habel, M. (2011): Neufunde aus dem östlichen Bayerischen Wald (VIII). Mineralien Welt. 22 (1),80-87
    • Lower Franconia
      • Haßberge District
        • Maroldsweisach
Pöllmann, H. (1991): Die Afwillit-Portlandit Paragenese im Basalt des Zeilbergs bei Maroldsweisach/Unterfranken. Aufschluss, 42, 257-266
  • Hesse
    • Kassel Region
      • Hersfeld-Rotenburg
        • Nentershausen
          • Süß
            • Richelsdorf Smelter
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Lower Saxony
    • Osnabrück District
      • Georgsmarienhütte
Schnorrer, G., Stahlmann, W., Mollenkamp, A. (2001): Sekundärmineralisation in den Hochofenschlacken des Hüttenwerkes in Georgsmarienhütte, heutige Georgsmarienhütte GmbH. Aufschluss 52, 99-108.
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Arnsberg
      • Hüsten
Weiss, S. (1990) Mineralfundstellen Atlas, Deutschland West. Weise Verlag, München, 320 pages.
      • Märkischer Kreis
        • Iserlohn
          • Letmathe
Bender, D. and Krimmelbein, W. (1994) Aktuelle Übersicht: Mineralien der Zinkhütte Genna/Sauerland. Stand Juni 1994. Mineralien-Welt, 4/94, 10.; http://www.mg-mineralien-fossilien.de/?Rpage=sauerland/?Rpage=letmathe1.html
      • Siegen-Wittgenstein
        • Siegen
          • Geisweid
Peter Neschen Collection
    • Cologne
      • Aachen
        • Eschweiler
        • Stolberg
Peter Neschen Collection
International Association of Collectors of Slag; Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
      • Euskirchen
        • Mechernich
          • Kall
Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Ahrweiler District
      • Brohltal
        • Brenk
Hentschel, G., Ettringit vom Schellkopf bei Brenk in der Eifel, Der Aufschluss, 19, 198-200, 1968
    • Mayen-Koblenz District
      • Mayen
Lehmann, J. (1874): Untersuchungen über die Einwirkung eines feurig-flüssigen basaltischen Magmas auf Gesteins- und Mineraleinschlüsse, Verhandlungen des naturhistorischen Vereins der preußischen Rheinlande und Westfalens, Vol. 31, Cohen Bonn, p 1-40
      • Mendig
        • Bell
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 1983
        • Mendig
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 1983
      • Vordereifel
        • Bellerberg volcano
          • Northern lava flow
Lehmann, J. (1874): Untersuchungen über die Einwirkung eines feurig-flüssigen basaltischen Magmas auf Gesteins- und Mineraleinschlüsse, Verhandlungen des naturhistorischen Vereins der preußischen Rheinlande und Westfalens, Vol. 31, Cohen Bonn, p 1-40
        • Ettringen
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise (München), 1983
in the collection of Christof Schäfer
Galuskin, E.V., Krüger, B., Krüger, H., Blass, G., Widmer, R., Galuskina, I.O. (2016): Wernerkrauseite, CaFe3+2Mn4+O6 - the first non-stoichiometric post-spinel mineral, from Bellerberg volcano, Eifel, Germany. European Journal of Mineralogy, 28, 485-493
Lehmann, J. (1874): Untersuchungen über die Einwirkung eines feurig-flüssigen basaltischen Magmas auf Gesteins- und Mineraleinschlüsse, Verhandlungen des naturhistorischen Vereins der preußischen Rheinlande und Westfalens, Vol. 31, Cohen Bonn, p 1-40
        • Kottenheim
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise (München), 1983
Peacor, D.R., Dunn, P.J., Simmons, W.B., Tillmanns, E., Fischer, R.X., (1984): Willhendersonite, a new zeolite isostructural with chabazite, Amer. Mineral. 69, 186-189
    • Rhein-Lahn District
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
        • Frücht
Der Aufschluss Vol.55, March/April 2004
      • Loreley
        • Braubach
Schnorrer-Köhler, G. & David, W. (1991): Die Blei- und Silberhütte Braubach und ihre Haldenminerale. Lapis, 16 (1), 38-49; 58 (in German).
    • Vulkaneifel District
      • Daun
        • Üdersdorf
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 1983
      • Gerolstein
        • Gerolstein
          • Roth
Blaß, G. & Schüller, W. (2012): Der Rother Kopf in der Vulkaneifel. Lapis, 37 (3), 20-29.
        • Hillesheim
G. Blaß, F.J. Emmerich, H.W. Graf, Minerale der Vulkaneifel, DVD Version 2013/1.1
        • Hohenfels-Essingen
Blass, G., Emmerich, F., Graf, HW., Schäfer, Ch., Tschörtner, J., (2006): Minerale der Eifelvulkane, Version 1.0, CD, published by authors
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirgskreis
      • Marienberg
        • Lauta
Hajek, W. (2010): Kristallwelten Marienberg. Weise Verlag, München.
  • Thuringia
    • Ronneburg U deposit
T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
Greece
 
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Rewitzer, C., Standfuss, L. & Standfuss, K. (1988): Weitere Neufunde aus Lavrions antiken Schlacken. Lapis 13 (2), 11-14.
          • Passa Limani area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals of the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Sounion area
Laurion The minerals in the ancient slags by Piet Gelaude etc.
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian, (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Thorikos area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Vrissaki area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Israel
 
  • Southern District (HaDarom District)
    • Arad
Juroszek, R.; Krüger, B.; Galuskina, I.; Krüger, H.; Tribus, M.; Kürsten, C. (2020) Raman Spectroscopy and Single-Crystal High-Temperature Investigations of Bentorite, Ca6Cr2(SO4)3(OH)12·26H2O. Minerals 10, 38.
    • Tamar Regional Council
Galuskin, E.V., Gfeller, F., Armbruster, T., Sharygin, V.V., Galuskina, I.O., Krivovichev, S.V., Vapnik, Y., Murashko, M., Dzierżanowski, P., Wirth, R. (2015): Mayenite supergroup, part III: Fluormayenite, Ca12Al14O32[□4F2], and fluorkyuygenite, Ca12Al14O32[(H2O)4F2], two new minerals from pyrometamorphic rocks of the Hatrurim Complex, South Levant. European Journal of Mineralogy, 27, 123-136
Sharygin, Victor V.; Yakovlev, Grigory A.; Wirth, Richard; Seryotkin, Yurii V.; Sokol, Ellina V.; Nigmatulina, Elena N.; Karmanov, Nikolai S.; Pautov, Leonid A. (2019) Nataliakulikite, Ca4Ti2(Fe3+,Fe2+)(Si,Fe3+,Al)O11, a New Perovskite-Supergroup Mineral from Hatrurim Basin, Negev Desert, Israel. Minerals 9, no. 11: 700.
Sokol, E.V., Seryotkin, Y.V., Kokh, S.N., Vapnik, Ye., Nigmatulina, E.N., Goryainov, S.V., Belogub, E.V., Sharygin, V.V. (2015): Flamite, (Ca,Na,K)2(Si,P)O4, a new mineral from ultrahigh-temperature combustion metamorphic rocks, Hatrurim Basin, Negev Desert, Israel. Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 583-596.
Italy
 
  • Basilicata
    • Potenza Province
      • Melfi
Stoppa, F., Jones, A.P., and Sharygin, V.V. (2009): Central European Journal of Geosciences 1(2), 131-151
  • Campania
    • Naples
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
        • Monte Somma
          • Ercolano
            • San Vito
Russo, M., Punzo, I. (2004): I minerali del Somma-Vesuvio, AMI
  • Lazio
    • Metropolitan City of Rome Capital
Caponera, I., Fiori, S., Pucci, R., & Signoretti, E. (2007). I minerali dei Colli Albani. Un aggiornamento sugli ultimi dieci anni di ricerche. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 31 (2), 74-91.
      • Rome
Barbieri M., Voltaggio M. (1982): Ettringite dell'Acqua Acetosa (Colli Albani, Roma). Per. Mineral., 51, 2, 205-216.
Luigi Mattei specimen
        • Valleranello
Stoppani, F.S., and Curti, E. (1982) I minerali del Lazio. Editoriale Olimpia, Firenze, 291 pp.; Liotti, L. (1995) I minerali del complesso vulcanico dei Colli Albani. Seconda parte. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 18, 1 (1-1995), 55-70; Carlini, R., and Signoretti, E. (2018) Il Lazio classico: le cave di leucitite della provincia di Roma (Vallerano, Laghetto e Osa). Fossils & Minerals, 4, 24-53.
    • Viterbo Province
      • Montalto di Castro
        • Pietra Massa Locality
Passaglia, E. & Turconi, B. (1982): Silicati ed altri minerali di Montalto di Castro - VT. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/1982, 97-110.
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Campiglia Marittima
        • Madonna di Fucinaia (Madonna della Fucinaia) slag heaps
http://www.comune.pisa.it/apsn/Articoli/Scorie/Capattoli.htm
      • Piombino
Franzini, M., Perchiazzi, N. (1992): I minerali delle scorie ferrifere etrusche di Baratti (Livorno). Atti della Società Toscana di Scienze Naturali, Memorie, Serie A, 99, 43-77.
    • Siena Province
      • Chiusdino
Menchetti, S., Batoni, M., Batacchi, C., Borselli, G., Brogi, A., Ceccantini, L., Fassina, B., Marchesini, M., Rossellini, A. & Ruggieri, G. (2015): Le Cetine di Cotorniano. Miniera e minerali. Associazione Micro-Mineralogica Italiana, Cremona, 354 p.
  • Umbria
    • Perugia Province
      • Spoleto
Stoppa F., Scordari F., Mesto E., Sharygin V.V. and Bortolozzi G. - Calcium-aluminium-silicate-hydrate "cement" phases and rare Ca-zeolite association at Colle Fabbri, Central Italy (2010). Centr.Eur.J.Geosci. 2 (2), pag. 175-187 .; Wheeler, S., Spigarelli, S., Stoppa, F., & Rinaldi, R. (1996). Secondary minerals from the igneous complex of Colle Fabbri, Spoleto (PG). Plinius, 16(2), 1.
  • Veneto
    • Padova Province
      • Cervarese Santa Croce
Fabris, L., Guastoni, A. (2014) Provincia di Padova. In: Zorzi, F., Boscardin, M., (eds.), Minerali del Veneto. Alla scoperta dei tesori della nostra regione. Museo di Storia Naturale e Archeologia di Montebelluna - Treviso, Cierre Edizioni, Sommacampagna, pages 121-141.
      • Galzignano Terme
Fabris, L., Guastoni, A. (2014): Provincia di Padova. In: Zorzi, F., Boscardin, M., (eds.), Minerali del Veneto. Alla scoperta dei tesori della nostra regione. Museo di Storia Naturale e Archeologia di Montebelluna - Treviso, Cierre Edizioni, Sommacampagna, pages 121-141.
    • Vicenza Province
      • Cornedo Vicentino
        • Spagnago
Lapis, 15 (12), 27-32+50.; Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
      • Laghi
Boscardin M., Daleffe A., Rocchetti I., Zordan A. “I minerali nel Vicentino”, Museo “G. Zannato”, Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), 2011.
      • Schio
        • Tretto
          • Val Munari
            • Contrade Maglio-Pornaro
Boscardin, M., Daleffe, A., Rocchetti, I., Zordan, A. (2011): Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni. Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato”, Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), 183 pp.; Zordan, A. (2014): Provincia di Vicenza. In: Zorzi, F., Boscardin, M., (eds.), Minerali del Veneto. Alla scoperta dei tesori della nostra regione. Museo di Storia Naturale e Archeologia di Montebelluna - Treviso, Cierre Edizioni, Sommacampagna, 173-246.
Japan
 
  • Fukushima Prefecture
Matsuyama, F. (2001)
Jordan
 
  • Amman Governorate
    • Hashem region
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
Khoury, H. N. (2014). Geochemistry of Surficial Uranium Deposits from Central Jordan.
Fleurance, S., Cuney, M., Malartre, F., & Reyx, J. (2013). Origin of the extreme polymetallic enrichment (Cd, Cr, Mo, Ni, U, V, Zn) of the Late Cretaceous–Early Tertiary Belqa Group, central Jordan. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 369, 201-219.
    • Transjordan Plateau
      • Daba-Siwaqa complex
Galuskina, I. O., Krüger, B., Galuskin, E. V., Vapnik, Y., & Murashko, M. (2019). A New Mineral Khurayyimite, Ca7. 07Zn3. 89Si4. 02O14 (OH) 10 4H2O, from Daba Siwaqa Pyrometamorphic Rock, Jordan. In XIX International Meeting on Crystal Chemistry, X-ray Diffraction and Spectroscopy of Minerals (pp. 78-78).
  • Irbid Governorate
    • Maqarin area
http://www.natural-analogues.com/maqarin.htm; Khoury, H. N., Salameh, E., & Abdul-Jaber, Q. (1985). Characteristics of an unusual highly alkaline water from the Maqarin area, northern Jordan. Journal of Hydrology, 81(1), 79-91.; Pitty, A. F., & Alexander, W. R. (2010). A natural analogue study of cement buffered, hyperalkaline groundwaters and their interaction with a repository host rock IV: an examination of the Khushaym Matruk (central Jordan) and Maqarin (northern Jordan) sites. NDA-RWMD Technical Report, NDA, Moors Row, UK.; Khoury, H. and Nassir, S. (1982): High temperature mineralization in the bituminous limestone in Maqarin area - North Jordan. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen, 144, 197-213.
Middle East
 
Gross, S. (1977): The Mineralogy of the Hatrurim Formation, Israel. Geological Survey of Israel, Bulletin no. 70, 80 pp.; Mineralogical Magazine 1963 33 : 723-724.
Palestine
 
  • West Bank
    • Bethlehem Governorate
Galuskina, I. O., Gfeller, F., Galuskin, E. V., Armbruster, T., Vapnik, Y., Dulski, M., ... & Murashko, M. (2018). New minerals with modular structure derived from hatrurite from the pyrometamorphic rocks, part IV: Dargaite, BaCa 12 (SiO 4) 4 (SO 4) 2 O 3, from Nahal Darga, Palestinian Autonomy. Mineralogical Magazine, 1-22.
    • Jericho Governorate
Ella V. Sokol, Olga L. Gaskova, Svetlana N. Kokh, Olga A. Kozmenko, Yuri V. Seryotkin, Yevgeny Vapnik, and Michail N. Murashko (2011): Chromatite and its Cr3+- and Cr6+-bearing precursor minerals from the Nabi Musa Mottled Zone complex, Judean Desert. American Mineralogist, 96, 659-674.
Sokol, E.V., Gaskova, O.L., Kokh, S.N., Kozmenko, O.A., Seryotkin, Y.V., Vapnik, Y., Murashko, M.N. (2011): Chromatite and its Cr3+- and Cr6+-bearing precursor minerals from the Nabi Musa Mottled Zone complex, Judean Desert. American Mineralogist 96, 659-674.; Rafał Juroszek, Biljana Krüger, Yevgeny Vapnik, Irina Galuskina, Evgeny Galuskin (2018) Blue afwillite from Ma’ale Adummim, Judean Desert, Israel. in abstracts of the 22nd IMA Meeting Melbourne p 357; Juroszek, R.; Krüger, B.; Galuskina, I.; Krüger, H.; Tribus, M.; Kürsten, C. (2020) Raman Spectroscopy and Single-Crystal High-Temperature Investigations of Bentorite, Ca6Cr2(SO4)3(OH)12·26H2O. Minerals 10, 38.
    • Quds Governorate
Galuskin, E.V., Gfeller, F., Armbruster, T., Sharygin, V.V., Galuskina, I.O., Krivovichev, S.V., Vapnik, Y., Murashko, M., Dzierżanowski, P., Wirth, R. (2015): Mayenite supergroup, part III: Fluormayenite, Ca12Al14O32[□4F2], and fluorkyuygenite, Ca12Al14O32[(H2O)4F2], two new minerals from pyrometamorphic rocks of the Hatrurim Complex, South Levant. European Journal of Mineralogy, 27, 123-136.
Romania
 
  • Brașov
    • Racoş Commune
Szakáll, S., Kristály, F., 2010. Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Sfântu Gheorghe-Miercurea Ciuc-Târgu Mureş. 2010.
  • Harghita
    • Odorheiu Secuiesc (Székelyudvarhely; Oderhellen)
      • Racoş (Racoşu de Jos)
Szakáll, S., Almási, E., Köllı, A., Sajó, I., Vezzalini, G. (2006): New data about the minerals of the copper ore deposit at Balan (East Carpathians) and of limestone xenolithes from basalt at Racosu de Jos (Persani Mts.), Romania. Acta Mineral.-Petrogr., Abstr. Ser. 5, p. 112. [http://www.mineral.hermuz.hu/acta_05/pdf/szakalls1.pdf]
Russia
 
  • Kabardino-Balkaria
    • Baksan Valley
Bailau, R., Gałuskin, E. V., Gazeev, V. M., & Gałuskina, I. O. Raman investigation of potential new mineral-Fe 3-analogue of wadalite from calcareous-silicate xenoliths of the Upper Chegem caldera, Northern Caucasus, Russia.
A. E. Zadov data
Galuskin, E. V.; Gazeev, V. M.; Lazic, B.; Armbruster, T.; Galuskina, I. O.; Zadov, A. E.; Pertsev, N. N.; Wrzalik, R.; Dzierzanowski, P.; Gurbanov, A. G. & Bzowska, G. (2009): Chegemite Ca7(SiO4)3(OH)2 - a new humite-group calcium mineral from the Northern Caucasus, Kabardino-Balkaria, Russia. European Journal of Mineralogy 21, 1045-1059.
[World of Stones 12:49]
South Africa
 
  • Northern Cape
    • Kalahari manganese field
      • Black Rock
Rob Lavinsky photo
      • Hotazel
Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
      • Kuruman
        • N'Chwaning Mines
No reference listed
Minerals of South Africa + Hochleitner, R. (1986). Sturmanit und Ettringit aus den Kalahari-Manganfeldern. LAPIS 11 (10), 19-24
Debbie Woolf - Bruce Cairncross private communication
Spain
 
  • Aragón
    • Huesca
      • Flumen-Monegros District
Vizcayno, C., Garcia-Gonzalez, M. T., Gutierrez, M., & Rodriguez, R. (1995). Mineralogical, chemical and morphological features of salt accumulations in the Flumen-Monegros district, NE Spain. Geoderma, 68(3), 193-210.
  • Castile-La Mancha
    • Ciudad Real
Calvo, M., Calvo Sevillano, G., Viñals, J. y Sanz, A. (2010). Presencia de ettringita y thaumasita en vacuolas de los basaltos del Campo de Calatrava (Ciudad Real). Macla, 11, 53-54.
        • Bolaños de Calatrava
Calvo, M., Calvo Sevillano, G., Viñals, J. y Sanz, A. (2010). Presencia de ettringita y thaumasita en vacuolas de los basaltos del Campo de Calatrava (Ciudad Real). Macla, 11, 53-54.
Switzerland
 
  • Neuchâtel
    • Val-de-Travers
Marco Bonifazi
Tuvalu
 
  • Funafuti Island
Mineralogical Magazine 1988 52 : 411-414.
UK
 
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • Lanner
        • Lanner
Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
    • Cumbria
      • City of Carlisle District
        • Farlam
          • Tindale (Tindale Fell)
Braithwaite, R.S.W., Lamb, R.P.H. and Nattrass, A.L. (2006): Secondary species associated with weathering of industrial residues at Tindale Fell Spelter Works, Cumbria. Journal of the Russell Society 9, 61-64.; Norman Wilson collection
    • Derbyshire
      • North East Derbyshire District
        • Ashover
          • Milltown
Rust, S. Seltene Mineralien aus dem Steinbruch Milltown bei Ashover LAPIS Mineralienmagazin 1994, 12, p.13-17, 58; Ford, T., A. Sarjeant & M. Smith (1993) The minerals of the Peak district of Derbyshire UK Jour. Mines & Minerals 13:16-55
    • North Yorkshire
      • Scarborough
Smith, F.W., Dearlove, J.P.L., Kemp, S.J., Bell, C.P., Milne, C.J. and Pottas, T.L. (2014) Potash – Recent exploration developments in North Yorkshire. Pp. 45-50 in Hunger, E., Brown, T. J. and Lucas, G. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 17th Extractive Industry Geology Conference, EIG Conferences Ltd. 202pp
  • Northern Ireland
    • Ulster
      • Co. Antrim
        • Larne
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 590.; Tilley, C.E. (1942) Tricalcium disilicate (rankinite), a new mineral from Scawt Hill, Co. Antrim. Mineralogical Magazine: 26(176): 190-197.
  • Scotland
    • Highland
      • Ardnamurchan
Agrell, S.O. (1965) Polythermal metamorphism of limestones at Kilchoan, Ardnamurchan. Mineralogical Magazine: 34: 1-15.
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Cochise County
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 590; Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 217; Butler, B.S., et al (1938b), Geology and ore deposits of the Tombstone district, AZ, AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 143.; Moses, A. J. (1903): Ettringite and alabandine from Arizona. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie und Mineralogie, 22, 16-9.
  • California
    • Riverside Co.
      • Crestmore
        • Crestmore quarries
          • Sky Blue Hill
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert A. Chalmers (1960), Ettringite (“woodfordite”) from Crestmore, California: American Mineralogist: 45: 1275-1278; Mineralogical Magazine (1962): 33: 59-64; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 180; Berry, Leonard G. (1963a), The unit cell of ettringite: American Mineralogist: 48: 939; Carpenter, A.B. (1963), Oriented Overgrowths of thaumasite on ettringite: American Mineralogist: 48: 1394-1395; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 265.
  • Vermont
    • Windham Co.
      • Putney
Rocks & Min. vol. 71, (1996); Rocks & Minerals, v. 71, no. 5, pg. 334
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    • Highland Co.
Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
 
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