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Eudidymite

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Formula:
Na2Be2Si6O15 · H2O
Hardness:
6
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
From the Greek words for well and twinned, in allusion to its common occurrence in twins.
Dimorph of:
This page provides mineralogical data about Eudidymite.


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Classification of EudidymiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
9.DG.60

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
G : Inosilicates with 3-periodic single and multiple chains
66.3.1.3

66 : INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
3 : Amphiboles - Ca-Na subgroup
14.3.6

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
3 : Silicates of Be

Physical Properties of EudidymiteHide

Hardness:

Optical Data of EudidymiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.545 nβ = 1.546 nγ = 1.551
2V:
Measured: 30° , Calculated: 50°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.006
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
r > v distinct

Chemical Properties of EudidymiteHide

Formula:
Na2Be2Si6O15 · H2O
Common Impurities:
Al,Fe,Ca

Crystallography of EudidymiteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
B2/b
Cell Parameters:
a = 12.6188(10) Å, b = 7.3781(5) Å, c = 13.9940(9) Å
β = 103.762(5)°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.71 : 1 : 1.897
Unit Cell V:
1265.47 ų
Z:
4

Crystallographic forms of EudidymiteHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Eudidymite no.10 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Type Occurrence of EudidymiteHide

Other Language Names for EudidymiteHide

German:Eudidymit
Simplified Chinese:双晶石
Spanish:Eudidymita
Traditional Chinese:雙晶石

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Aegirine19 photos of Eudidymite associated with Aegirine on mindat.org.
Epididymite18 photos of Eudidymite associated with Epididymite on mindat.org.
Smoky Quartz9 photos of Eudidymite associated with Smoky Quartz on mindat.org.
Natrolite8 photos of Eudidymite associated with Natrolite on mindat.org.
Calcite7 photos of Eudidymite associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Albite4 photos of Eudidymite associated with Albite on mindat.org.
Microcline4 photos of Eudidymite associated with Microcline on mindat.org.
Dolomite4 photos of Eudidymite associated with Dolomite on mindat.org.
Analcime3 photos of Eudidymite associated with Analcime on mindat.org.
Pyrite3 photos of Eudidymite associated with Pyrite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.DG.05BustamiteCaMn2+(Si2O6)Tric. 1 : P1
9.DG.05FerrobustamiteCaFe2+(Si2O6)Tric.
9.DG.05PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)Tric. 1 : P1
9.DG.05SeranditeNaMn2+2Si3O8(OH)Tric. 1 : P1
9.DG.05WollastoniteCaSiO3Tric. 1 : P1
9.DG.05Wollastonite-1ACaSiO3Tric.
9.DG.07CascanditeCa(Sc,Fe3+)(HSi3O9)Tric.
9.DG.08Plombièrite[Ca4Si6O16(OH)2 · 2H2O]·(Ca·5H2O)Orth.
9.DG.10Clinotobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O]·(Ca·3H2O)Mon.
9.DG.10RiversideiteCa5(HSi3O9)2 · 2H2OOrth.
9.DG.10Tobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O]·(Ca·3H2O)Orth.
9.DG.15FoshagiteCa4(Si3O9)(OH)2Tric.
9.DG.20JenniteCa9(Si3O9)2(OH)8 · 8H2OTric.
9.DG.25ParaumbiteK3Zr2H(Si3O9)2 · nH2OOrth.
9.DG.25UmbiteK2(Zr,Ti)Si3O9 · H2OOrth.
9.DG.30SørenseniteNa4SnBe2Si6O16(OH)4Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DG.35XonotliteCa6(Si6O17)(OH)2Mon. 2/m
9.DG.40HillebranditeCa2(SiO3)(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
9.DG.45ZoriteNa8(Ti,Nb)5(Si6O17)2(OH,O)5 · 14H2OOrth.
9.DG.45ChivruaiiteCa4(Ti,Nb)5(Si6O17)2(OH,O)5 · 13-14H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmmm
9.DG.50Haineaultite(Na,Ca)5Ca(Ti,Nb)5(Si6O17)2(OH,F)8 · 5H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : C2 2 2
9.DG.55EpididymiteNa2Be2Si6O15 · H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
9.DG.65ElpiditeNa2ZrSi6O15 · 3H2OOrth.
9.DG.70Fenaksite(K,Na)4(Fe,Mn)2(Si4O10)2(OH,F)Tric.
9.DG.70LitidioniteCuNaKSi4O10Tric.
9.DG.70ManaksiteKNaMnSi4O10Tric.
9.DG.75TinaksiteK2Na(Ca,Mn2+)2Ti[O|Si7O18(OH)]Tric.
9.DG.75TokkoiteK2Ca4[Si7O18(OH)](OH,F)Tric.
9.DG.75SenkevichiteCsKNaCa2Ti[O|Si7O18(OH)]Tric. 1 : P1
9.DG.80CanasiteK3Na3Ca5Si12O30(OH)4
9.DG.80FluorcanasiteK3Na3Ca5Si12O30F4 · H2OMon. m : Bm
9.DG.85MiseriteK1.5-x(Ca,Y,REE)5(Si6O15)(Si2O7)(OH,F)2 · yH2OTric.
9.DG.90FrankameniteK3Na3Ca5(Si12O30)(F,OH)4 · H2OTric.
9.DG.92Charoite(K,Sr)15-16(Ca,Na)32[Si6O11(O,OH)6]2[Si12O18(O,OH)12]2[Si17O25(O,OH)18]2(OH,F)4 · ~3H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
9.DG.95YuksporiteK4(Ca,Na)14(Sr,Ba)2(◻,Mn,Fe)(Ti,Nb)4(O,OH)4(Si6O17)2(Si2O7)3(H2O,OH)3Orth.
9.DG.97Eveslogite(Na,K,Ca,Sr,Ba)48 [(Ti,Nb,Mn,Fe2+)12Si48O144(OH)12](F,OH,Cl)14Mon. 2/m : P2/m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

66.3.1.1XonotliteCa6(Si6O17)(OH)2Mon. 2/m
66.3.1.2ZoriteNa8(Ti,Nb)5(Si6O17)2(OH,O)5 · 14H2OOrth.
66.3.1.4EpididymiteNa2Be2Si6O15 · H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
66.3.1.5YuksporiteK4(Ca,Na)14(Sr,Ba)2(◻,Mn,Fe)(Ti,Nb)4(O,OH)4(Si6O17)2(Si2O7)3(H2O,OH)3Orth.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

14.3.1PhenakiteBe2SiO4Trig. 3 : R3
14.3.2BertranditeBe4(Si2O7)(OH)2Orth. mm2 : Cmc21
14.3.3BerylliteBe3(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2OOrth.
14.3.4LiberiteLi2BeSiO4Mon. m : Pm
14.3.5ChkaloviteNa2BeSi2O6Orth. mm2 : Fdd2
14.3.7EpididymiteNa2Be2Si6O15 · H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
14.3.8GugiaiteCa2Be(Si2O7)Tet.
14.3.9Jeffreyite(Ca,Na)2(Be,Al)(Si2O7,HSi2O7)Orth.
14.3.10Semenovite-(Ce)Na8Ca2FeBe6Ce2Si14O40(OH)4F4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
14.3.11BaryliteBe2Ba(Si2O7)Orth.
14.3.12Hingganite-(Ce)(Ce,REE)2(□,Fe2+)Be2[SiO4]2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
14.3.13Hingganite-(Yb)(Yb,Y,REE)2□Be2[SiO4]2(OH)2
14.3.14Hingganite-(Y)(Y,REE,Ca)2(□,Fe2+)Be2[SiO4]2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
14.3.15Minasgeraisite-(Y)CaBe2Y2Si2O10Mon. 2/m : P21/b
14.3.16SørenseniteNa4SnBe2Si6O16(OH)4Mon. 2/m : B2/b
14.3.17TrimeriteCaMn2+2Be3(SiO4)3Mon. 2/m : P21/m
14.3.18ChiavenniteCaMnBe2Si5O13(OH)2 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
14.3.19Tvedalite(Ca,Mn)4Be3Si6O17(OH)4 · 3H2OOrth.
14.3.20HarstigiteCa6(Mn,Mg)Be4Si6(O,OH)24Orth.
14.3.21SverigeiteNaMnMgSnBe2(SiO4)3(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Imma
14.3.22Joesmithite{Pb}{Ca2}{Mg3Fe3+2}(Be2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon.
14.3.23Gadolinite-(Y)Y2Fe2+Be2Si2O10Mon. 2/m : P21/b
14.3.24Gadolinite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Nd,Y)2Fe2+Be2Si2O10Mon. 2/m
14.3.25Calciogadolinite-(Y)(YCa)2Fe3+Be2[SiO4]2O2

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for EudidymiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Brøgger, W.C. (1887). Om ”Eudidymit”, et nyt norsk mineral. Forelöbig meddelelse. Nyt Magazin for Naturvidenskaberne 31, 196-199
Brøgger, W.C. (1890): Die Mineralien der Syenitpegmatitgänge der südnorwegischen Augit-und Nephelinsyenite. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie und Mineralogie 16. p 586-597
Flink, G. (1899): Über einige seltene Mineralien aus der Gegend von Langesund in Norwegen. Bulletin of the Geological Institution of the University of Uppsala 4, 16-27
Ito, T. (1947): The structure of Eudidymite (HNaBeSi3O8). American Mineralogist 32: 442-453
FANG, J.H., ROBINSON, P.D. & OHYA, Y. (1972): Redetermination of the crystal structure of eudidymite and its dimorphic relationship to epididymite. American Mineralogist 57, 1345-1354.
Gatta, D.G., N. Rotiroti, G.J.McIntyre, A. Guastoni, & F. Nestola (2008): New insights into the crystal chemistry of euididymite and eudidymite from Malosa, Malawi: A single-crystal neutron diffraction study: Am. Min. 93,1158-1165.

Internet Links for EudidymiteHide

Localities for EudidymiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Brazil
 
  • Goiás
    • Arenópolis
Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.
Canada
 
  • Newfoundland and Labrador
    • Labrador
E. H. Nickel (1963): Eudidymite from Seal Lake, Labrador, Newfoundland. Can. Mineral. 7, 643-649. ; Nickel, E.H., J.F. Rowland, and D.J. Charette (1964) Niobophyllite - the niobium analogue of astrophyllite; a new mineral from Seal Lake, Labrador. Can. Mineral., 8, 40-52.
\"Rare Earth Element Mines, Deposits, and Occurrences,\" G.J. Orris and R.I. Grauch, Open File Report 02-189, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, 2002.; GSC database locality No. 4100
Cámara, F., Sokolova, E., Hawthorne, F. C., Rowe, R., Grice, J. D., & Tait, K. T. (2013). Veblenite, K2〈 2Na (Fe2+ 5Fe3+ 4Mn2+ 7〈) Nb3Ti (Si2O7) 2 (Si8O22) 2O6 (OH) 10 (H2O) 3, a new mineral from Seal Lake, Newfoundland and Labrador: mineral description, crystal structure, and a new veblenite Si8O22 ribbon. Mineralogical Magazine, 77(7), 2955-2974.
A. Kerr (2010) Rare-earth-element (REE) mineralization in Labrador: A review of known environments and the geological context of current exploration activity. Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Natural Resources Current Research 2010 pp 109-143
  • Québec
    • Montérégie
      • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
        • Mont Saint-Hilaire
Horváth, L and Gault, R.A. (1990), The mineralogy of Mont Saint-Hilaire Quebec. Mineralogical Record: 21: 284-359.
Czech Republic
 
  • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
    • Vysočina Region
      • Žďár nad Sázavou
        • Věžná
www.cseg.ca/conferences/2000/556.PDF.; Cerny, P., Novak, M., Chapman, R., & Masau, M. (2000). Subsolidus behavior of niobian rutile from Vezna, Czech Republic: A model for exsolutions in phases with Fe2+>> Fe3+. Journal of GEOsciences, 45(1-2), 21-35.; Cerny, P., Hawthorne, F. C., Laflamme, J. H. G., & Hinthorne, J. (1979). Stibiobetafite, a new member of the pyrochlore group from Vezna, Czechoslovakia. Canadian Mineralogist, 17, 583-588.
Petr Pauliš (2001): Nejzajímavější mineralogická naleziště Moravy a Slezska. Kuttna, Kutná Hora.; Canadian Mineralogist Vol.22, pp. 631-651 (1984)
Greenland
 
  • Kujalleq
    • Narsaq
      • Igaliku (Igaliko)
        • Narsaarsuk Plateau
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 292.; Bøgghild, O.B. (1953): The Mineralogy of Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland, Bd. 149. Nr. 3., C.A. Reitzels Forlag, Copenhagen. 445 p. (p.309)
Petersen, O.V. (2001): List of all minerals identified in the Ilímaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland. Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin. 190, 25-33
        • Taseq area
Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéralo. Cristallo. , 1974, 97, pp. 510.; Bohse, H., Petersen, O., Niedermayr, G. (2001): Notes on Leucophanite from the Ilimaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland, Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin, 190, 119-121
Malawi
 
  • Zomba District
Cairncross, B., Messner, K & Farquharson, E. (1999): Die Pegmatite des Mount Malosa bei Zomba, Malawi. LAPIS 24 (4), 22-32; Diego Gatta, G., N. Rotiroti, G.J. McIntyre, A. Guastoni & F. Nestola (2008): New insights into the crystal chemistry of epididymite and eudidymite from Malosa, Malawi: A single-crystal neutron diffraction study. American Mineralogist 93, 1158-1165.; American Mineralogist, Volume 94, pages 1216–1222, 2009; Mineralogical Record (1997) 28:64
Norway
 
  • Telemark
    • Porsgrunn
      • Langangen
Larsen, A. O. & Åsheim, A.(1976): Mineraler fra Langangen. NAGS-nytt 3(1),9-12.
Raade, G., Åmli, R., Mladeck, H., Din. V. K., Larsen, A.O. & Åsheim, A. (1983): Chiavennite from syenite pegmatites in the Oslo Region, Norway. American Mineralogist. 68: 628-633
      • Langesundsfjorden
Engvoldsen,T.,Andersen, F.,Berge, S.A. & Burvald, I. (1991): Pegmatittmineraler fra Larvik ringkompleks. STEIN 18(1),15-71
        • Siktesøya
Larsen, A.O. & Raade, G. (1991): Gaidonnayite from the nepheline syenite pegmatite on Siktesøya in the southern part of the Oslo Region, norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift. 71: 303-306
Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 p
      • Mørje
        • Sagåsen
Larsen, A.O. (1981): Boehmite from syenite pegmatites in the Oslo region, Norway. Mineralogical Record 12, 227-230
Larsen, A.O., Åsheim, A. and Gault, R. A. (2005): Minerals of the eudialyte group from the Sagåsen larvikite quarry, Porsgrunn, Norway. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter 30: 58-62
  • Vestfold
    • Larvik
      • Hedrum
        • Lågendalen
Hansen,R.(1981): Mineralnotater. NAGS-nytt 8(4),18 (in norwegian)
Andersen, F. (1993): Hedrum pukkverk i Lågendalen. STEIN 20 (4), 236-238
RRUFF Project Specimen ID: R060063, Mindat-Photo id 311402
Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Stockholm collection # 19130705
        • Lille Arøya (Midtre Arøy; Øvre Arøy; Övre-Arö)
Brøgger, W.C. (1887). Om ”Eudidymit”, et nyt norsk mineral. Forelöbig meddelelse. Nyt Magazin for Naturvidenskaberne 31, 196-199; Brøgger, W.C. (1890): Die Mineralien der Syenitpegmatitgänge der südnorwegischen Augit-und Nephelinsyenite. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie und Mineralogie 16. p 586-597; Brøgger, W.C.(1890): Die Mineralien der Syenitpegmatitgänge der südnorwegischen Augit- und Nephelinsyenite. Zeitschrift fur Kristallographie und Mineralogie, 16, 663 pp,
        • Vesle Arøya
Flink, G. (1899): Über einige seltene Mineralien aus der Gegend von Langesund in Norwegen. Bulletin of the Geological Institution of the University of Uppsala 4, 16-27; Engvoldsen, T., Andersen, F., Berge, S. A. & Burvald, I. (1991): Pegmatittmineraler fra Larvik ringkompleks. STEIN 18 (1), 15-71; Larsen, A.O., Kolitsch, U., Gault, R.A. & Giester, G. (2010): Eirikite a new mineral species of the leifite group from the Langesundsfjord district, Norway. European Journal of Mineralogy. 22, 875–880
      • Malerød
Andersen, F., Berge, S.A. & Burvald, I. (1996): Die Mineralien des Langesundsfjords und des umgebenden Larvikit-Gebietes, Oslo-Region, Norwegen. Mineralien-Welt 7(4), 21-100
      • Tvedalen
Engvoldsen,T.,Andersen, F.,Berge, S.A. & Burvald, I. (1991): Pegmatittmineraler fra Larvik ringkompleks. STEIN 18(1),15-71
Engvoldsen,T.,Andersen, F.,Berge, S.A. & Burvald, I. (1991): Pegmatittmineraler fra Larvik ringkompleks. STEIN 18(1),15-71
Larsen, K.E. (2016): Noen funn av mineraler i Norge 2015-2016. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2016: 127-135
Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 p
Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 p
Nordrum, F. S. (2004): Nyfunn av mineraler i Norge 2003-2004. STEIN 31 (2), 36-44
        • Tuften (Tuften 1 Quarry; Tuften 2 Quarry)
Nordrum, F.S. (2008): Nyfunn av mineraler i Norge 2007-2008. STEIN 35 (2), 8-20; Andresen, P. (2013): Gedigent bly og andre spennende mineraler fra en unik pegmatitt i Tvedalen. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter. 50, 83-87
Engvoldsen,T.,Andersen, F.,Berge, S.A. & Burvald, I. (1991): Pegmatittmineraler fra Larvik ringkompleks. STEIN 18(1),15-71
    • Sandefjord
      • Vesterøya
Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 p; Berge, S. A. (2013):Mineralene i Husebyyåsen feltspatbrudd, Vesterøya, Sandefjord. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter. 50, 93-99
Engvoldsen,T.,Andersen, F.,Berge, S.A. & Burvald, I. (1991): Pegmatittmineraler fra Larvik ringkompleks. STEIN 18(1),15-71
    • Tjøme
      • Færder
Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 p.; Andersen, F. (2017): Pegmatittganger og mineraler på Hoftøya og Langøya ved Færder i Ytre Vestfold. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2017: 69-75
Pakistan
 
  • Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (North-West Frontier Province)
    • Peshawar
      • Hameed Abad Kafoor Dheri
The Mineralogical Record, Volume 35 Number 3, p. 212
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye)
      • Buriatia Republic (Buryatia)
Pavel M. Kartashov data
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaya Oblast'
      • Khibiny Massif
Pekov, I.V. & Podlesnyi, A.S. (2004): Kukisvumchorr Deposit: Mineralogy of Alkaline Pegmatites and Hydrotermalites. Mineralogical Almanac, vol. 7, 140 pages + xxiv photo's pages
          • Kirovskii apatite mine (Kirovsky Mine; Kirovskii Mine; Kirov Mine)
Pekov, I. et al (2003): New Data on Minerals: 38: 20-33.
      • Lovozero Massif
        • Karnasurt Mt
Pekov, I. V., Chukanov, N. V., Yamnova, N. A., Zadov, A. E., & Tarassoff, P. (2007). Gjerdingenite-Na and gjerdingenite-Ca, two new mineral species of the labuntsovite group. The Canadian Mineralogist, 45(3), 529-539
[World of Stones 95:5-6, p64]
Eur. J. Mineral 15,157-166 (2003)
UK
 
  • England
    • Devon
      • Okehampton area (Northern Dartmoor)
Kingsbury, A.W.G. (1964) Mineral. Mag. 35, lvii.; Embrey, P.G. (1978) Fourth supplementary list of British minerals. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 42, n° 322, 169-177 (referring to Kingsbury); von Knorring, O. and Condliffe, E. (1984) On the occurrence of niobium-tantalum and other rare-element minerals in the Meldon aplite, Devonshire. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 48, n° 348, 443-448 (referring to Kingsbury); http://johnblanchard.net/index.php/some-sites/226-meldon-aplite-quarry-sssi
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