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Althausite

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Formula:
Mg4(PO4)2(OH,O)(F,☐)
Colour:
Pale gray, reddish brown; dark blue, green, black
Lustre:
Sub-Vitreous, Resinous
Hardness:
3½ - 4
Specific Gravity:
2.97
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
Named in 1975 by Gunnar Raade and Magne Tysseland in honor of Prof. Egon Althaus (February 15, 1933-), mineralogist at University of Karlsruhe, Germany.
This rare magnesium phosphate was first described from serpentine-magnesite deposits in Modum, Buskerud, Norway. Later the mineral has also been found as a secondary product in granitic pegmatites, in Brazil. In pegmatites the colour of the mineral may vary from dark blue–green to black (Frost et al., 2014). It has also been been found in the Panasqueira Sn–W deposit.
Althausite may alter to apatite along the cleavage planes. This is especially typical for the althausite found at the Overntjern locality, Norway.


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Classification of AlthausiteHide

Approved
8.BB.25

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
B : Phosphates, etc., with additional anions, without H2O
B : With only medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 about 1:1
41.6.5.1

41 : ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
6 : A2(XO4)Zq
19.3.16

19 : Phosphates
3 : Phosphates of Be and Mg

Physical Properties of AlthausiteHide

Sub-Vitreous, Resinous
Transparency:
Translucent
Colour:
Pale gray, reddish brown; dark blue, green, black
Comment:
turning brown on alteration to apatite
Hardness:
3½ - 4 on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
{010} perfect ; distinct along {110}
Density:
2.97 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.91 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of AlthausiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.588 nβ = 1.592 nγ = 1.598
2V:
Measured: 70° , Calculated: 80°
Birefringence:
0.010
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.010
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
relatively strong
Optical Extinction:
Parallel
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of AlthausiteHide

Formula:
Mg4(PO4)2(OH,O)(F,☐)

IMA Formula:
Mg4(PO4)2(OH,O)(F,◻)

Crystallography of AlthausiteHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Pnma
Setting:
Pnma
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.258(2) Å, b = 6.054(2) Å, c = 14.383(5) Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.364 : 1 : 2.376
Unit Cell V:
719.06 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
8
Morphology:
Rare crude crystals are elongated along [001], flattened on {010}, showing {010}, {110}, {131}, to 3 cm; generally as cleavable masses.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.59 (100)
3.42 (40)
3.32 (90)
3.02 (80)
2.89 (40)
2.79 (60)
2.70 (30)
2.64 (60)
Comments:
29-869

Type Occurrence of AlthausiteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
cleavable masses and crude tabular crystals to 3 cm
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Mineralogical-Geological Museum, Oslo University, Oslo, Norway, 21978, 22044, 22045.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
A serpentine-magnesite deposit
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of AlthausiteHide

Other Language Names for AlthausiteHide

Common AssociatesHide

ArsenopyriteFeAsS
ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Chlorite GroupA group of mostly monoclinic (also triclinic or orthorhombic) micaceous phyllosilicate minerals with a structure ...
EnstatiteMgSiO3
FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
MagnesiteMgCO3
MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
PanasqueiraiteCaMg(PO4)(OH,F)
PyrrhotiteFe7S8
QuartzSiO2
SideriteFeCO3
SphaleriteZnS
TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
ThadeuiteCa(Mg,Fe2+)3(PO4)2(OH,F)2
TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
VivianiteFe2+3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Wolfeite(Fe2+,Mn2+)2(PO4)(OH)
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Hematite4 photos of Althausite associated with Hematite on mindat.org.
Lizardite4 photos of Althausite associated with Lizardite on mindat.org.
Magnesite3 photos of Althausite associated with Magnesite on mindat.org.
Holtedahlite2 photos of Althausite associated with Holtedahlite on mindat.org.
Phosphoellenbergerite2 photos of Althausite associated with Phosphoellenbergerite on mindat.org.
Leuchtenbergite2 photos of Althausite associated with Leuchtenbergite on mindat.org.
Chlorapatite1 photo of Althausite associated with Chlorapatite on mindat.org.
Heneuite1 photo of Althausite associated with Heneuite on mindat.org.
Raadeite1 photo of Althausite associated with Raadeite on mindat.org.
Apatite1 photo of Althausite associated with Apatite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

8.BB.XArsenowagneriteMg2(AsO4)FMon. 2/m : P21/b
8.BB.05AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)FTric. 1 : P1
8.BB.05MontebrasiteLiAl(PO4)(OH)Tric. 1 : P1
8.BB.05TavoriteLiFe3+(PO4)(OH)Tric. 1 : P1
8.BB.10Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)Mon. 2/m
8.BB.10Zwieselite(Fe2+,Mn2+)2(PO4)FMon. 2/m : P21/b
8.BB.15SarkiniteMn2+2(AsO4)(OH)Mon. 2/m : P2/m
8.BB.15Triploidite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(OH)Mon. 2/m : P2/b
8.BB.15Wagnerite(Mg,Fe2+)2(PO4)FMon. 2/m : P21/b
8.BB.15Wolfeite(Fe2+,Mn2+)2(PO4)(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
8.BB.15Stanĕkite(Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)Fe3+(PO4)OMon.
8.BB.15JoosteiteMn2+(Mn3+,Fe3+)(PO4)OMon. 2/m
8.BB.15HydroxylwagneriteMg2(PO4)(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
8.BB.20HoltedahliteMg2(PO4)(OH)Trig. 3m : P3 1m
8.BB.20Satterlyite(Fe2+,Mg,Fe)12(PO4)5(PO3OH)(OH,O)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1m
8.BB.30AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
8.BB.30EveiteMn2+2(AsO4)(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
8.BB.30LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
8.BB.30OliveniteCu2(AsO4)(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
8.BB.30ZincolibetheniteCuZn(PO4)(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
8.BB.30ZincoliveniteCuZn(AsO4)(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
8.BB.30AuriacusiteFe3+Cu2+(AsO4)OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
8.BB.35ParadamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)Tric. 1 : P1
8.BB.35TarbuttiteZn2(PO4)(OH)Tric. 1 : P1
8.BB.40BarbosaliteFe2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
8.BB.40HentscheliteCuFe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2Mon.
8.BB.40Lazulite(Mg,Fe2+)Al2(PO4)2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
8.BB.40ScorzaliteFe2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
8.BB.40WilhelmkleiniteZnFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2Mon.
8.BB.45TrolleiteAl4(PO4)3(OH)3Mon. 2/m : B2/b
8.BB.50NamibiteCu(BiO)2(VO4)(OH)Tric. 1 : P1
8.BB.55Phosphoellenbergerite(Mg,◻)2Mg12(PO4,PO3OH)6(PO3OH,CO3)2(OH)6Hex.
8.BB.60UrusoviteCuAl(AsO4)OMon.
8.BB.65TheoparacelsiteCu3(As2O7)(OH)2Orth.
8.BB.70TuraniteCu5(VO4)2(OH)4Tric. 1 : P1
8.BB.75StoiberiteCu5(VO4)2O2Mon.
8.BB.80FingeriteCu11(VO4)6O2Tric. 1 : P1
8.BB.85AverieviteCu6(VO4)2O2Cl2Trig.
8.BB.90LipscombiteFe2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2Tet.
8.BB.90RichelliteCaFe3+2(PO4)2(OH,F)2Amor.
8.BB.90ZinclipscombiteZnFe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2Tet. 4 2 2 : P43 21 2

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

41.6.5.6ZincoliveniteCuZn(AsO4)(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
41.6.5.7AuriacusiteFe3+Cu2+(AsO4)OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

19.3.1MoraesiteBe2(PO4)(OH) · 4H2OMon.
19.3.2BerylloniteNaBePO4Mon. 2/m : P21/b
19.3.3HurlbutiteCaBe2(PO4)2Mon.
19.3.4HydroxylherderiteCaBe(PO4)(OH,F)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
19.3.5GlucineCaBe4(PO4)2(OH)4 · 0.5H2O
19.3.6FransoletiteCa3Be2(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2OMon.
19.3.7UraloliteCa2Be4(PO4)3(OH)3 · 5H2OMon.
19.3.9PahasapaiteLi8(Ca,Li,K)10.5Be24(PO4)24 · 38H2OIso. 2 3 : I2 3
19.3.10TiptopiteK2(Na,Ca)2Li3Be6(PO4)6(OH)2 · H2OHex.
19.3.11GainesiteNa(Na,K)(Be,Li)Zr2(PO4)4 · 1.5-2H2OTet. 4mm : I41md
19.3.12RoscheriteCa2Mn2+5Be4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
19.3.13FaheyiteBe2Mn2+Fe3+2(PO4)4 · 6H2OTrig. 3 2 : P31 2 1
19.3.14FarringtoniteMg3(PO4)2Mon. 2/m
19.3.15HoltedahliteMg2(PO4)(OH)Trig. 3m : P3 1m
19.3.17NewberyiteMg(HPO4) · 3H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
19.3.18PhosphorrössleriteMg(HPO4) · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P2/b
19.3.19BobierriteMg3(PO4)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
19.3.20Barićite(Mg,Fe)3(PO4)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
19.3.21Panethite(Na,Ca)2(Mg,Fe2+)2(PO4)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
19.3.22Dittmarite(NH4)Mg(PO4) · H2OOrth.
19.3.23Struvite(NH4)Mg(PO4) · 6H2OOrth. mm2
19.3.24Hannayite(NH4)2Mg3H4(PO4)4 · 8H2OTric. 1 : P1

Fluorescence of AlthausiteHide

Not fluorescent

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for AlthausiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Raade, G., Tysseland, M. (1975) Althausite, a new mineral from Modum, Norway. Lithos: 8: 215-219.
Fleischer, M., Cabri, L.J. (1976) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 61: 502-504. [abstract]
Raade, G. (1979) Althausite, a new mineral from Modum, Norway: Addendum. Lithos: 12: 288
Rømming, C., Raade, G. (1980) The crystal structure of Althausite, Mg4(PO4)2(OH,O)(F,⌷). American Mineralogist: 65: 488-498.
Raade, G. (1996) Minerals originally described from Norway. Including notes on type material. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift: 11: 104 pp. + plates 1-7.
Frost, R.L. , López, A., Xi. Y. & Scholz, R. (2014) Vibrational spectroscopic characterization of the phosphate mineral althausite Mg2(PO4)(OH,F,O) – Implications for the molecular structure. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 120: 252–256

Internet Links for AlthausiteHide

Localities for AlthausiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Brazil
 
  • Minas Gerais
    • Água Boa
Frost, R.L. , López, A., Xi. Y. & Scholz, R. (2014) Vibrational spectroscopic characterization of the phosphate mineral althausite Mg 2 (PO 4 )(OH,F,O) – Implications for the molecular structure. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 120: 252–256
    • Galiléia
      • Sapucaia do Norte
Frost, R.L. , López, A., Xi. Y. & Scholz, R. (2014) Vibrational spectroscopic characterization of the phosphate mineral althausite Mg 2 (PO 4 )(OH,F,O) – Implications for the molecular structure. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 120: 252–256
Norway
 
  • Buskerud
    • Modum
      • Overntjern
Raade, G. & Tyssedal, M. (1975): Althausite, a new mineral from Modum, Norway. LITHOS 8, 215-219; Rømming, C. & Raade, G.(1980): The crystal structure of Althausite. American Mineralogist, 65, 488-498
      • Snarum
Wilke, H.-J. (1976): Mineral-Fundstellen Band 4: Skandinavien. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 370 pp. (p.111-113)
Raade, G. (1975): Althausite, a new mineral from Modum, Norway. LITHOS 8, 215-219 ; AmMin 86:1536]
Portugal
 
  • Castelo Branco District
    • Covilhã
American Mineralogist, Volume 67, pages 854-860, l982; Bussink, R. W. (1984). Geochemistry of the Panasqueira tungsten-tin deposit, Portugal. Geologica Ultraiectina, 33, 1-170.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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