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About FerrihydriteHide

Previously given as Fe3+5O3(OH)9.
dark brown, yellow-brown
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
For the chemical composition (hydrated ferric iron oxide).
A poorly crystalline nanomineral built up of about 20% (FeO4) and 80% (FeO6) polyhedra. It forms by rapid oxidation and hydrolysis, and exists in varying degrees of structure disorder; the two extremes are the so-called 2-line and 6-line ferrihydrites (distinguished by their X-ray powder diffraction patterns). It is a metastable nanomineral precursor to other minerals, e.g. hematite, goethite. There are no known deposits of ferrihydrite before the Pleistocene.

Two structure models have been proposed: the "f-phase" model and the "akdalaite" model; the first one seems to be correct (Paktunc et al., 2013).

Some lichen (e.g., Pertusaria corallina, Stereocaulon vulcani) may induce ferrihydrite formation on lava flows and basalt- and gabbro- hosted olivine and also on augite (vide Burford et al., 2003).

The iron bacteria, especially Gallionella ferruginea, Leptothrix ochracea and Toxothrix trichogenes create ferrihydrite as a waste product of their metabolism.

Classification of FerrihydriteHide

Approval Year:

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
F : Hydroxides (without V or U)
E : Hydroxides with OH, without H2O; sheets of edge-sharing octahedra

3 : A2X3

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
20 : Oxides of Fe

Physical Properties of FerrihydriteHide

dark brown, yellow-brown
3.96 g/cm3 (Measured)    
Synthesized material

Chemical Properties of FerrihydriteHide


Previously given as Fe3+5O3(OH)9.

Crystallography of FerrihydriteHide

Crystal System:
Cell Parameters:
a = 2.96 Å, c = 9.4 Å
a:c = 1 : 3.176
Unit Cell V:
71.33 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Occurrences of FerrihydriteHide

Paragenetic Mode(s):

Type Occurrence of FerrihydriteHide

Synonyms of FerrihydriteHide

Other Language Names for FerrihydriteHide

Simplified Chinese:水铁矿

Varieties of FerrihydriteHide

MelanosideriteMelanosiderite was described by Cooke (1875) as a hydrated basic ferric silicate. Examination of a specimen from the type locality and corresponding to the original description (BM66908), by energy-dispersive microanalysis, infrared spectroscopy, and X-ra...

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Dussertite1 photo of Ferrihydrite associated with Dussertite on mindat.org.
Anglesite1 photo of Ferrihydrite associated with Anglesite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.FE.05BruciteMg(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
4.FE.05PortlanditeCa(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
4.FE.05PyrochroiteMn(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
4.FE.05TheophrastiteNi(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
4.FE.10BayeriteAl(OH)3Mon. 2/m : P21/m
4.FE.10GibbsiteAl(OH)3Mon. 2/m
4.FE.10NordstranditeAl(OH)3Tric. 1 : P1
4.FE.15BöhmiteAlO(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.FE.15Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)Orth. mm2 : Cmc21
4.FE.25FeitknechtiteMn3+O(OH)Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
4.FE.25Lithiophorite(Al,Li)MnO2(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.FE.30QuenselitePbMnO2(OH)Mon. 2/m : P2/b
4.FE.40Vernadite(Mn4+,Fe3+,Ca,Na)(O,OH)2 · nH2OHex.
4.FE.45QuetzalcoatliteZn6Cu3(TeO6)2(OH)6 · AgxPbyClx+2yTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide · H2OHex.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.20.1WüstiteFeOIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
7.20.2MagnetiteFe2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.20.3MaghemiteFe3+2O3Iso. 4 3 2 : P41 3 2
7.20.4HematiteFe2O3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
7.20.5Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.20.6Akaganeite(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2OMon. 2/m
7.20.8Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)Orth. mm2 : Cmc21
7.20.11MagnesioferriteMgFe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.20.12MuskoxiteMg7Fe4O13 · 10H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m)
7.20.13SrebrodolskiteCa2Fe3+2O5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.20.14HercyniteFe2+Al2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.20.15BrownmilleriteCa2(Al,Fe3+)2O5Orth. mm2

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for FerrihydriteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
American Mineralogist: 60: 485-486.
American Mineralogist: 75: 437.
American Mineralogist: 79: 767.
Izvestiya Akademii nauk SSSR (1973): (4): 23-33.
Fleischer M (1973) Translation of “Chukhrov F V, Zvyagin B B, Gorshkov A I, Yermilova L P, Balashova V V (1973) Ferrihydrite, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR 1973, 23-33”. International Geology Review 16, 1131-1143
Clays and Clay Minerals: 36: 111-124.
Canadian Mineralogist: 28: 185-207.
Burford, E.P., Kierans, M., Gadd, G.M. (2003): Geomycology: fungi in mineral substrata. Mycologist: 17(3): 98-107; DOI: 10.1017/S0269915X03003112
Paktunc, D., Manceau, A., Dutrizac, J. (2013): Incorporation of Ge in ferrihydrite: Implications for the structure of ferrihydrite. American Mineralogist, 98, 848-858.

Internet Links for FerrihydriteHide

Localities for FerrihydriteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Tamanghasset Province
Greshake, A. (1997). The primitive matrix components of the unique carbonaceous chondrite Acfer 094: A TEM study. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 61 (2): 437–452. (Jan 1997). ; Wasson, J. T. & Rubin, A. E. (2010). Matrix and whole-rock fractionations in the Acfer 094 type 3.0 ungrouped carbonaceous chondrite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 45 (1): 73-90. (Jan 2010).
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Transantarctic Mts
      • Miller Range
Ling, Z., & Wang, A. (2015). Spatial distributions of secondary minerals in the Martian meteorite MIL 03346, 168 determined by Raman spectroscopic imaging. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 120(6), 1141-1159.
  • Western Antarctica
Barczuk A. & Tatur A. 2003: BIOGENIC PHOSPHATE AND SULPHATE MINERALS IN THESOILS OF ANTARCTIC PENINSULA. Mineralogical Society of Poland - Special Papers, vol. 23, pp. 41-43
Barczuk, A., Tatur, A. (2003): Biogenic phosphate and sulphate minerals in the soils of Antarctic Peninsula. Mineralogia Special Papers: 23: 41-43
Arctic Ocean
Murdmaa, I.O., Bogdanova, O.Y., Gorshkov, A.I., Novikov, G.V. and Shevchenko, V.P. (2000): Lithology and Mineral Resources 35(6), 594-597.
Atlantic Ocean
  • Mid-Atlantic Ridge complex
Bogdanov, Y.A., Vikent’ev, I.V., Lein, A.Y., Bogdanova, O.Y., Sagalevich, A.M., and Sivtsov, A.V. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(2), 119-134.
Bogdanov, Y.A., Vikent’ev, I.V., Lein, A.Y., Bogdanova, O.Y., Sagalevich, A.M., and Sivtsov, A.V. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(2), 119-134.
    • Rainbow Massif
Lartaud, F., Little, C. T., De Rafelis, M., Bayon, G., Dyment, J., Ildefonse, B., ... & Le Bris, N. (2011). Fossil evidence for serpentinization fluids fueling chemosynthetic assemblages. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(19), 7698-7703.
    • Snake Pit hydrothermal field
Bogdanov, Y.A., Vikent’ev, I.V., Lein, A.Y., Bogdanova, O.Y., Sagalevich, A.M., and Sivtsov, A.V. (2008): LGeology of Ore Deposits 50(2), 119-134.
Bogdanov, Y.A., Vikent’ev, I.V., Lein, A.Y., Bogdanova, O.Y., Sagalevich, A.M., and Sivtsov, A.V. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(2), 119-134.
Bogdanov, Y.A., Vikent’ev, I.V., Lein, A.Y., Bogdanova, O.Y., Sagalevich, A.M., and Sivtsov, A.V. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(2), 119-134.
  • Australian Capital Territory
    • Brindabella Range
      • Cotter River
McQueen, Ken G.; J. R. Caldwell; P. W. Millsteed (July 1988). "Primary and Secondary Minerals at the Paddy's River Mine, Australian Capital Territory". Australian Mineralogist 3: 83–100.
  • Western Australia
    • Mount Marshall Shire
      • Bencubbin
D. J. Barber & R. Hutchinson (1991). The Bencubbin stony-iron meteorite breccia - Electron petrography, shock-history and affinities of a 'carbonaceous chondrite' clast. Meteoritics 26, 83-95.
  • Tyrol
    • North Tyrol
      • Inn valley
        • Brixlegg - Schwaz area
          • Brixlegg - Rattenberg
            • Geyer - Silberberg District
              • Silberberg
Schnorrer, G. and Poeverlein, R. (2002) Schwaz-Brixlegg-Fundstellen: 2. Die Minerale des Stockerstollens bei Brixlegg in Tirol. Aufschluss, 53, 209-228.
  • Minas Gerais
    • Caldas
Waber (1991)
    • Nova Lima
Spier, C.A., Barros de Oliveira, S.M., Rosière, C.A., and Ardisson, J.D. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 229-254.
  • Manitoba
    • Sherridon District
MONCUR , M.C, PTACEK, C.J., BLOWES, D.W. & PETERSON, R.C. (2015) The occurrence and implications of efflorescent sulfate minerals at the former Sherritt–Gordon Zn–Cu mine, Sherridon, Manitoba, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 53, 961-977.
  • Northwest Territories
    • Mackenzie District
      • Fort Norman
Battler, M. M., Osinski, G. R., Lim, D. S., Davila, A. F., Michel, F. A., Craig, M. A., ... & Preston, L. J. (2013). Characterization of the acidic cold seep emplaced jarositic Golden Deposit, NWT, Canada, as an analogue for jarosite deposition on Mars. Icarus, 224(2), 382-398.
  • Nunavut
    • Devon Island
Izawa, M. R. M., Banerjee, N. R., Osinski, G. R., Flemming, R. L., Parnell, J., & Cockell, C. S. (2011). Weathering of post-impact hydrothermal deposits from the Haughton impact structure: implications for microbial colonization and biosignature preservation. Astrobiology, 11(6), 537-550.
  • Guizhou Province
    • Qianxi'nan Autonomous Prefecture
      • Xingren Co.
Zhiwei Bao (2001): PhD Thesis, University of Québec, Canda.
  • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
    • Bayin'gholin Autonomous Prefecture (Bayingolin Autonomous Prefecture; Bayinguoleng Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Hejing Co. (Xejing Co.)
        • Baluntai
Zhian Qin (1999): Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research 14(4), 69-75
Czech Republic
  • Central Bohemia Region
    • Příbram
RÜSENBERG, K. A. & PAULIŠ, P. (1996): Umbildungen und Neubildungen in den Schlackehalden der Blei- und Silberhütte von Příbram/ČR. Aufschluss 47, 267-287 (in German).
  • Al Iskandanyah Governorate (Alexandria Governorate)
    • Abu Hommos
      • Nakhla
Treiman, A. H. & Gooding, J. L. (1991) Iddingsite in the Nakhla meteorite: TEM study of mineralogy and texture of pre-terrestrial (Martian?) alterations. Meteoritics, vol. 26, p. 402.
  • Eastern Finland Region
    • Tohmajärvi
Schwertmann, U. et al 1987. Properties of iron oxides in relation to the environment of their formation. Clays and Clay Minerals Vol 35, No 4, 297-307.
  • Centre-Val de Loire
    • Loir-et-Cher
L. P. Keller & Peter R. Buseck (1990). Matrix mineralogy of the Lance CO3 carbonaceous chondrite - A transmission electron microscope study. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 54, p. 1155-1163. (April 1990).
  • Nouvelle-Aquitaine
    • Haute-Vienne
      • Saint-Yrieix-la-Perche
Gautier, J, Grosbois, C., Courtin-Nomade, A., Floc'h, J. P. and Martin, F. (2006): Transformation of natural As-associated ferrihydrite downstream of a remediated mining site. Eur. J. Mineral. 18, 187-195.
  • Occitanie
    • Lozère
      • Pont-de-Montvert
        • Vialas
No reference listed
    • Tarn-et-Garonne
      • Orgueil
Kazushige Tomeoka & Peter R. Buseck (1988). Matrix mineralogy of the Orgueil CI carbonaceous chondrite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 52, #6, 1627-1640. (June 1988).
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
      • Schenkenzell
        • Wittichen
Nieding, E. (1990): Rezente Mineralbildungen in Schlacken der Schmiedestollenhalde in Wittichen/Schwarzwald. Aufschluss, 41, 361-364.
      • Wolfach
        • Oberwolfach
          • Rankach valley
Walenta, K. (1992): Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 336 pp. (in German)
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Pleystein
Dill, H. G., Melcher, F., Gerdes, A., & Weber, B. (2008). The origin and zoning of hypogene and supergene Fe–Mn–Mg–Sc–U–REE phosphate mineralization from the newly discovered Trutzhofmühle aplite, Hagendorf pegmatite province, Germany. The Canadian Mineralogist, 46(5), 1131-1157.
  • Lower Saxony
    • Harz
      • Clausthal-Zellerfeld
        • Bockswies veins
          • Oberschulenberg
Gröbner, J., Hajek, W., Junker, R. & Nikoleizig, J. (2011): Neue Mineralschätze des Harzes. Papierflieger Verlag GmbH, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany, 127 pp.
      • Goslar
        • Grane Reservoir
No reference listed
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Sauerland
      • Arnsberg
        • Hüsten
D. Pawlowski: "Mineralfundstellen im Sauerland", Weise (Munich), 1991
      • Iserlohn
        • Letmathe
Bender, D. and Krimmelbein, W. (1994) Aktuelle Übersicht: Mineralien der Zinkhütte Genna/Sauerland. Stand Juni 1994. Mineralien-Welt, 4/94, 10.
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Mansfeld Basin
      • Hettstedt
        • Copper-Silver smelter (Gottesbelohnung smelter) slag locality
Mineralien Welt 15 Jg Heft 2-2004and 19 JgHeft 1 2008,Horst Knoll Erfurt
      • Mansfeld
        • Leimbach
Joan Rosell - RosellMinerals
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirge
Lapis 30(7/8):78-80 (2005)
  • Schleswig-Holstein
    • Bredstedt
      • Joldelund
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Aegean Islands Department (Aiyaíon)
    • Kykládes Prefecture
      • Cyclade Islands (Cyclades; Kikladhes; Nomos Kikladhon)
        • Syros Island (Syra)
          • Gria Spilia
Altherr, R., Soder, C., Panienka, S., Peters, D., & Meyer, H. P. (2013). Pink manganian phengite in a high P/T meta-conglomerate from northern Syros (Cyclades, Greece). Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 166(5), 1323-1334.
  • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
    • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Rewitzer, C., Standfuss, L. & Standfuss, K. (1988): Weitere Neufunde aus Lavrions antiken Schlacken. Lapis 13 (2), 11-14.
        • Passa Limani area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals of the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
        • Sounion area
Laurion The minerals in the ancient slags by Piet Gelaude netc.
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian, (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
        • Thorikos area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
        • Vrissaki area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
  • Tamil Nadu
Berlin, J., Jones, R. H. & Brearley, A. J. (2007) A Closer Look at Chondrules and Matrix in Kakangari: Evidence for Wide-Spread Reduction and Sulfurization, Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVIII. LPI Contribution #1338, p. 2395. (March 2007)
  • Emilia-Romagna
    • Ferrara Province
      • Vigarano Mainarda
        • Vigarano Pieve
  • Liguria
    • Genova Province
      • Sestri Levante
Carbone, C. , Marescotti, P., Cabella, R., Lucchetti, G. (2002): Sulfide alteration and related secondary minerals from the Libiola mine (Eastern Liguria, Italy). Poster at the 82° SIMP Congress , Arcavacata di Rende (CS) 18-20/09/2002. Abstract in Plinius 28 , 88-89.; E. Dinelli, N. Morandi & F. Tateo (1998): Fine-grained weathering products in waste disposal from two sulphide mines in the northern Apennines, Italy. Clay Minerals 33,423-433.; Carbone, C. (2008). Crystallochemical and minerogenetic study of oxide and oxy-hydroxides related to AMD (acid mine drainage) processes in Libiola mine (Sestri Levante). Plinius No. 34
  • Tuscany
    • Grosseto Province
      • Massa Marittima
ko jansen
    • Livorno Province
      • Piombino
Muenchener Micromounter-Lithothek
    • Siena Province
      • Chiusdino
Menchetti, S., Batoni, M., Batacchi, C., Borselli, G., Brogi, A., Ceccantini, L., Fassina, B., Marchesini, M., Rossellini, A. & Ruggieri, G. (2015): Le Cetine di Cotorniano. Miniera e minerali. Associazione Micro-Mineralogica Italiana, Cremona, 354 p.
  • Kyushu Region
    • Nansei Archipelago
      • Kagoshima Prefecture
        • Mishima village
Kazue, T. (2000) Clays and Clay Minerals, 48, 511-520
  • East Kazakhstan Region
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    • Glubokoye District
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    • Leninogorsk District
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
  • Kostanay Region
    • Rudny
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
  • Baja California Sur (BC Sur)
Canet, C., Prol-Ledesma, R. M., Proenza, J. A., Rubio-Ramos, M. A., Forrest, M. J., Torres-Vera, M. A., & Rodríguez-Díaz, A. A. (2005). Mn–Ba–Hg mineralization at shallow submarine hydrothermal vents in bahía Concepción, Baja California Sur, México. Chemical Geology, 224(1-3), 96-112.
Pacific Ocean
  • East Pacific Rise
    • Juan de Fuca Ridge complex
Novikov, G.V., Vikent’ev, I.V., and Bogdanova, O.Y. (2006): Geology of Ore Deposits 48(4), 304-325.
Novikov, G.V., Vikent’ev, I.V., and Bogdanova, O.Y. (2006): Geology of Ore Deposits 48(4), 304-325.
  • Tonga-Kermadec Arc
Schwarz-Schampera, U.,et al. (2007) Cruise Report SONNE 192/2, MANGO. Marine Geoscientific Research on Input and Output in the Tonga-Kermadec Subduction Zone
Schwarz-Schampera, U.,et al. (2007) Cruise Report SONNE 192/2, MANGO. Marine Geoscientific Research on Input and Output in the Tonga-Kermadec Subduction Zone
Papua New Guinea
  • Bismarck Sea
  • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
    • Kaczawskie Mts
      • Radzimowice
        • Stara Góra
          • Stara Góra deposit
1. R. Siuda, 2001 : New sulphate minerals from the Stara Góra oxidised zone, Radzimowice, Kaczawskie Mts., Mineralogical Society of Poland, Special Papers, vol 18, 186-188
    • Rudawy Janowickie Mts
Siuda, R.: Wieściszowice. Otoczak, 2004, nr. 31, p. 58-65.
    • Ząbkowice Slaskie District
      • Bardo commune
Nejbert, K., Siuda, R., Borzęcki, R., Matyszczak, W. (2013): Mineralogy of antimony ores mined at Dębowina in the Bardzkie Mts (Sudetes), SW Poland. Mineralogia Special Papers: 41: 68
  • Małopolskie
    • Tarnów
      • Ciężkowice
Musiał J. 1996: Results of preliminary Mossbauer spectroscopy analysis of ochres from Janowice, Ciężkowice region, Outer Carpathians.Mineralogia Polonica, vol. 27, no. 1
Red Sea
Sediment-Hosted Mineral Deposits: Proceedings of a Symposium Held in Beijing, People's Republic of China, 30 July-4 August 1988
  • Central Region
Pavel M. Kartashov data
Saudi Arabia
  • Mintaqah Makkah
Surour, A. A. (2015). Cu–Mn–Fe alloys and Mn-rich amphiboles in ancient copper slags from the Jabal Samran area, Saudi Arabia: With synopsis on chemistry of Fe–Mn (III) oxyhydroxides in alteration zones. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 101, 70-83.
  • Bratislava Region
    • Pezinok Co.
Majzlan J., Chovan M., Lalinska B., Milovská S., Jurkovič Ľ., 2006: The sstructure and ageing of As-rich ferrihydrite from Pezinok, Slovakia. Acta Miner.-Petrograph.,Abstract Series 5, Szeged, p.70
  • Galicia
    • A Coruña (La Coruña)
      • Santiago de Compostela
        • Aríns
Pascual, E; Estévez, A. (1981) Estudio geológico del yacimiento de Fornás (Santiago). Cuaderno do Laboratorio Xeolóxico de Laxe 2 (vol II):191-211
  • Balkan Province
    • Cheleken Peninsula
Lebedev, L.M., Nikitina, J.B. (1983): The Cheleken ore forming system. Russ. Acad. Sci., Moscow (in Russian.)
  • Colorado
    • Clear Creek Co.
      • Geneva District
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
  • Indiana
    • Tippecanoe Co.
      • Lafayette
Treiman, A. H., Barrett, R. A. & Gooding, J. L. (1993) Preterrestrial aqueous alteration of the Lafayette (SNC) meteorite: Meteoritics 28 (1): 86-97. (Mar 1993)
  • Kansas
    • Decatur Co.
Workshop on Parent-Body and Nebular Modification of Chondritic Materials 4038.pdf http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/chondrite/pdf/4038.pdf
  • Massachusetts
    • Franklin Co.
      • Rowe
Cerato, A.. 2003: Mineralogical Study of Davis Mine, Rowe, MA, Using X-Ray Diffraction Techniques
  • New Mexico
    • Grant Co.
      • Hanover-Fierro District
Newcomer,Robert W.,Romig,Douglas E.,Niccoli,Walter.,(2008) Closure And Reclamation Of The Hanover-Empire Zinc Mine Area,Grant County,New Nexico ;New Mexico Geological Society Guidebook,Geology of the Gila Wilderness,Silver City Area,2008,pp.151-158
  • North Carolina
    • Ashe Co.
      • Ore Knob
Borden,Robert C. and Behrooz,Mchnroosh (2008) Ore Knob Mine Tailings Pile-Hydrologic and Geochemical Characterization
  • Pennsylvania
    • Centre Co.
      • State College
        • Skytop
U.S. Geological Survey/ U.s. Department of the Interior
    • Delaware Co.
      • Middletown Township
        • Lima
S.G. Gordon, "Mineralogy of Pennsylvania", 1922, p. 190
    • Lancaster Co.
      • Lancaster Township
William B. White – Cave sediments and paleoclimate. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, v. 69, no. 1, p. 76–93.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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