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Ferrihydrite

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A poorly crystalline nanomineral built up of about 20% (FeO4) and 80% (FeO6) polyhedra. It forms by rapid oxidation and hydrolysis, and exists in varying degrees of structure disorder; the two extremes are the so-called 2-line and 6-line ferrihydrites (distinguished by their X-ray powder diffraction patterns). It is a metastable nanomineral precursor to other minerals, e.g. hematite.

Two structure models have been proposed: the "f-phase" model and the "akdalaite" model; the first one seems to be correct (Paktunc et al., 2013).

Some lichen (e.g., Pertusaria corallina, Stereocaulon vulcani) may induce ferrihydrite formation on lava flows and basalt- and gabbro- hosted olivine and also on augite (vide Burford et al., 2003).



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Classification of FerrihydriteHide

Approved
Approval Year:
1971
4.FE.35

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
F : Hydroxides (without V or U)
E : Hydroxides with OH, without H2O; sheets of edge-sharing octahedra
4.3.2.2

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
3 : A2X3
7.20.9

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
20 : Oxides of Fe

Physical Properties of FerrihydriteHide

Colour:
dark brown, yellow-brown
Streak:
yellow-brown

Chemical Properties of FerrihydriteHide

Formula:
Fe3+10O14(OH)2

Previously given as Fe3+5O3(OH)9.

Crystallography of FerrihydriteHide

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Cell Parameters:
a = 2.96 Å, c = 9.4 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 3.176
Unit Cell V:
71.33 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Type Occurrence of FerrihydriteHide

Synonyms of FerrihydriteHide

Other Language Names for FerrihydriteHide

Simplified Chinese:水铁矿
六方针铁矿
Spanish:Ferrihydrita

Varieties of FerrihydriteHide

MelanosideriteMelanosiderite was described by Cooke (1875) as a hydrated basic ferric silicate. Examination of a specimen from the type locality and corresponding to the original description (BM66908), by energy-dispersive microanalysis, infrared spectroscopy, and X-ra...

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Dussertite1 photo of Ferrihydrite associated with Dussertite on mindat.org.
Anglesite1 photo of Ferrihydrite associated with Anglesite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.FE.05Amakinite(Fe2+,Mg)(OH)2Trig.
4.FE.05BruciteMg(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
4.FE.05PortlanditeCa(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
4.FE.05PyrochroiteMn(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
4.FE.05TheophrastiteNi(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
4.FE.10BayeriteAl(OH)3Mon. 2/m : P21/m
4.FE.10DoyleiteAl(OH)3Tric.
4.FE.10GibbsiteAl(OH)3Mon. 2/m
4.FE.10NordstranditeAl(OH)3Tric. 1 : P1
4.FE.15BöhmiteAlO(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.FE.15Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)Orth. mm2 : Cmc21
4.FE.20GrimaldiiteCrO(OH)Trig.
4.FE.20HeterogeniteCo3+O(OH)Hex.
4.FE.25FeitknechtiteMn3+O(OH)Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
4.FE.25Lithiophorite(Al,Li)MnO2(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.FE.30QuenselitePbMnO2(OH)Mon. 2/m : P2/b
4.FE.40FeroxyhyteFe3+O(OH)Hex.
4.FE.40Vernadite(Mn4+,Fe3+,Ca,Na)(O,OH)2 · nH2OHex.
4.FE.45QuetzalcoatliteZn6Cu3(TeO6)2(OH)6 · AgxPbyClx+2yTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

4.3.2.1Akdalaite5Al2O3 · H2OHex.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.20.1WüstiteFeOIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
7.20.2MagnetiteFe2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.20.3MaghemiteFe3+2O3Iso. 4 3 2 : P41 3 2
7.20.4HematiteFe2O3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
7.20.5Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.20.6Akaganeite(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2OMon. 2/m
7.20.7FeroxyhyteFe3+O(OH)Hex.
7.20.8Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)Orth. mm2 : Cmc21
7.20.10Amakinite(Fe2+,Mg)(OH)2Trig.
7.20.11MagnesioferriteMgFe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.20.12MuskoxiteMg7Fe4O13 · 10H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m)
7.20.13SrebrodolskiteCa2Fe3+2O5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.20.14HercyniteFe2+Al2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.20.15BrownmilleriteCa2(Al,Fe3+)2O5Orth. mm2

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for FerrihydriteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
American Mineralogist: 60: 485-486.
American Mineralogist: 75: 437.
American Mineralogist: 79: 767.
Izvestiya Akademii nauk SSSR (1973): (4): 23-33.
Clays and Clay Minerals: 36: 111-124.
Canadian Mineralogist: 28: 185-207.
Burford, E.P., Kierans, M., Gadd, G.M. (2003): Geomycology: fungi in mineral substrata. Mycologist: 17(3): 98-107; DOI: 10.1017/S0269915X03003112
Paktunc, D., Manceau, A., Dutrizac, J. (2013): Incorporation of Ge in ferrihydrite: Implications for the structure of ferrihydrite. American Mineralogist, 98, 848-858.

Internet Links for FerrihydriteHide

Localities for FerrihydriteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Algeria
 
  • Tamanghasset Province
Greshake, A. (1997). The primitive matrix components of the unique carbonaceous chondrite Acfer 094: A TEM study. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 61 (2): 437–452. (Jan 1997). ; Wasson, J. T. & Rubin, A. E. (2010). Matrix and whole-rock fractionations in the Acfer 094 type 3.0 ungrouped carbonaceous chondrite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 45 (1): 73-90. (Jan 2010).
Antarctica
 
  • Western Antarctica
Barczuk A. & Tatur A. 2003: BIOGENIC PHOSPHATE AND SULPHATE MINERALS IN THESOILS OF ANTARCTIC PENINSULA. Mineralogical Society of Poland - Special Papers, vol. 23, pp. 41-43
Barczuk, A., Tatur, A. (2003): Biogenic phosphate and sulphate minerals in the soils of Antarctic Peninsula. Mineralogia Special Papers: 23: 41-43
Arctic Ocean
 
Murdmaa, I.O., Bogdanova, O.Y., Gorshkov, A.I., Novikov, G.V. and Shevchenko, V.P. (2000): Lithology and Mineral Resources 35(6), 594-597.
Atlantic Ocean
 
  • Mid-Atlantic Ridge complex
Bogdanov, Y.A., Vikent’ev, I.V., Lein, A.Y., Bogdanova, O.Y., Sagalevich, A.M., and Sivtsov, A.V. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(2), 119-134.
Bogdanov, Y.A., Vikent’ev, I.V., Lein, A.Y., Bogdanova, O.Y., Sagalevich, A.M., and Sivtsov, A.V. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(2), 119-134.
    • Snake Pit hydrothermal field
Bogdanov, Y.A., Vikent’ev, I.V., Lein, A.Y., Bogdanova, O.Y., Sagalevich, A.M., and Sivtsov, A.V. (2008): LGeology of Ore Deposits 50(2), 119-134.
Bogdanov, Y.A., Vikent’ev, I.V., Lein, A.Y., Bogdanova, O.Y., Sagalevich, A.M., and Sivtsov, A.V. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(2), 119-134.
Bogdanov, Y.A., Vikent’ev, I.V., Lein, A.Y., Bogdanova, O.Y., Sagalevich, A.M., and Sivtsov, A.V. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(2), 119-134.
Australia
 
  • Australian Capital Territory
    • Brindabella Range
      • Cotter River
McQueen, Ken G.; J. R. Caldwell; P. W. Millsteed (July 1988). "Primary and Secondary Minerals at the Paddy's River Mine, Australian Capital Territory". Australian Mineralogist 3: 83–100.
  • Western Australia
    • Mount Marshall Shire
      • Bencubbin
D. J. Barber & R. Hutchinson (1991). The Bencubbin stony-iron meteorite breccia - Electron petrography, shock-history and affinities of a 'carbonaceous chondrite' clast. Meteoritics 26, 83-95.
Austria
 
  • Tyrol
    • North Tyrol
      • Inn valley
        • Brixlegg - Schwaz area
          • Brixlegg - Rattenberg
            • Geyer - Silberberg District
              • Silberberg
Schnorrer, G. and Poeverlein, R. (2002) Schwaz-Brixlegg-Fundstellen: 2. Die Minerale des Stockerstollens bei Brixlegg in Tirol. Aufschluss, 53, 209-228.
Brazil
 
  • Minas Gerais
    • Iron Quadrangle
      • Nova Lima
Spier, C.A., Barros de Oliveira, S.M., Rosière, C.A., and Ardisson, J.D. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 229-254.
    • Poços de Caldas alkaline complex
      • Caldas
Waber (1991)
Canada
 
  • Manitoba
    • Sherridon District
MONCUR , M.C, PTACEK, C.J., BLOWES, D.W. & PETERSON, R.C. (2015) The occurrence and implications of efflorescent sulfate minerals at the former Sherritt–Gordon Zn–Cu mine, Sherridon, Manitoba, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 53, 961-977.
  • Northwest Territories
    • Mackenzie District
      • Fort Norman
Battler, M. M., Osinski, G. R., Lim, D. S., Davila, A. F., Michel, F. A., Craig, M. A., ... & Preston, L. J. (2013). Characterization of the acidic cold seep emplaced jarositic Golden Deposit, NWT, Canada, as an analogue for jarosite deposition on Mars. Icarus, 224(2), 382-398.
China
 
  • Guizhou Province
    • Qianxi'nan Autonomous Prefecture
      • Xingren Co.
Zhiwei Bao (2001): PhD Thesis, University of Québec, Canda.
  • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
    • Bayin'gholin Autonomous Prefecture (Bayingolin Autonomous Prefecture; Bayinguoleng Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Hejing Co. (Xejing Co.)
        • Baluntai
Zhian Qin (1999): Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research 14(4), 69-75
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Central Bohemia Region
      • Příbram
RÜSENBERG, K. A. & PAULIŠ, P. (1996): Umbildungen und Neubildungen in den Schlackehalden der Blei- und Silberhütte von Příbram/ČR. Aufschluss 47, 267-287 (in German).
Egypt
 
  • Al Iskandanyah Governorate (Alexandria Governorate)
    • Abu Hommos
      • Nakhla
Treiman, A. H. & Gooding, J. L. (1991) Iddingsite in the Nakhla meteorite: TEM study of mineralogy and texture of pre-terrestrial (Martian?) alterations. Meteoritics, vol. 26, p. 402.
Finland
 
  • Eastern Finland Region
    • Tohmajärvi
Schwertmann, U. et al 1987. Properties of iron oxides in relation to the environment of their formation. Clays and Clay Minerals Vol 35, No 4, 297-307.
France
 
  • Centre-Val de Loire
    • Loir-et-Cher
L. P. Keller & Peter R. Buseck (1990). Matrix mineralogy of the Lance CO3 carbonaceous chondrite - A transmission electron microscope study. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 54, p. 1155-1163. (April 1990).
  • Nouvelle-Aquitaine
    • Haute-Vienne
      • Saint-Yrieix-la-Perche
Gautier, J, Grosbois, C., Courtin-Nomade, A., Floc'h, J. P. and Martin, F. (2006): Transformation of natural As-associated ferrihydrite downstream of a remediated mining site. Eur. J. Mineral. 18, 187-195.
  • Occitanie
    • Lozère
      • Pont-de-Montvert
        • Vialas
No reference listed
    • Tarn-et-Garonne
      • Orgueil
Kazushige Tomeoka & Peter R. Buseck (1988). Matrix mineralogy of the Orgueil CI carbonaceous chondrite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 52, #6, 1627-1640. (June 1988).
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
      • Schenkenzell
        • Wittichen
Nieding, E. (1990): Rezente Mineralbildungen in Schlacken der Schmiedestollenhalde in Wittichen/Schwarzwald. Aufschluss, 41, 361-364.
      • Wolfach
        • Oberwolfach
          • Rankach valley
Walenta, K. (1992): Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 336 pp. (in German)
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Pleystein
Dill, H. G., Melcher, F., Gerdes, A., & Weber, B. (2008). The origin and zoning of hypogene and supergene Fe–Mn–Mg–Sc–U–REE phosphate mineralization from the newly discovered Trutzhofmühle aplite, Hagendorf pegmatite province, Germany. The Canadian Mineralogist, 46(5), 1131-1157.
  • Lower Saxony
    • Harz
      • Clausthal-Zellerfeld
        • Bockswies veins
          • Oberschulenberg
Gröbner, J., Hajek, W., Junker, R. & Nikoleizig, J. (2011): Neue Mineralschätze des Harzes. Papierflieger Verlag GmbH, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany, 127 pp.
      • Goslar
        • Grane Reservoir
No reference listed
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Sauerland
      • Arnsberg
        • Hüsten
D. Pawlowski: "Mineralfundstellen im Sauerland", Weise (Munich), 1991
      • Iserlohn
        • Letmathe
Bender/Marl, D. & Krimmelbein/Altena, W. (1994) Aktuelle Übersicht: Mineralien der Zinkhütte Genna/Sauerland. Stand Juni 1994. Mineralien-Welt, 4/94, 10.
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Mansfeld Basin
      • Hettstedt
        • Copper-Silver smelter (Gottesbelohnung smelter) slag locality
Mineralien Welt 15 Jg Heft 2-2004and 19 JgHeft 1 2008,Horst Knoll Erfurt
      • Mansfeld
        • Leimbach
Joan Rosell - RosellMinerals
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirge
Lapis 30(7/8):78-80 (2005)
  • Schleswig-Holstein
    • Bredstedt
      • Joldelund
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
Greece
 
  • Aegean Islands Department (Aiyaíon)
    • Kykládes Prefecture
      • Cyclade Islands (Cyclades; Kikladhes; Nomos Kikladhon)
        • Syros Island (Syra)
          • Gria Spilia
Altherr, R., Soder, C., Panienka, S., Peters, D., & Meyer, H. P. (2013). Pink manganian phengite in a high P/T meta-conglomerate from northern Syros (Cyclades, Greece). Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 166(5), 1323-1334.
  • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
    • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Rewitzer, C., Standfuss, L. & Standfuss, K. (1988): Weitere Neufunde aus Lavrions antiken Schlacken. Lapis 13 (2), 11-14.
        • Passa Limani area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals of the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
        • Sounion area
Laurion The minerals in the ancient slags by Piet Gelaude netc.
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian, (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
        • Thorikos area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
        • Vrissaki area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
India
 
  • Tamil Nadu
Berlin, J., Jones, R. H. & Brearley, A. J. (2007) A Closer Look at Chondrules and Matrix in Kakangari: Evidence for Wide-Spread Reduction and Sulfurization, Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVIII. LPI Contribution #1338, p. 2395. (March 2007)
Italy
 
  • Emilia-Romagna
    • Ferrara Province
      • Vigarano Mainarda
        • Vigarano Pieve
www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/metsoc2000/pdf/5103.pdf.
  • Liguria
    • Genova Province
      • Sestri Levante
Carbone, C. , Marescotti, P., Cabella, R., Lucchetti, G. (2002): Sulfide alteration and related secondary minerals from the Libiola mine (Eastern Liguria, Italy). Poster at the 82° SIMP Congress , Arcavacata di Rende (CS) 18-20/09/2002. Abstract in Plinius 28 , 88-89.; E. Dinelli, N. Morandi & F. Tateo (1998): Fine-grained weathering products in waste disposal from two sulphide mines in the northern Apennines, Italy. Clay Minerals 33,423-433.; Carbone, C. (2008). Crystallochemical and minerogenetic study of oxide and oxy-hydroxides related to AMD (acid mine drainage) processes in Libiola mine (Sestri Levante). Plinius No. 34
  • Tuscany
    • Grosseto Province
      • Massa Marittima
ko jansen
    • Livorno Province
      • Piombino
Muenchener Micromounter-Lithothek
    • Siena Province
      • Chiusdino
Menchetti, S., Batoni, M., Batacchi, C., Borselli, G., Brogi, A., Ceccantini, L., Fassina, B., Marchesini, M., Rossellini, A. & Ruggieri, G. (2015): Le Cetine di Cotorniano. Miniera e minerali. Associazione Micro-Mineralogica Italiana, Cremona, 354 p.
Japan
 
  • Kyushu Region
    • Nansei Archipelago
      • Kagoshima Prefecture
        • Mishima village
Kazue, T. (2000) Clays and Clay Minerals, 48, 511-520
Kazakhstan (TL)
 
  • Eastern Kazakhstan Province (Shyghys Qazaqstan Oblysy; Vostochno-Kazakhstanskaya Oblast')
    • Altai Mts (Rudnyi Altai)
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
  • Kostanay Province (Qostanay Oblysy; Kostanai Oblast')
    • Rudny
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Pacific Ocean
 
  • East Pacific Rise
    • Juan de Fuca Ridge complex
Novikov, G.V., Vikent’ev, I.V., and Bogdanova, O.Y. (2006): Geology of Ore Deposits 48(4), 304-325.
Novikov, G.V., Vikent’ev, I.V., and Bogdanova, O.Y. (2006): Geology of Ore Deposits 48(4), 304-325.
Papua New Guinea
 
  • Bismarck Sea
Moss R., and Scott, S., (2001) GEOCHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY OF GOLD-RICH HYDROTHERMAL PRECIPITATES FROM THE EASTERN MANUS BASIN, PAPUA NEW GUINEA The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 39, pp. 957-978
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
    • Kaczawskie Mts
      • Radzimowice
        • Stara Góra
          • Stara Góra deposit
1. R. Siuda, 2001 : New sulphate minerals from the Stara Góra oxidised zone, Radzimowice, Kaczawskie Mts., Mineralogical Society of Poland, Special Papers, vol 18, 186-188
    • Rudawy Janowickie Mts
Siuda, R.: Wieściszowice. Otoczak, 2004, nr. 31, p. 58-65.
    • Ząbkowice District
      • Bardo commune
Nejbert, K., Siuda, R., Borzęcki, R., Matyszczak, W. (2013): Mineralogy of antimony ores mined at Dębowina in the Bardzkie Mts (Sudetes), SW Poland. Mineralogia Special Papers: 41: 68
  • Małopolskie
    • Tarnów
      • Ciężkowice
Musiał J. 1996: Results of preliminary Mossbauer spectroscopy analysis of ochres from Janowice, Ciężkowice region, Outer Carpathians.Mineralogia Polonica, vol. 27, no. 1
Red Sea
 
Sediment-Hosted Mineral Deposits: Proceedings of a Symposium Held in Beijing, People's Republic of China, 30 July-4 August 1988
Russia
 
  • Central Region
Pavel M. Kartashov data
  • Urals Region
    • Middle Urals
      • Sverdlovskaya Oblast'
        • Ekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk)
          • Berezovskii (Berezovskii Zavod)
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Saudi Arabia
 
  • Mintaqah Makkah
Surour, A. A. (2015). Cu–Mn–Fe alloys and Mn-rich amphiboles in ancient copper slags from the Jabal Samran area, Saudi Arabia: With synopsis on chemistry of Fe–Mn (III) oxyhydroxides in alteration zones. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 101, 70-83.
Slovakia
 
  • Bratislava Region
    • Pezinok Co.
Majzlan J., Chovan M., Lalinska B., Milovská S., Jurkovič Ľ., 2006: The sstructure and ageing of As-rich ferrihydrite from Pezinok, Slovakia. Acta Miner.-Petrograph.,Abstract Series 5, Szeged, p.70
Spain
 
  • Galicia
    • A Coruña (La Coruña)
      • Santiago de Compostela
        • Aríns
Pascual, E; Estévez, A. (1981) Estudio geológico del yacimiento de Fornás (Santiago). Cuaderno do Laboratorio Xeolóxico de Laxe 2 (vol II):191-211
Tonga
 
Schwarz-Schampera, U.,et al. (2007) Cruise Report SONNE 192/2, MANGO. Marine Geoscientific Research on Input and Output in the Tonga-Kermadec Subduction Zone
Schwarz-Schampera, U.,et al. (2007) Cruise Report SONNE 192/2, MANGO. Marine Geoscientific Research on Input and Output in the Tonga-Kermadec Subduction Zone
Turkmenistan
 
  • Balkan Province
    • Cheleken Peninsula
Lebedev, L.M., Nikitina, J.B. (1983): The Cheleken ore forming system. Russ. Acad. Sci., Moscow (in Russian.)
USA
 
  • Colorado
    • Clear Creek Co.
      • Geneva District
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
  • Indiana
    • Tippecanoe Co.
      • Lafayette
Treiman, A. H., Barrett, R. A. & Gooding, J. L. (1993) Preterrestrial aqueous alteration of the Lafayette (SNC) meteorite: Meteoritics 28 (1): 86-97. (Mar 1993)
  • Kansas
    • Decatur Co.
Workshop on Parent-Body and Nebular Modification of Chondritic Materials 4038.pdf http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/chondrite/pdf/4038.pdf
  • Massachusetts
    • Franklin Co.
      • Rowe
Cerato, A.. 2003: Mineralogical Study of Davis Mine, Rowe, MA, Using X-Ray Diffraction Techniques
  • New Mexico
    • Grant Co.
      • Hanover-Fierro District
Newcomer,Robert W.,Romig,Douglas E.,Niccoli,Walter.,(2008) Closure And Reclamation Of The Hanover-Empire Zinc Mine Area,Grant County,New Nexico ;New Mexico Geological Society Guidebook,Geology of the Gila Wilderness,Silver City Area,2008,pp.151-158
  • North Carolina
    • Ashe Co.
      • Ore Knob
Borden,Robert C. and Behrooz,Mchnroosh (2008) Ore Knob Mine Tailings Pile-Hydrologic and Geochemical Characterization
  • Pennsylvania
    • Centre Co.
      • State College
        • Skytop
U.S. Geological Survey/ U.s. Department of the Interior
    • Delaware Co.
      • Middletown Township
        • Lima
S.G. Gordon, "Mineralogy of Pennsylvania", 1922, p. 190
    • Lancaster Co.
      • Lancaster Township
William B. White – Cave sediments and paleoclimate. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, v. 69, no. 1, p. 76–93.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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