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About Pyrosmalite-(Fe)Hide

Crystal System:
Named in 1808 by Johann Friedrich Ludwig Hausmann from the Greek πυρ = fire and οσμη = smell, because of the strong odor the mineral gives off when strongly heated. Renamed by IMA with a suffix -Fe, indicating its relationship to pyrosmalite-(Mn).
Pyrosmalite-(Fe)-Pyrosmalite-(Mn) Series.

"The mineral was originally named pyrodmalith (Hausmann 1808), then shortly after changed to pyrosmalite by Karsten (1808). History, crystallography and chemistry was discussed by Zambonini (1901, Zeitschrift für Krystallographie vol. 34, p.554-561), who remarked that all historical investigations was performed on material from Bjelke mine up until when material from Dannemora, Sweden was described by Lindström 1888. Essentially all investigations up until Zambonini displayed slight to moderate Fe > Mn, Zambonini’s own investigation on material from Nordmark confirmed this.
In the description of the new mineral manganpyrosmalite (Frondel & Bauer, 1953), it was acknowleged that six old (Fe-dominant) analyses together with the new (Mn-dominant) indicated a continuous solid solution series with Fe/(Fe+Mn) ratio from about 0.60-0.25. The old name pyrosmalite was retained for members with Fe>Mn and manganpyrosmalite was applied to members of the series with Mn>Fe.
In The iron end-member of the pyrosmalite series,from Pegmont lead-zinc deposit, Queensland, Vaughan (1986, Min. Mag. vol.50:527-531) reported an extremely iron-rich member of the series that had Fe/(Fe+Mn) ratio 0.92. Vaughan explained the nomenclature used by Frondel & Baur, and noted that the Pegmont material fell within the pyrosmalite field sensu stricto. However, Vaughan self in the article used “pyrosmalite” to designate the series and expressed an opinion that the nomenclature was unresolved. In a later short communication, Vaughan (1987, Min. Mag. vol.51:174) could report that the IMA Commission had resolved the nomenclature issue “and the Fe-rich species described in Vaughan (1986) is designated ferropyrosmalite”. This may briefly sound as Vaughan discovered a new species, when in fact he was decribing the most Fe-rich of the (Fe-rich) pyrosmalites. Thus, Vaughan was “only” enforcing a nomenclature revision, so that pyrosmalite came to designate the Fe-Mn solid solution series and the Fe vs Mn fields, came to bear names, ferropyrosmalite and manganpyrosmalite, that directly indicated the composition.
I think this is a good example of how name revisions get confounded with “new” discoveries and mineralogical history unfortunately gets erased.
(Johan Kjellman posting on Mindat forum)

"A slightly later paper by Stillwell and McAndrew (1957, Min. Mag., p. 371) also mentions Frondel and Bauer and states:
"In doing so (i.e. proposing the name manganpyrosmalite) they relegate the name pyrosmalite from that for a species as found with approximately equal amounts of Fe and Mn to that of a variety with Fe>Mn; this departure from the earlier usage is undesirable. The name pyrosmalite is here retained for all members of the isomorphous series."
(Jeffrey Vaughan, pers. comm. to Uwe Kolitsch)

The work of Yang et al. (2012) suggests the presence of disordered structural water in pyrosmalite-(Fe), consistent with infrared spectroscopic data measured from the same sample.

Classification of Pyrosmalite-(Fe)Hide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
E : Phyllosilicates
E : Single tetrahedral nets of 6-membered rings connected by octahedral nets or octahedral bands

72 : PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
4 : Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 4-, 6-, and 12-membered rings

17 : Silicates Containing other Anions
3 : Silicates with chloride (including aluminosilicates)

Physical Properties of Pyrosmalite-(Fe)Hide

4½ on Mohs scale

Optical Data of Pyrosmalite-(Fe)Hide

Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.680 nε = 1.640
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.040
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:

Chemical Properties of Pyrosmalite-(Fe)Hide

IMA Formula:
Common Impurities:

Chemical AnalysisHide

Oxide wt%:
SiO234.71 %
Al2O30.16 %
Fe2O3*4.37 %
FeO*23.80 %
MnO23.03 %
MgO1.08 %
CaO0.03 %
SrO0.01 %
K2O0.01 %
Cl2.90 %
H2O*7.94 %
=O-(F+Cl)-0.65 %
Total:97.39 %
Sample references:
1Nippyo mine, Awano, Kanuma City, Tochigi, JapanFrank K. Mazdab collection (thin section FKM-190)

Crystallography of Pyrosmalite-(Fe)Hide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 13.3165(2) Å, c = 7.0845(2) Å
a:c = 1 : 0.532
Unit Cell V:
1,087.98 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Type Occurrence of Pyrosmalite-(Fe)Hide

Synonyms of Pyrosmalite-(Fe)Hide

Other Language Names for Pyrosmalite-(Fe)Hide

Relationship of Pyrosmalite-(Fe) to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
FriedeliteMn2+8Si6O15(OH,Cl)10Mon. 2/m : B2/m
Mcgillite(Mn,Fe)8Si6O15(OH)8Cl2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
SchalleriteMn2+16As3Si12O36(OH)17Trig. 3m : P3m1
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Rhodonite4 photos of Pyrosmalite-(Fe) associated with Rhodonite on mindat.org.
Chrysotile2 photos of Pyrosmalite-(Fe) associated with Chrysotile on mindat.org.
Johannsenite1 photo of Pyrosmalite-(Fe) associated with Johannsenite on mindat.org.
Actinolite1 photo of Pyrosmalite-(Fe) associated with Actinolite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.EE.10BrokenhilliteMn8Si6O15(OH)10Hex. 6mm : P63mc
9.EE.10FriedeliteMn2+8Si6O15(OH,Cl)10Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EE.10Mcgillite(Mn,Fe)8Si6O15(OH)8Cl2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EE.15SchalleriteMn2+16As3Si12O36(OH)17Trig. 3m : P3m1
9.EE.20Palygorskite(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EE.20TuperssuatsiaiteNa2Fe3Si8O20(OH)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EE.20YofortieriteMn5Si8O20(OH)2 · 8-9H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EE.20WindhoekiteCa2Fe3+2.67[Si8O20](OH)4 · 10H2O Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EE.25Falcondoite(Ni,Mg)4Si6O15(OH)2 · 6H2OOrth.
9.EE.25LoughliniteNa2Mg3Si6O16 · 8H2OOrth.
9.EE.25SepioliteMg4(Si6O15)(OH)2 · 6H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnna
9.EE.25Kalifersite(K,Na)5Fe3+7Si20O50(OH)6 · 12H2OTric.
9.EE.30GyroliteNaCa16Si23AlO60(OH)8 · 14H2OTric. 1 : P1
9.EE.30OrlymaniteCa4Mn3Si8O20(OH)6 · 2H2OHex.
9.EE.30TungusiteCa4Fe2Si6O15(OH)6Tric. 1 : P1
9.EE.35Reyerite(Na,K)2Ca14(Si,Al)24O58(OH)8 · 6H2OTrig.
9.EE.35Truscottite(Ca,Mn)14Si24O58(OH)8 · 2H2OTrig.
9.EE.45MakatiteNa2Si4O8(OH)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
9.EE.50VarennesiteNa8Mn2Si10O25(OH,Cl)2 · 12H2OOrth.
9.EE.55RaiteNa4Mn2+3Ti0.25Si8O20(OH)2 · 10H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : C2 2 2
9.EE.60IntersiliteNa6Mn2+Ti[Si10O24(OH)](OH)3 · 4H2OMon.
9.EE.65ShafranovskiteNa3K2(Mn,Fe,Na)4[Si9(O,OH)27](OH)2 · nH2OTrig.
9.EE.65ZakharoviteNa4Mn5Si10O24(OH)6 · 6H2OTrig.
9.EE.70ZeophylliteCa13Si10O28(OH)2F8 · 6H2OTrig. 3 : R3
9.EE.80Fedorite(Na,K)2-3(Ca4Na3)Si16O38(OH,F)2 · 3.5H2OTric. 1 : P1
9.EE.80Martinite(Na,◻,Ca)12Ca4(Si,S,B)14B2O38(OH,Cl)2F2·4H2OTric. 1 : P1
9.EE.85Lalondeite(Na,Ca)6(Ca,Na)3Si16O38(F,OH)2·3H2OTric. 1 : P1

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

72.4.1a.3SchalleriteMn2+16As3Si12O36(OH)17Trig. 3m : P3m1

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

17.3.2ZunyiteAl13Si5O20(OH,F)18ClIso. 4 3m : F4 3m
17.3.3SodaliteNa8(Al6Si6O24)Cl2Iso. 4 3m : P4 3n
17.3.4MarialiteNa4Al3Si9O24ClTet. 4/m : I4/m
17.3.5TugtupiteNa4BeAlSi4O12ClTet. 4 : I4
17.3.6EudialyteNa15Ca6(Fe2+,Mn2+)3Zr3[Si25O73](O,OH,H2O)3(OH,Cl)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
17.3.7AlluaiviteNa19(Ca,Mn)6(Ti,Nb)3Si26O74Cl · 2H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
17.3.9AsisitePb7SiO9Cl2 Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I4/mmm
17.3.11FriedeliteMn2+8Si6O15(OH,Cl)10Mon. 2/m : B2/m
17.3.16Mcgillite(Mn,Fe)8Si6O15(OH)8Cl2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
17.3.17TraskiteBa21Ca(Fe2+,Mn,Ti)4(Ti,Fe,Mg)12(Si12O36)(Si2O7)6(O,OH)30Cl6·14H2O Hex.
17.3.18MuiriteBa10Ca2Mn2+Ti[HSi2O7]5(OH,Cl,F)5Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/mmm
17.3.19VerplanckiteBa2(Mn,Fe,Ti)Si2O6(O,OH,Cl,F)2 · 3H2O or nearHex.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Pyrosmalite-(Fe)Hide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Mineralogical Magazine (1987): 51: 174.
Canadian Mineralogist: 21: 1-6 (manganpyrosmalite structure)
Canadian Mineralogist (1993): 31: 695.
Mineralogical Magazine (1986): 50: 527.
American Mineralogist: 73: 933-934.
Yang, H., Downs, R.T., Yang, Y.W., and W. H. Allen, W.H. (2012): Pyrosmalite-(Fe), Fe8Si6O15(OH,Cl)10. Acta Crystallographica, E68, i7-i8.

Internet Links for Pyrosmalite-(Fe)Hide

Localities for Pyrosmalite-(Fe)Hide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Jujuy Province
    • Humahuaca Department
      • Aguilar mining district
Milka K. de Brodtkorb (2002) Las Especies Minerales de la Republica Argentina. Vol. 1 (elements, sulphides and sulphosalts). (Asociacion Mineralogica Argentina)
  • New South Wales
    • Yancowinna Co.
      • Broken Hill district
Worner, H. K. and Mitchell, R. W., eds. Birch, W. D. (et al) (1982) Minerals of Broken Hill, published by Australian Mining & Smelting Limited ISBN 0-909221-18-9
          • Block 14 opencut
Birch, W.D. ed. (1999) Minerals of Broken Hill. Broken Hill City Council in conjunction with Museum Victoria. 289 pp,
Birch et al - 1999 - Minerals of Broken Hill, Second Edition.
  • Queensland
    • Cloncurry Shire
      • Selwyn District
Vaughan, J. P. (1986). The iron end-member of the pyrosmalite series from the Pegmont lead-zinc deposit, Queensland. Mineralogical Magazine, 50(357), 527-531.
    • McKinlay Shire
      • McKinlay
G. Dong & P. J. Pollard (1997): Identification of ferropyrosmalite by Laser Raman microprobe in fluid inclusions from metalliferous deposits in the Cloncurry District, NW Queensland, Australia. Mineralogical Magazine, 61(2), 291–293.; USGS Open-File Report 2009-1252 Sediment-hosted zinc-lead deposits of the world - Database and grade and tonnage models
  • Pará
    • Carajás mineral province
      • Parauapebas
        • Alemão Cu deposit
Grainger, C.J., Groves, D.I., Tallarico, F.H.B., and Fletcher, I.R. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 451-489.; Tazava, E. (1999). Mineralização de Au-Cu-(±ETR-U) associada às brechas hidrotermais do depósito de Igarapé Bahia, Província Mineral de Carajás, PA. MS Thesis
  • Manitoba
    • Thompson Nickel Belt
      • Moab-Setting Lakes area
Y. Chen, M. E. Fleet and Y. Pan (1993) Platinum-group minerals and gold in Arsenic-rich ore at the Thompson mine, Thompson Nickel Belt, Manitoba, Canada. Mineralogy and Petrology 49:127-146; Canadian Mineralogist 31, 695; Chen, Yuan, "Precious-metal Mineralization And Sulfide-silicate Relationships In Some Canadian Nickel-copper Sulfide Deposits: Thompson Mine, Manitoba; Sudbury, Ontario; Dundonald Beach, Ontario" (1993). Digitized Theses. Paper 2231.; Pan, Y., Fleet, M. E., Barnett, R. L., & Chen, Y. (1993). Pyrosmalite in Canadian Precambrian sulfide deposits; mineral chemistry, petrogenesis and significance. The Canadian Mineralogist, 31(3), 695-710.
  • Northwest Territories
    • Mackenzie District
      • Great Bear Lake
Rod Tyson, The Port Radium District, Northwest Territories, Canada Mineralogical Record (1989) vol.20. #3, pp 201-208 .
  • Ontario
    • Sudbury District
      • Levack Township
Dare, S. A., Barnes, S. J., Prichard, H. M., & Fisher, P. C. (2014). Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Cu-Rich Ores from the McCreedy East Ni-Cu-PGE Deposit (Sudbury, Canada): Implications for the Behavior of Platinum Group and Chalcophile Elements at the End of Crystallization of a Sulfide Liquid. Economic Geology, 109(2), 343-366.
Springer (1989) Canadian Mineralogist 27, 311-313; C. Li and A. J. Naldrett (1993) High chlorine alteration minerals and calcium-rich brines in fluid inclusions from the Strathcona deep copper zone, Sudbury, Ontario. Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists 88:1780-1796
    • Thunder Bay District
      • Gemmell Township
Canadian Mineralogist 31, 695; Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 1992, 29(7): 1375-1388; Pan, Y., Fleet, M. E., Barnett, R. L., & Chen, Y. (1993). Pyrosmalite in Canadian Precambrian sulfide deposits; mineral chemistry, petrogenesis and significance. The Canadian Mineralogist, 31(3), 695-710.
Canadian Mineralogist 31, 695; Pan, Y., Fleet, M. E., Barnett, R. L., & Chen, Y. (1993). Pyrosmalite in Canadian Precambrian sulfide deposits; mineral chemistry, petrogenesis and significance. The Canadian Mineralogist, 31(3), 695-710.
  • Québec
    • Nord-du-Québec
      • Matagami
Canadian Mineralogist 31, 695; Pan, Y., Fleet, M. E., Barnett, R. L., & Chen, Y. (1993). Pyrosmalite in Canadian Precambrian sulfide deposits; mineral chemistry, petrogenesis and significance. The Canadian Mineralogist, 31(3), 695-710.
  • Occitanie
    • Haute-Garonne
      • Baren
Pierrot, R., Fortuné, J.-P., Picot, P. & Monchoux, P. (1978): Inventaire minéralogique de la France, n°8, Haute-Garonne. BRGM Ed.
    • Hautes-Pyrénées
DE ASCENCAO GUEDES R., CASTERET A. & GOUJOU JC. (2002) Aperçu minéralogique de la vallée d'Aure, Hautes-Pyrénées, Le Règne minéral, 47, 5-21. (in french)
  • Bavaria
    • Lower Franconia
      • Aschaffenburg
        • Dörrmorsbach
A. Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", Schweizerbart (Stuttgart), 2001
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Waidhaus
        • Hagendorf
  • Tochigi
    • Kanuma City
      • Awano
Frank K. Mazdab collection (thin section FKM-190)
    • Nikko City
      • Ashio-machi
(Erroneous ID; all quantitatively analyzed specimens have been manganpyrosmalite)
  • Karaganda Region
    • Karazhal
      • Zhayrem (Zhairem)
Frank Dzubeck; Kayupova, M.M. (1965) Doklady of the Academy of Sciences U.S.S.R., Earth Science sections, 163, 97-100.; Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
  • Oslo
    • Grorud
Knut Eldjarn specimen
Oftedal, I. & Sæbø, P.Chr. (1965): Contributions to the mineralogy of Norway. No 30. Minerals from Nordmarkite Druses. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 45, 171-175; L. O. Kvamsdal (1998): Mineralene fra Nordmarkitt og Grefsensyenitt i Oslofeltet. AS Merkur-Trykk, Oslo; Kvamsdal, L. O. & Husdal, T. A. (2014): Pyrosmalitt-(Mn) og pyrosmalitt-(Fe) fra Norge. Stein. 41 (2), 24-25
  • Viseu
    • Mangualde
      • Cubos-Mesquitela-Mangualde area
Mineralien Atlas
  • Murmansk Oblast
  • Primorsky Krai
American Mineralogist, Vol. 64, 1979, pp. 432-435
  • Banská Bystrica Region
Ďuďa R.,Kotuľak P., Káňa R., 1993: Bergbau und Mineralien von Banská Štiavnica (Schemnitz), Slowakei. Emser Hefte, 14, 3, 1-70, Haltern
South Africa
  • Gauteng
    • Pretoria District (Tshwane District)
Rocks & Minerals 83:5 pp 410-421
  • Extremadura
    • Badajoz
      • Burguillos del Cerro
Sanabria, R. and Calvo, M. (2002). Los yacimientos de magnetita de Burguillos del Cerro. Revista de Minerales, 2 (3), 4-25
  • Norrbotten County
    • Gällivare
      • Aitik
Natural History Museum, Stockholm Collection inventory #19960166
  • Örebro County
    • Hällefors
Sundius, N., Parwel, A., Rajandi, B. (1966): The minerals of the silver mines of Hällefors. Sveriges geologiska undersökning, serie C VO: 614 SI: 1-20 SP: eng.
  • Stockholm County
    • Haninge
      • Utö
Langhof, J., Jonson, E, Gustafsson, L. & Otter, B. (1998): Utö- en klassisk svensk mineralfyndort. Bergverksmuseets Skrift 14, 29-31
  • Uppsala County
    • Östhammar
      • Dannemora
No reference listed
  • Värmland County
    • Filipstad
      • Nordmark district
AKMG 6, nr. 21, 122
[Anonymous] (1991): B & M Notiser. Berg & Mineral 1, nr 2, 1991, p.11
No reference listed
W. Hisinger (1815) Kemisk undersökning af åtskillige Fossilier 1. Analys af Pyrodmalith från Nordmarks grufvor. Afhandlingar i fysik, kemi och mineralogi, Vol. 4: 317-327
GFF 2, 409
Knut Eldjarn collection - collected in situ in the upper parts of Storgruvan
  • Loei Province
International Geological Congress (2008) MRD-06 Geology and genesis of reduced gold skarn formation at Phu Thap Fah deposit, northeast Thailand
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • Altarnun
Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
  • Wales
    • Gwynedd
      • Bangor
        • Aber-Ogwen
Peter G. Embrey (1978) Fourth Supplementary List of British Minerals. Mineralogical Magazine 42:169-177
  • New York
    • Rockland Co.
      • Town of Ramapo
Marian Lupulescu (2008) Rocks and Minerals, 83, #3.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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